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Date Created: 02/11/15
Theories of Human Growth and Development Birthpre natal Infancy Toodlers Schoolaged Adolescents Early adulthoodemerging adulthood Middle adulthood Lateolder adulthood Growth physical change shift biological Development psychological emotional social Multiple in uencesmacrosystem ecosystem microsystem Theoretical debates Activity v Passivity internal locus of control you make things happen vs external locus of control things happen to you Continuity v discontinuity do people grow in a predictable matter or spu s Types of developmental theories Psychoanalytic freud erikson Learning Pavlov Watson skinner bandura Cognitive development piaget Systems theory broffenbrenner Freud conscious everyday action to present Preconscious easily accessible memories past events Unconscious stores all of our experiences 3 parts of the personality id ego superego 5 stages of psychosexual development oral anal phallic latency gen al defense mechanisms unconscious techniques that distort reality to protect the self from excessive anxiety oral infants pleasure centers on mouth eating anal infants pleasure centers on anus defecating phallic self exploration latency child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills genital a time of sexual reawakening source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family defense mechanisms rationalization identi cation regression displacement reaction formation denial projection compensation Erikson expanding psychoanalytical theory 8 stages of psychosocial development each has a unique developmental taskcrisis Watson studies infants Tabulsa Rasa every child is born with a blank slate Environment more powerful than genetics in human learning growth development Pavlov classical conditioning Skinner operant conditioningpositive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment negative punishment Bandura cognitive factors social learning theory Vggotsy s socialcultural theory complex mental activities voluntary attention problem solving Have origins in social interaction Through joint interaction with more mature members of their society children come to master activities and think in a way that has meaning to their culture Cognitive development assimilation individual incorporates new experiences into already existing schema Accommodation modify existing schemata to satisfy the requirements Piaget39s 4 stages of cognitive development Birth2 yrs sensorimotor stage object permanence 27 yrs peoperational stage egocentrism 711 yrs concrete operational stage conservation 1115 yrs through adulthood formal operational stage abstract reasoning Maslow39s hierarchy of needs Eclectic theoretical orientation no one theory has all of the answers each theory can make a contribution to understanding the lifespan Class Presentations Quiz on Thursday on Freud Erikson Piaget Kohlberg Erik Erikson psychosocial stages of development Trust vs Mistrust birth 1yr when infants develop trust in their caregivers caregivers must be able to meet the infant s needs Autonomy vs Shame and doubt gain a sense of self act independenUy Initiative v inferiority 612yrs children must learn to keep up with their peers with both social and academic skills or else they will feel left behind or inferior excelling gives child a sense of competence Identity vs role confusion 1220ys transition from childhood to adulthood begin to plan for life for future they identify who they are Intimacy vs isolation become ready to participate in a committed long term relationship Generativity vs stagnation adults gaining a sense that they have produced something that will outlive them either by successfully raising children or contributing something meaningful to the world Integrity vs despair elderly adults nd a sense of meaning in their lives that will help them face death Jean Piaget schema building block of intelligence keep building on organize knowledge increase in complexity as you age Equilibrium when a child s existing schemas are capable of explaining new experiences Constructivism intelligence is a process that helps an organism adapt to its environment children actively construct new understandings of the world based on their experiences Stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage birth 2yrs infants in this stage deal with the world directly through though their perceptions senses and actions motor skills they are unable to use symbols gestures images or words representing real objects to help them solve problems mentally Preoperational stage 27yrs preschoolers have now developed the capacity for symbolic thought but is not yet capable of logical problem solving they are egocentric thinkers who have dif culty adopting perspectives other than their own and who may cling to incorrect ideas simply because they want them to be true Fail to demonstrate conservation which is the recognition that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in any super cial way Concrete operations 711yrs schoolaged children acquire concrete logical operations that allow them to mentally classify add and otherwise act on concrete objects in their heads they can solve practical real world problems through a trial and error approach but have difficulty with hypothetical and abstract problems Formal operations 11 to 12yrs older adolescents think about abstract concepts and purely hypothetical possibilities and can trace the longrange consequences of possible actions with age and experience they can form hypotheses and systematically test them using the scienti c method Pavlov classical conditioning John Watson behaviorism human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behavior rather than on speculations about unobservable cognitive and emotional processes Unconditioned stimulus UCS is an unlearned stimulus salivating Unconditioned response UCR presentation of food Conditioned stimulus CS pairing the bell with the arrival of food learned stimulus Conditioned response CR salvation when Pavlov rang the bells without food the dogs still salivated Little albert experiment presented a rat to an infant every time the rat was presented Watson would slip behind albert and bang a steel rod with a hammer the loud noise served an unconditioned stimulus for fear an unconditioned response to loud noises Eventually Albert associated the rat with fear and even though there was no loud noise present at the time Skinner operant conditioning a learner s behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces people tend to repeat behaviors that have desirable consequences and cut down on behaviors that have undesirable consequences Positive reinforcement child receives a hug after cleaning their room they will clean their room more often now Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavioral tendency is strengthened because something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation or is escaped or avoided after the behavior occurs Positive punishmentoccurs when an unpleasant stimulus is applied or added to the situation following a behavior for example a child is spanked for misbehaving Negative punishment occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following the behavior a child loses privileges ie watching tv Both positive and negative punishments decrease the likelihood that the punished behavior will be repeated Maslow hierarchy of needs biological and physiological needs safety needs love and belongingness esteem selfactualization U39lbUUNH Kohlberg associate with moral development Level 1 preconventional up to age 9 moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and consequences of following or breaking those rules Stage 1 obedience and punishment orientation the child is good in order to avoid being punished Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange self interest orientation child recognizes there is not just one viewpoint handed down from authorities Level 2 conventional morality 10 yrs to adult begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models Stage 3 Good interpersonal relationships interpersonal accord and conformity the child is good in order to be seen as good by other peers therefore answers are related to others approval Stage 4 Maintaining social orderautonomy and social order maintaining the child becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concerns the obeying of the rules in order to uphold the law and avoid guilt Level 3 post conventional morality Stage 5 Social contract and individual rights the child becomes aware that while ruleslaws exist for the good of the greatest number there are times when they will work against the particular individual Stage 6 Universal principles people at this stage have developed their own moral guidelines which may or may not t the law Freud id ego superego Oedipus complex child ghts for mothers attention Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the development and dynamics of the personality challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development by proposing that people are driven by motives and emotional con icts of which they are largely unaware and that they are shaped by their earliest experiences in the family Unconscious motivation the power of instincts and other inner forces to in uence our behavior without our awareness ld the impulsive irrational and sel sh part of the personality whose mission is to satisfy the instincts seeks immediate grati cation even when the biological needs cannot be realistically met Ego the rational side of the individual that tries to nd realistic ways of gratifying the instinct the ego begins to emerge during infancy when psychic energy is diverted from the id to energize cognitive processes such as perception learning and problem solving Superego the individual internalizes moral standards develops as 36 year olds internalize the moral standards and values of their parents Once the superego emerges children have a parental voice in their heads that keep them from violating society s rules and making them feel guilty and ashamed if they do Psychosexual stages Oral birth to 1 yr focuses on the mouth as a source of sexual pleasure Anal 13yrs toilet training Phallic 36yrs libido centers on genitals resolution of the Oedipus complex Latent 612 yrs libido is quiet energy is invested in schoolwork and play among same sex friends Genital stage 12yrs older puberty reawakens the sexual instincts 5 youth seeks to establish mature sexual relationships and pursue the biological goal of reproduction Oedipus complex youngsters develop and incestuous desire for the parent of the other sex and must defend against it ldenti cation resolves Oedipus complex by identifying with other parent and internalizing the attitudes and behaviors of another person Defense Mechanisms Repression remove unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness engages in denial knowing deep down that something happened but doesn t accept the reality of it Regression retreating to an earlier less traumatic stage of development reverts to infantile behavior and coos like a baby Projection seeing in others the motives we fear we possess as when a husband accuses his wife of cheating when he is the one who has cheated Reaction formation expressing motives that are just the opposite of one s real motives as when a women who unconsciously wants to gratify her sexual urges instead takes up a crusade against pornography Families Family a social system composed of 2 or more persons who are joined by bonds of sharing and emotional closeness and who identify themselves as being part of the family Cohesion how closeintimate the family members are to each other Adaptability how well the family members adapt to change with each other Communication how well a family communicates with one another Cohesion disengaged no one communicates Separated little contact communication here and there Connected contact on daily basis Enmeshed very connected Adaptability change its power structure role realtionships moving nancial death loss illness Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Neglectful In uences on supporting function family image boundaries biosocial issues Restrict members from certain physical and psychological forces Regulate access to people places ideas and values Birth order Older smarter bossy driven determines Youngest sel sh funnier quicker at language socially based career Middle little bit of both Types of families Nuclear conjugal married Nuclear dyad traditional Single parents Step family Cohabitability living together not married Gaylesbian Communal Foster adoptive family Epigenetics stunting environmental factors stress Species hereditary ex peppered moths in London Genetic variation in a species Some genes aid adaptation more than others genes that aid their bearers in adapting to their environment will be passed to future generations more frequently that those who do not Mapping genetics human genome project HapMap multicountry effort to identify and catalog genetic similarities and differences in human beings Genetic uniqueness a single parent can produce 2quot23 or 8 million genetically different sperm or ova ldentical twinsO only time when individuals share same genetic makeup Types of inheritance complete dominance incomplete dominance codominance multiple alleles polygenic traits sexlinked genes Mutation changes in structure or arrangement of one or more genes may be incompatible with life birth inherited cancers chromosomal disorders Chromosome abnormalities Down syndrome Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Fragile x syndrome Sickle cell disease Hemophilia Huntingtons Behavioral genetics many personality traits have genetic links shyness sociability moodiness temperament assertiveness depression ADHD Gene environment correlations Passive parents extroverts social home environment Evocative evoke smiling baby evoke response Active seek Ratpup study nature v nurture Importance of nurture predisposition environment turn onoff genes Psychological disorders Web mds pregnancy checklist Diet exercise weight control Fertilization traditional conception Donated sperm eggs or embryos surrogacy Arti cial insemination In vitro fertilization lnfertility 15 of couples negative correlation with age Different causes drugs smoking stress Treatment fertility drugs arti cial insemination IVF Infertility in men low sperm counts poor sperm mobility Malformed sperm blocked sperm ducts antibodies that harm sperm to penetrate or survive cervical mucus Women irregular ovulation blocked fallopian tube environmental factors Arti cial insemination sperm is inserted directly into the uterus at ovulation ntracytopasmic sperm injection a single sperm is injected straight into a single egg in the lab then transplanted into uterus IVF never rst step in infertility ess likely successful as you age conception union if sperm and egg fertilizationzygote divides turning into a blastocyst that implants into the side of the uterus embryonic period 3 dermal layers begin developing fetal period major organs begin developing brain development sexual differentiation 1st trimester hormonal changesgt fatigue swollen breasts morning sickness 2nol trimestergt body aches line on belly 3rOI trimester shortness of breath heartburn threats to development drugs alcohol environmental pollutants infectious diseases mothers age under 16 over 30 and over 40 greater risk of downs syndrome mens health chicken box rubella stds in uences from father second hand smoke alcohol and drugs physical and emotional abuse severity of damage to unborn depends on dose time of exposure genetic susceptibility exposure pregnancy and alcohol avoided same with drugs Chapter 14 quiz 2 Perspective on relationships Bind between parent and infant a warm and stable motherchild relationship is essential for normal personality development Freud Erikson emphasized importance of responsive parenting to the development of trust in the parentinfant relationship Attachment theory John Bowlby based on ethological theory and asked how the attachment may have evolved Attachment a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion it is also a behavioral system through which humans regulate their emotional distress when under threat and achieve security by seeking proximity to another person lmprinting an innate form of learning in which the young will follow and become attached to a moving object usually the mother during a critical period early in life Internal working models cognitive representations of themselves and other people that guide their processing of social information and behavior in relationships Peer is a social equal someone who functions at a similar level of behavioral complexity often of similar age Chumships close childhood friendships The lnfant their social relationships change dramatically once they form close attachments to caregivers and develop the social skills that allow them to coordinate their own activities with other infants Selfconscious emotions embarrassment requires an awareness of self and begin to emerge around 18 months Social referencing infants begin to monitor their companions emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use this information to decide how they should feel and behave Emotion regulation processes involved in initiating maintaining an altering emotional responses The lnfants Attachment to Ca regivers 1 undiscriminating social responsiveness birth to 23 months very young infants are responsive to voices faces and other social stimuli but any human interest them 2 discriminating social responsiveness 23 months 6 months infants begin to express preferences for familiar companions they direct their biggest grins and most enthusiastic babbles toward those companions still friendly toward strangers 3 active proximity seeking or true attachment 67 months 3 yrs form clear attachments usually mothers gt crawl stay close to mother 4 goal connected partnership 3 yrs taking a parents goal and plans into consideration and adjusting their behavior to achieve proximity to the attached separation anxiety baby becomes wary or fretful when separated from parent stranger anxiety a wary or fretful reaction to the approach of an unfamiliar person secure base a point of safety from which an infant can feel free to ventiregt safe haven if frightened strangesituation measures the quality of an attachment Quality of Attachment 1 secure attachment the securely attached infant actively explores the room when alone with his mother because she serves as a secure base may be upset by separation but is comforted by her presence resistant attachment an insecure attachment characterized by anxious ambivalent reactions doesn t dare venture off to play even when mother is present doesn t seem to serve as a secure base for exploration gt stronger separation anxiety may resent mother for leaving wary of strangers even if mother is present avoidant attachment seem uninterested in exploring show little apparent distress when separated from their mothers and avoid contact or seem indifferent when their mothers return not particularly wary of strangers avoid ignore them and mothers they distance themselves from their parents disorganizeddisoriented attachment associated with later emotional problems may act dazed and freeze or lie on the oor after separation May seek contact then move away then approach mother again may not have been able to devise a consistent strategy for regulating negative emotions like separation anxiety disinhibited attachment characterized by indiscriminate friendliness lack of appropriate wariness of strangers and difficulty participating in real reciprocal social interactions
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