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HD 101 Lecture notes

by: Danielle Kelly

HD 101 Lecture notes Human Development 101

Danielle Kelly
GPA 3.0
HD 101

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All of the lecture notes leading up to the first HD 101 exam
HD 101
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Danielle Kelly on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Human Development 101 at Washington State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.


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Date Created: 02/11/15
Danielle Kelly HD 101 January 15th 2015 Chapter 1 Theories and research ideas 0 Theory Framework for understanding how and why people change over time 0 Systematic statement of principles and generalization Psychoanalytic Theories Development Active dynamic process in uence by inborn biological drives and unconscious social and emotional experiences 0 Freud and Erikson are Psychology theorist Psychosexual theory Sigmund Freud Psychosexual stages oral anal phallic latency genital 0 Birth to adult Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson student of Freud Interaction between cultural diversity social changes and psychological and lifelong There are 8 stages Behaviorism and Social Learning 0 Studies observable behaviors Learning experiences are sources of development change Learning 0 Relatively permanent change in the capacity to perform certain behaviors Results from experiences Behaviorism Emphasizes the sequences and processes of conditioning Conditioning relationship between stimulus and response 0 Classical Conditioning Pavlov o Operant Conditioning Skinner Social Learnind Albert Bandura In uence of the others over our behavior 0 Modelingmimic behavior 0 Selfef ciency Biological Model pg1920 Microsystem community family peers school represented by solid line Mesosystem connections between microsystem Ex parent being teacher Exosystem funding for education dotted line Macrosystem Religion and beliefs Chronosystem how culture has changed over a long time Cognitive Piaget theories end at the end of adolescence Children actively construct knowledge Four major stages 0 Sensorimotor starts at birth until 23 0 Preoperational preschool 0 Concrete operational middle school o Forma Operational adolescence Birth through adolescence Information Processing Theory 0 The mind Is like a computer 0 Inputs and outputs Focus 0 Analysis storage retrieval of information o Processes that make this possible selective attention memory skills processing knowledge metacognition Develobment codnitive Neuroscience 0 Relationship between changes in the brain cognitive processing and behavior patterns 0 Plasticity brain injury when a brain takes over for another Multidisciplinary eld 0 Psychology Biology Neuroscience and medicine My 0 Adaptive and survival behavior 0 Imprinting baby ducks are born and mom wasn39t around and imprints on dog 0 Critical periods 0 Sensitive periods 0 John Bowlby 0 Attachment Evolutionarv Develobmental Psvcholoov Helps us understand the adaptive values of species wide cognitive emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age 0 Newborn preference for faces 0 Familiar vs nonfamiliar stranger anxiety Vygotsky39s sociocultural theory 0 Dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society culture 0 One works with a skilled teacher to develop different skills parents teachers siblings peers Guided participation talking through a process of learning Zone of proximal development what a child is capable of doing on their own compared to what they can do with a little help Scaffolding give children the amount of support that they need and decreasing that support as they no longer need it What Theories Contribute No single theory fully explains the behavior of humans through the life span 0 Most developmentalists prefer an eclectic perspective Why do we conduct Research 0 Learn more about a speci c populations 0 Study a phenomenon Evaluate a program Scienti c Method Staoes of Research Formulate a research question Develop a hypothesis design the study Test the hypothesis Analyze results Draw conclusions Report your ndings Are the results accurate Replication repetition of scienti c study science builds on science Reliability consistent measure of a characteristic Validity measure what the researchers think it does Generalizability apply beyond the study Usefulness solve reallife problems Research Methods Systematic Observation observe and record behavior quotsystematically and objectivelyquot Ex Naturalistic vs structured setting SelfReports Interview questionnaires Case Study lntensive study of one individual often multiple sources of informationdata Ethnography observation of particular culture or social group General Research Designs Correlational looks at relationships between variables as they exist naturally in the world 0 Cannot infer cause and effect 0 Experimental Observe when circumstances are carefully controlled 0 Able to infer cause and effect Develoomental Research Design 0 Longitudinal Observe some groups at different points in time CrossSectional Observe persons of different ages at one point in time Sequential Combines above designs two groups over time Research Ethics Protection from harm Informed consent Con dentiality Knowledge of results Decep on Deliberate falsi cation of data Bias Communicating and Utilizing Results Research Journals 0 Textbooks 0 Popular press articles 0 News reports newspapers ProfessionalPresentations 0 Universities research institutions 0 Professionalorganizations Biological and Environmental Foundations Genotype genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype observable characteristics of an individuals Chromosomes store and transmit genetic information Genes segments off DNA located along the chromosomes DNA substances of which genes and chromosome Autosomes the 22 pairs of chromosome that are not sex chromosome Sex Chromosome 23 pairs of chromosome determine sex XXfemae XYmae Gametes sex cells sperm and ova Zygote sperm and ova meet Twins Fraternal dizygotic 0 Two zygotes or fertilized ova no more alike than siblings IdenticalMonozygotic 0 One zygote that divides into two individuals the same January 27 2015 Inheritance Dominant a single dominant gene strongly in uences phenotype Recessive does not usually present itself unless both parents carry the recessive gene Chromosomal Abnormalities Down Syndrome 0 Problems with the twenty rst chromosome 0 Sex Chromosome abnormalities 0 Problem with the X and Y chromosome Reproductive Information Genetic Counseling Genetic Testing Prenatal diagnosis and fatal medicine Genetic Counseling 0 Have child with serious defect usually have genetic counseling Family History Same ethnic group especially blood relatives rstsecond cousins Women age 35 men age 40 Women Serious infection early in pregnancy Xrays early in pregnancy Stillbirth death of newborn miscarriage Helps couples with Asses chances of hereditary disorders 0 Choose best course of action 0 Risks 0 Family goals Recommended when Couple has had dif culties Aware of genetic problems 0 Women is over 35 Prenatal Diagnostic Methods Amniocentesis needle in the belly to get amniotic uid Chorionic villus sampling taking small amount of tissues Fetoscopy very small camera inserted virginally to see baby Ultrasound outside or vaginal Maternal Blood analysis taking blood of mom and looking in there Contextual Issues 0 Reproductive technologies 0 Adoption Family Socioeconomic Status Poverty amp Af uence Culture Community amp Neighborhood Zygote 2 weeks Fertilization Implantation Start of Pacentia Embryo 6 weeks Organs and ligaments form Heart begins beating Fetus 30 weeks Growth and nishing Zvoote Period rst two weeks Fertilization o The sperm and egg come together lmplantation Formation of placenta from the outer sac chorion nner sac amnion holds amniotic uid Placenta carries nutrients amp wastes Embrvo Period weeks 38 Ectoderm becomes hair the outer layer of skin and nervous system Mesoderm forms muscles bones circulatory system Endoderm forms digestive system and lungs Heart beings to beat Cephalocaudal growth 0 Head grows faster than rest of body Proximaldistal growth 0 trunk grows then arms then ngers Top down center out Fetal Period weeks 938 Fetus becomes much larger Brain begins to function Finishing touches respiration digestion vision Prenatal Decision Type of caregivers How important is prenatal care 0 Very important 0 1 million women die in pregnancy and delivery 0 Obstetrician 0 Family Physician 0 Nurse Midwife 0 Lay Midwife Choosing a caregiver Januarv 29 2015 Factors in healthy prenatal development Prenatal care Nutrition amp weight gain should gain around 2530 pounds Emotional stress Sperm health Age Impact of teratooens Teratogens are things in the environment that are toxic to the baby Depends on the genetic makeup of the organism Changes over the course of prenatal development Affects speci c aspects of prenatal development Depends on the dose May not be evident at birth Teratogenic Drugs Alcohol Aspirin Caffeine IIIegaI drugs Nicotine Marijuana Outcomes Related to Teratooens Small for gestational age Miscarriage preterm birth stillbirth Placenta problems Heart amp ungs defects Stroke Central nervous system defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Addiction Cognitive and Mental disabilities Diseases affecting healthv develooment Terms HIVAIDS Genital Herpes RubeHa SythE Age of Viability 22 weeks possible Lanugo little ne hairs that cover the body helps hold the Vernix on Fontanels soft spots on the baby head this is so the baby s head can t and so brain can grow Vernix the white gunk on a baby when they are born Birth Process 0 Stages of labordelivery Effacement amp dilation o Effacement is when the cervix thins o Cervix dilates from the size of thumb nail to about 10 centimeters Family support amp bonding Postpartum depression Stage 1 Prodromal Active starts about 3 cm best time to have epidural sign of 6 throws up 0 Transition 0 Complete 10 cm dilated Stage 2 Birth of baby Stage 3 Delivery of afterbirth The Apoar Scale 0 Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration Birth Complications Oxygen deprivation anoxia o Cord wrapped around neck a knot in the cord 0 Reasons for Csection 0 Coming breached o The baby s head is too big for the mothers pevis Rh factor incompatibility Re exes Unlearned responses triggered by a speci c form of stimulation 0 Babinski stroke the foot hee to toe toes fan out o Moro throws arms out amp then in when they are startled o Rooting cheek is stroke it will turn its head and start to suck 0 Pamar grasps objects placed in hand 0 Others blinking stepping sucking withdrawal Newborn States of Activitv Alert inactivity calm eyes are open inspecting the environment Waking activity eyes open seem unfocused armslegs move uncoordinated motions Crying 23 hours daily 0 Sleeping 1618 hours a day


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