verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Sophie Joslyn on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY202 at University of Oregon taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 85 views.
Reviews for term notes
Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/11/15
Scientific Methods in Psychology 10714 What is the scientific method psychologists ask scientific questions about the what when and why of behavior and mental processes want to know that things exist when they come to exist why they exist scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method systematic procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned body of techniques for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge or correcting and integrating previous knowledge to be termed scientific a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning seek to let reality speak for itself support a theory when a theory s predictions are confirmed most important distinction between the scientific method amp casual inquiry is that scientific inquiry is more objective three essential elements theory interconnected set of ideas explanation based on observations hypothesis testablefalsifiable prediction about an outcome that would best support the theory research systematic and careful collection of data SM reflects a cyclical relationship among a theory a testable hypothesis derived from the theory research conducted to test the hyp and adjustments to the theory as findings prompt reevaluation What are the types of studies in psychological research observe and describe naturally occurring behaviors in order to provide a systematic and objective explanation of behavior naturalistic observation vs participant observation L Descriptive Studies Pros and Cons advantages takes place in realworld setting can establish early on if a phenomena exists disadvantages errors in observation observer s bias observation alters participant s behavior observer bias systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer s expectations experimenter expectancy effect changes in observed behavior due to expectations of researcher quotHawthorne Effectquot special case of observer effectobserved subjects change or improve their behavior because they know they are being watched 2 Correlational Studies Examine How Variables are Related correlations can be positive or negative researchers do not attempt to alter variables cannot draw causal conclusions from correlational studies correlation does not equal causation Scientific Methods in Psychology 10714 establishing correlation allows ability to make predictions corr research has identified strong relationship between depression and suicide clinical psychologists often assess symptoms of depression to determine suicide risk limits on corr research third variable problem cannot be sure another unmeasured variable doesn39t better account for cause of corr directionality problem may identify corr but cannot determine which variable causes which causality correlation correlation doesn39t equal causality crosssectional observed at one point in time longitudinal studiedmeasured repeatedly across time 3 Experimental Research manipulation of independent variable to examine effect on dependent variable experimental groups at least two receives the manipulation control group comparison group that doesn t receive the manipulation random sampling is critical for research in order to reach causal results 102114 Personality What is personality 0 creative N stubborn E extraverted C dedicated O athletic C organized A worldly N anxious O openminded C perfectionist A empathetic A relaxed A friendly A sensitive N opinionated people can make betterthanchange judgments of personality traits from briefly talking to them seeing them in action seeing their bedroom seeing a photo of them browsing a personal website reliable tests of personality stable results over time valid tests that measure what they are supposed to measure Gordon Allport What should be the units of personality be in our better measures some proposed answers traits beliefs about the self expectations about the world unconscious conflicts needsgoalsmotivation cultural valuespractices life stories Personality Traits characteristic patterns of emotional responses thoughts and behaviors that are relatively consistent across different situations and over time early history of trait research natural language Allport and Odbert 1936 identified 18000 Englishlanguage terms that could quotdistinguish the behavior of one person from anotherquot Eysenck s hierarchical model four levels the specific response level observed behavior the habitual response level behaviors observed on several occasions traits type or subordinate level proposed three superordinate traits introversionextraverstion emotional stability psychoticism Big Five personality traits openness curious original intellectual creative and open to new ideas conscientiousness organized systematic punctual achievement oriented and dependable extraversion outgoing talkative sociable agreeableness affable tolerant sensitive neuroticism anxious irritable 102114 Personality Why should we believe you replication stability agreement among observers etc Some People are Inconsistent situationism Walter Mischel proposed that behaviors are determined as much by situations as by personality traits caused considerable rifts between social psychologists tend to emphasize situational forces personality psychologists tend to focus on individual dispositions strong situations funerals religious services meeting the president mask or suppress personality differences weak situations parties reveal or amplify personality differences Behavior is influenced by personality AND situations most trait theorists and interactionists believe that behavior is joint determined by situations and underlying dispositions individuals choose situations certain features of personality are more observable to friends outside perspectives than to the self anxiety easier for self more difficult for outside talkative relatively equal creativity easier for outside more difficult for self predictability of personality traits juvenile delinquency conscientiousness What is the biobehavioral basis of personality personality is rooted in genetics emerges from temperament supported by specific neurological mechanisms trait correlations much stronger between identical twins than fraternal heritability the fraction of variability in a behavior or trait that can be attributed to genetic variation the degree to which a trait shows variability heritability estimates 38 35 41 39 45 49 WQZPO 102314 Emotion Emotions vs Moods emotions something in the environment that is being reacted to very specific amp immediate a evaluative reaction and b bodily response to an c emotioninducing stimulus c first order of a and b remains theoretically controversial why does this matter same stimulus gt different emotional response same stimulus gt same emotional response gt different coping behavior moods not always discernable as to why less specific Are Emotions Adaptive The Functionalist Perspective negative and positive experiences guide behavior that increases the probability of surviving and responding answer is yes they are adaptive they communicate for us especially facially capable of communicating a wide range of emotion through facial expression infants have this ability very early on adaptive funcitons of emotions we learn important info from someone else s emotions too social referencing judging situations based on others reactionsemotions the lower half of the face may be more important in communication emotion when the full face is showing when only the eyes OR only the mouth is showing eyes are easier to read facial recognition problems are associated with Autism and Aspergers Social Functioning of Emotions strengthening interpersonal bonds guilt strengthens social bonds prevents people from doing things that would harm their relationships displays of guilt demonstrate that people care can be used to manipulate others socialization is more important that biology in determining how children experience guilt embarrassment strengthens social bonds rectifies interpersonal awkwardness and restores social bonds after a transgression communicates a realization of interpersonal errors thereby repairingmaintaining relationships Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion facial expressions across cultures cross cultural congruence in identifying some facial expressions 6 quotbasicquot emotions happy sad fear anger surprise disgust research suggests that some facial expressions are universal Emotions Serve Social Function Emotion Display Rules 1 Elfenbein amp Ambady recognize emotions in people from our own cultures better than people from other cultures 2 display rules what is considered appropriate expression of emotion and when vary across cultures amp acquired with developmentlearning 102314 Emotion emotions might be expressed differently in different situations in different cultures Functions of Emotions disgust may be useful in getting rid ofpreventing ingestion of potential toxins fear widening of eyes increase in field of vision physiological response can allow faster eye motion increased nasal flow etc preparing for flight response People Serve Cognitive Functions people s emotionsmoods can alter ongoing mental processes shape decision making for better or for worse judgments are strongly influenced by current feelings affectasinformation theory use current mood to make decision emotions shape decisonmaking Somatic Marker Theory has suggested that reasoning and decision making are guided by emotional expectation How Do People Experience Emotions subjectively we are aware of them can range from intense mood disorders to nonexistent alexithymic physiological associated with physical changes JamesLange theory of emotion emotion is the result of perceiving physical changes emotion follows from physical changes if the response comes first and then the emotion comes from labeling that response then the way we hold or move our body should affect our emotions Facial Feedback Hypothesis criticisms of JamesLange theory of emotion body reaction too slow emotion perceived faster than the body reacts physical changes alone don t produce powerful emotions not a unique physiological response for each emotion cognitively Schater and Singer s TwoFactor theory of emotion a situation evokes a physiological and a cognitive approach interpretation of that situation when people experience arousal the initiate a search for its source sometimes they get it wrong or misattribute the source of their emotional state usually happens with slowerprocessed information Dual processing of emotion thalamus recognizes emotional signals and relays them to limbic system activation of the amygdala produces immediate visceral via precortical associations cortex cortical activation is a slower route and allows for use of memory in understanding emotional stimuli neuropsychology of emotion information reaches the amygdala in two ways emotional regulation strategies to regulate emotions 102314 Emotion behavioral strategies avoid something distraction etc reappraisal suppression James Gross Model of Emotional Regulation situation selection gt situation modification gt attention deployment gt cognitive change gt response modulation 111814 Treatment of Psychological Disorders stats 15 of US population every year seeks mental health help more women than men those with medical insurance those with higher levels of education most commonly treated disorders depression and anxiety typical number of psychotherapy sessions 12 why partially due to the fact that when people finally get to the office when a sense of immediate relief is not felt they feel extremely discouraged partially bc if they go with the predisposition of having a certain disorder and are told they are incorrect are sure their doctor is wrong amp choose not to return Past treatments reading field of psychologypsychopathology interventionsaccounts of treatment in the past bloodletting centrifuge different forms of isolation and restraint restraint is still prominent prison systems largest system of psychopathological treatment in the US and mostly everywhere Who provides treatments clinical psychologists PhD or PsyD counseling psychologists PhD psychiatrists MD clinical social workers MSW psychiatric nurses BSN paraprofessionals limited advanced training spiritual provider clergy How do you treat psvcholooical disorders biologicallybased interventions reflect medical approaches to illnessdisease psychologicallybased interventions psychotherapy aimed at changing patterns of thoughtbehavior Pharmacotherapy psychotropic meds drugs that change brain neurochemistry and affect mental processes inhibit action potentials increase or decrease the activation of particular neurotransmitters three drug categories antianxiety tranquilizers used for shortterm treatment of anxiety benzodiazepines eg Xanax increase activity of GABA pros reduces anxiety promotes relaxation cons causes drowsiness highly addictive antidepressants primarily used to treat depression but also common for anxiety Monoamine oxidase MAO inhibiters inhibits the breakdown of serotonin in the synapse resulting in more serotonin being available in the synapse also raises levels of norepinephrine and dopamine 111814 Treatment of Psychological Disorders only used for those who do not respond to other antidepressants Selective serotonin reuptake inhibiters SSRls inhibit the reuptake of serotonin allows serotonin to remain in synapse so its effects on post synaptic receptors are prolonged antipsychotics used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders involving psychosis reduce hallucinations and delusions binds to dopamine receptors thus blocking the effects of dopamine not always effective irreversible side effects cannot treat negative symptoms of schizophrenia social withdrawal apathy newer antipsychotic Clozapine acts on dopamine receptors and also serotonin norepinephrine acetylcholine and histamine receptors used only for those who don t respond to others effective but risk of side effects low white blood cell count seizures diabetes Alternative Bio treatments surgery today used only as a last resort lobotomy Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT administering a strong electrical current to the patients brain to produce a seizure effective for severe depression that has not been responsive to medication or psychotherapy Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS electrical current produces a magnetic field which induces an electrical current in the brain stimulation interrupts neural function of selected region mainly used to treat severe depression Deep Brain Stimulation DBS surgically implant electrodes deep in brain electricity used to stimulate brain similar to pace maker effective for treating Parkinson s Psychotherapy Cognitive Therapy typically used to treat depression theory distorted thoughts can produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions goal identify problematic thoughts patterns modify them with more adaptivepositive ones cognitive restructuring length 1020 sessions CBT Tools cognitive restructuring correcting inaccurate thoughts exposure repeated exposure to an anxietyproducing stimulus or situation behavioral activation reengaging in pleasurable activities Acceptance and Commitment Treatment ACT 111814 Treatment of Psychological Disorders effective for treating a wide variety of conditions that extend beyond traditional DSM clinical disorders theory psychological suffering is caused by attempting to control thoughtsfeeling psychological suffering is normal goals acceptance willingness to have unwanted thoughtsfeelings quotmake roomquot for them as they are a natural part of human experience being present encourages individual to be in the here and now conscious of our experience mindfulness exercises valuesfocused encourage individual to behave and set goals in line with one s values Mindfulness mindfulness the practice of purposefully focusing your attention on the present moment and accepting it without judgment physical benefits relieves stress lowers blood pressure treats heart disease reduces chronic pain improves sleep psychological benefits depression anxiety substance abuse eating disorders quotmindful eatingquot Science of mindfulness John Cabot Zin cardiologists whose patients were all living highstress lives Richie Davidson interested in the power of meditation performed research on Monks seem to be acting more effectively on brain rather than medication etc not brain quotchecking outquot but executive areas of the brain become better regulated and better distribution in the brain of impulse more activation when engaged figuring out how to distribute awareness across the brain daily basis
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'