PHIL 102 Notes
PHIL 102 Notes PHIL 102
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexis Cooper on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PHIL 102 at University of Oregon taught by Mark Alfano in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Alexis Cooper in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/10/15
PHIL 102 010915 Two types of egoism O O Descriptiona Self interest Normative eogism The right thing to do Psychological egoism the bias that all actions we do are based fully or primarily on selfinterest Western Philosophy 0 O O O O OO Cricipus stoics emotions are just mistaken judgments Cicero stoicism that emphasized duty to the staterepublic Seneca roman stoic Marcus Auralius roman stoic Galen ethics should be pursued with medicine your virtue is the health of your soul earth air re water Clement of Alexandria one of the rst Christian philosophers one of the rst to argue for equality of the sexes Plotinus in uences by Plato and nostics identifying with whatever is best Agusutine free will always have a choice Hypasia one of the rst female philosophers Boethius in uenced by Christianity things happen that you do deserve and don t deserve AlKindi an Iraqi polymath oversaw translation of philosophical texts into Arabic AIFarabi in uenced by translations of Plato goal of society is to realized true happiness promote virtue of all citizens St Anselm ontological argument God is de ned as quotthat thing which is greater than can be imaginedquot Would it be greater to exist than not exist Judah Halevi independence of philosophy as religion both are independent of each other Abelard became a monk perfected the scholastic method read Aristotle in a way you are guaranteed to know the bible including the new testament worked on ethics what makes an action valuable not the consequence but your intention concept of limbo Manondanies no properties can be contributed to God God is unknowable problem of evil an argument against O O OO O CO the existence of God quotif got is all powerful and non benevolent then why do innocent people sufferquot Roger Bacon founder of the scienti c method Aquinas most important Christian philosopher reconcile Christian doctrine with the bible Donus Sotus Willam of Ockham best known for Ockham s razor don t have to believe what s not presented to you Montaigne invented the essay developmental psychology arguing for moral relativism GaMeo Kepler Descartus one of the most important people of embodied cognition Hobbes arguing that the state of nature not society life would be solitary brutish and short Pascal best known for a wager believe in God because it improves your odds of an afterlife decision theorymicro economic Newton inventor of calculus John Locke religious tolerance constitution on the state of Virginia Hume argued for sentimentalism Rousseau social contract PHIL 102 Discussion 0 Value Theory 0 What do you value Happiness Pleasure Pluralism Psychological Egoism o Normative Ethics 0 What people should be doing Duty rational Descriptive DOIS Normative SHOULDOUGHT 0 Meta Ethics 0 Meta quotbeyond or abovequot Metaphysics beyond physics 0 Ex Love 0 Utilitarianism Consequentialismresult Mill 0 Maximizing pleasure and minimize pain 0 Greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people VS Deontology Kant o The study of nature or duty of obligation Why should you do something 0 Because it is the right thing to do 0 Rational l Ethicals o Virtue Ethis Aristotle o Emphasized virtue and moral character 0 Heroes PHIL 102 011215 Central Claims of Feminist Ethics 0 Women are the moral equals of men views that justify the subordination of women or downplay their interests are thus mistaken on that account 0 The experiences of women deserve our respect and are vital to a full and accurate understanding of morality To the extent that philosophers ignore such experiences their theories are bound to be incomplete and likely to be biased and inaccurate o Traits that have traditionally been associated with women empathy sympathy caring altruism mercy compassion are at least as morally important as traditionally masculine traits such as competitiveness independence demanding one39s fair share a readiness to resort to violence and the insistence on personal honor 0 Traditionally feminine ways of moral reasoning ones that emphasize cooperation exibility openness to competing ideas and a connectedness to family and friends are often superior to traditionally masculine ways of reasoning that emphasize impartiality abstraction and strict adherence to rules Women s Experiences Vulnerability to rape Threat of domestic abuse Exclusion from many professions Economic independence Diminished autonomy PHIL 102 011415 Judith Jarvis Thomson A Defense of Abortion 0 Simple prolife argument o 1 The fetus is a person with a right to life from the moment of conception o 2 It is always impermissible to directly kill someone with a right to life 0 3 Therefore abortion is always morally impermissible o Validity halfway Soundness when its valid and the premises are true Thomson s claim Concept Analysis 0 X falls under the concept of impermissible killing if X is an instance of killing and the best moral reason for X is not as stringent as the right to life X does not fall under the concept of impermissible kiing otherwise 0 Thomson s right to life 0 According to Thomson it s not the right to be given the bare minimum one needs for continued life 0 quotthe right to life consists not in the right not to be killed but rather in the right now to be killed unjustly PHIL 102 Discussion 011615 1 Feminist Ethics 2 Abortion 3 ValiditySoundness Feminisms 0 There s not just one feminism o A concern with uni cation 1Emotions o 2Against Uni cation 3AgainstAbstraction mpartiaity o 4Against Competition 5Downplaying Rights PHIL 102 012115 Religion and Morality Three assumptions 0 1 Religious belief is needed to get us to do our duty 0 2 Morality must be created by someone and God is by far the best candidate for the job 0 3 Religious wisdom is the key to providing us with moral guidance 0 Arguments for God s Existence Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument Argument from Design Argument from Scripture Pascal s Wager Theodicy 0 Free will PHIL 102 012315 Religion and Moral Motivation Divine Command Theorv An act is morally obligatory just because it is commanded by God and morally forbidden just because God forbids it Euthyphro s initial attempts to de ne piety 1 Pious doing what I m doing 2 Pious prosecuting murderers and similar actions 3 Pious loved by the gods impious hated by the gods 4 Pious loved by all the gods impious hated by all the gods neutral or mixed otherwise quotif and only ifquot VS quotbecausequot Pious because loved OR Loved because pious Speech Act Theory Representatives Directives Commissives Expressives Declarations PHIL 102 012615 Goods ntrinsic ntrinsic amp Instrumental nstrumenta Hedonism Peasure is the only intrinsic good Pain is the only intrinsic bad States Sadness Drooping upper eyelids Losing focus in eyes Slight pulling down of lip corners Contempt Lip corner tightened and raised on only one side of face Surpdse Eyebrows raised Eyes widened Mouth open Anger Eyebrows down and together Eyes glare Narrowing of the lips Disgust Nose wrinkling Upper ip raised Fear Eyebrows raised and pulled together Raised upper eyelids Tensed ower eyelids Lips slightly stretched horizontally back to ears Attractions of Hedonism Many kinds of good life 0 What makes me happy might not make you happy 0 Personal authority concerning wellbeing o What makes you happy is up to you 0 Intuitive plausibility o Misery is clearly bad for us 0 Happiness clearly improves lives Ends thewhyquot regress PHIL 102 012815 John Stuart Mill 0 There are many desirable things but all quotare desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves or as a means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of painquot Humans are capable of different kinds of pleasures than other animals 0 Some kinds of pleasure are more valuable than others 0 quotOf two pleasures if there be one to which all or almost all who have experience of both give a decided performance irrespective of any feelings of moral obligation to prefer it that is the more desirable pleasurequot Mill s Argument that pleasure is the sole intrinsic good 1 The sole proofs that an object is visible is that people see it 2 Similarly the sole proof that something is desirable is that people desire it 3 All people desire happiness and nothing but happiness as an end it itself 4 Therefore only happiness is desirable as an end it itself Desire Satisfaction Theory 0 Something bene ts you if and only if it satis es your desires Anything that bene ts you does so exactly because it satis es your desires Desire Satisfaction theory 0 Something that bene ts you if and only if it satis es the desires you have if you were fully informed and vividly and imaginatively aware PHIL 102 013015 Adaptive Preferences Functionings amp Capabilities Objective List Theory capabilities version 0 Something bene ts you if and only if and because it promotes and protects your distinctively human capabilities PHIL 102 020215 From wellbeing To Right action Consequentialism o Acts are morally right just because they maximize the amount of goodness in the world 0 The act that yields the greatest balance of bene ts over drawbacks is the optimistic view How to apply consequentialist reasoning 1 Identify what is intrinsically good 2 Identify what is intrinsically bad 3 Determine all of your options 4 For each option determine the value of its results 5 Perform the action that yields the highest balance of good minus bad An Important Distinction A decision procedure is a method that allows us to reliably make the right decisions about what to do 0 A standard ofrightness tells us the conditions under which actions are morally right Consequentialism is a standard of rightness but not a decision procedure PHIL 102 020415 lmpartiality Consequentialism requires that everyone s interest be considered equaHy o The upside No one is more morally important than anyone else 0 The downside One is not allowed to weigh the interests of themselves or loved ones more heavily than the interest of total strangers Two crucial questions 1 What has intrinsic moral value The axiological question 2 What is the appropriate level of analysis of right and wrong JJC Smart individual act Richard Brandt set of rules Robert Merrihew Adams constellation of motives The Demandingness Problem Deliberation o Consequentialism seems to require complicated calculations that are dif cult to perform Motication o Consequentialism seems to require us to be benevolent and sel ess at all times 0 Action 0 Consequentialism forbids such actions as going on vacation when the money would do more good when donated to charity PHIL 102 020815
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