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Performance Nutrition Lectures

by: Sergio Castro Rachmacy

Performance Nutrition Lectures KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance

Sergio Castro Rachmacy

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Notes for the final exam Hydration Q10 Effect Endogenous and exogenous carbohydrates How to calculate athlete calorie consumption Weight gain Weight loss Soy Beef Eggs Grains And more…
Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance
Wesley Smith
KIN 202, Performance Nutrition, CNS, Hydration, glycogen, Glutamine, Q10, weight, Soy, Grass-fed, Pasture-raised, eggs, Beef
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Sergio Castro Rachmacy on Friday April 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 04/15/16
Function of performance nutrition Supply adequate energy to the tissues Prevent injury by having a healthy diet Brain (CNS) Sugar is the primary fuel for the brain Blood Glucose Simplest sugar Goes down every 90 minutes Exercise becomes increasingly more difficult Probably due to a CNS governor that is deciding how much muscle can be recruited based on how much sugar is available 8-10g of CHO per kgbw per day during hard periods of training endurance athletes, whereas anaerobic athletes require 6-8g Recruits muscle Glucose in average sized person Around 400g muscle, 90-95g liver, 5g sugar Lower glycogen levels make exercising more difficult Glycogen Glucose stored with phosphates of water in the muscle Muscles with less glycogen perform weaker Exogenous carbohydrates Consumed carbohydrates Increases time of fatigue by around 15% Endogenous carbohydrates Stored carbohydrates Increases time exhaustion by 300% How to calculate athlete calorie consumption 220lbs=100kg 20% BF 80% FFM (fat free mass) Activity factor 1.9 (Kg of FFM) * 21.6 + 370 = RMR (resting metabolic rate) 4000 calories 680 cals of protein 2200 cals of carbohydrates 1120 cals of fat Nutrients Protein 1.4g/kg/bw endurance 1.7g/kg/bw anaerobic Carbohydrate 6-10g/kg/bw or 45-65% Varies Fat Not less than 20% Weight maintenance Nutrient dense diet At lest 3 meals per day with carbs and protein Carbs and protein after workout, then 2 hours later, largest meal of the day Weight loss Decrease calories by 500 but not below 1200 cals Eat breakfast Avoid sugar and processed carbs Fasted workouts may be beneficial Water and whey protein during workout may be sufficient Plant-based diet Weight gain Add muscle weight, avoid fat weight Add 500 calories Increase calories from quality sources Combination of carbs and proteins every 3 hours Starchy vegetables Potatoes 6-8g kgbw of carbs Protein shouldn't be increased 8-10 reps high-volume workout Pre competition meal Ideally 3-4 hours before Stress reduces digestion (excitement) Takes blood away from muscles to digestive track Should not include Fat, fiber, spices, and sauces since they are harder to digest Mainly carbs and protein Carbs 1.5g kgbw Protein 0.2-0.5g kgbw Caffeine May be beneficial for high performance athletes 2 cups (200mg) 2 hours before due to low half-life Reduces muscle contraction Increases fat availability for fuel since it breaks down fat Carbohydrates Endogenous Internal Glycogen 400g in muscle 95g liver More important Exogenous Sugar intake Glucose Restores muscle glycogen Fructose Don't take while exercising Restores liver glycogen Sucrose (HFCS) May be good for exogenous forms of carbohydrates Studies show that using more than 1 type of exogenous monosaccharides increases rate of oxidation and performance Ideal Glucose-Electrolyte solution percentage is 6-8% (GES) for intestinal absorption Gatorade has 6% GES Powerade has 8% Endurox has 7% Most important is to use in practice what you use in competition 30g of sugar absorption per hour while exercising; Could go up to 60g by accustoming the body Caffeine increases absorption Time of exhaustion of 15% compared to 300% (endogenous) when working out Mouth preceptors for carbohydrates Areas of the brain associated with reward light up as soon as there is some sort of food in the mouth (except artificial sweeteners) A piece of bread would be more effective than Gatorade Caffeine Studies are hard to validate because there are no good placebos Oral receptors that take effect immediately Increases rate of exogenous glucose availability 100-200mg provide benefits Central Fatigue Theory BCAAs compete with Tryptophan BCAAs Dopamine into the brain Leads to more activity Get pulled away during exercise Used to make sugar in the liver Tryptophan Serotonin and melatonin into the brain Leads to less activity Good nutrition reduces an athletes muscle soreness, injuries, and getting sick Protein after training reduces medical visits After exercising Fruit smoothie with whey protein Soy yogurt with blueberries, bananas, strawberries 2 hours after 400-500 calories 3:1 carbohydrates and protein Glutamine Nonessential amino acid Helps in "protein balance" Nitrogen balance Negative nitrogen balance Catabolic Cortisol Less nitrogen in or more nitrogen out Muscle mass loss Positive nitrogen balance Anabolic Testosterone Weight gain Marker of protein balance Low levels of glutamine Negative nitrogen balance Whey, soy, and casein, as well as chocolate milk can boost levels Liver 90-95g glycogen This sugar goes to the blood and then to the Muscles CNS Most important Cortisol Positive Immune suppressant Lowers inflammation Negative Catabolic Breaks down tissue to form glucogeogenic precursors (BCAAs) Liver glucose output Negative nitrogen balance Glycogen and sodium deficiency leads to cramping Protein Accretion Protein breakdown is greater than protein synthesis over the next 24 hours Gradual increase over time Cabbalism Anabolism The opposite happens with increased workouts with no rest Catabolic state Cortisol Sore Weak Injury prone Vulnerable to illness Rest (sleep) and good nutrition improve performance Hydration Low-grade dehydration affects energy, strength, and overall well-being Start the day with a glass of water Urine color is a key detector TDEE/240=1cup of water per day Consume 1 cup every 15 minutes during exercise Don't overdrink Hyponatremia Lowers sodium levels Q10 effect For every 1˚C increase in body core temperature, there is a 10% increase in enzyme activity Heat produces more heat Heat cramps May be caused by dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Low glycogen and sodium levles Heat exhaustion Feeling hot to feeling cold is a negative sign Find a cool area and hydrate lower body core temperature as quick as possible Heat stroke Extremely dangerous Brain cells die due to high temperatures Dry skin Put ice everywhere Drink 2.5 cups (~20 oz) of water 2.5 hours before training Fills the stomach with fluid 1.5 cups if not urinating or urine is of strong color Higher risk for heat illness in a warm humid environment because evaporation is harder Swimming in warm water is the greatest risk of heat illness Highest risk of dehydration occurs in a dry environment 2% drop of body weight Reduced performance Weaker muscles Increased risk of heat illness Thirst Drink before thirst to avoid 2% loss Overhydrating causes cells to swell (especially brain cells) Nausea Convulsion Death Drink 8-12oz every 15-20 minutes (sometimes according to thirst) PRE-Wt 180lbs Measure on fluid intake 20oz 2HR Post –wt 60oz/120m = 0.5min = 15min/7-8oz 40oz+20oz 60oz 1lbs loss = 20oz 70/70 Rule Anytime temperature is over 70˚F or humidity is over 70%, consider heat illness For every degree over 59˚F, add one minute to the expected marathon Carbo-loading Not of value if event is under 90 minutes Deplete carbs and exercise for 3 days Lower glycogen Weight loss Rest and consume large amounts of carbohydrates for 3 days On day 7 there will be a 200-300% increased storage of glycogen, prolonging exhaustion time by 200-300% 1 day method: 3 minutes of high intensity sprints, consume 12g of carbs per kgbw for the next 24 hours is similar to the taper method Natural Nothing has been added after the slaughter Feeding may not have been natural Still doesn't offer benefit No hormones or steroids added Pure marketing It's illegal to add hormones or steroids Cage free Outdoor access Means nothing Pastured raised Best quality Eggs from hens outside getting vitamin D from the sun Natural conditions 800 times more ß-carotene Corn-fed Sweeter and caloric dense Cost efficient Grass-fed More omega 3s Antioxidants Different type of saturated fat not related to heart disease Can actually lower bad cholesterol No real value since dead grass could be used in order to qualify CLA Cardio-protective, anti-carcinogenic Pastured eggs 200% more omega 3s 300% vitamin E Eggs are not bad for cholesterol Egg yolks are rich in vitamins A,D,E,K and contain lecitin Sprouted grain whole grain bread (preferably refrigerated) and pasta Healthy and nutrient dense Autoimmune diseases are largely attributed to leaky gut syndrome Celiac disease Positive for anti-gluten inflammatory disorder Hard to determine gluten allergies Avoiding gluten increases sensitivity over time Soy May protect against breast cancer Does not alter male testosterone Prevents iodine absorption May promote hypothyroidism Not all soy is healthy At least 90% genetically modified Anti-nutrients Prevents absorption of iodine Soymilk and tofu are not fermented and are not organic


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