theories of personality
theories of personality Psych 3129
Popular in Theories of Personality
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Heath on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 3129 at George Washington University taught by Ross-Kiddler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Theories of Personality in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for theories of personality
These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these
-Mrs. Nyah Gulgowski
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/12/15
What s in a Name 02112015 Lecture One Personality de nition 0 Each theorist presents us with their own understanding of personality in common speech usually refers to someone public image Theory 0 Set of abstract concepts developed about a group of facts or events in order to explain them Lecture 2 Basic drives Eros life instinct Libido sex drive thanatos death instinct Parts of personality ld I want Ego tried to meet the needs of id rational thinking Superego doesn t develop until 4 or 5 quotyou cant have it it s not rightquot based on societies values guilt process Levels of consciousness Unconscious motives in uencing our thinking and personality yet that lie outside our awareness Preconscious just beneath the surface conscious tip of the iceberg Defense mechanism function Protect personality from a hostile world ego tool Defense mechanism types and examples of each Displacement displace anger onto something else ex mad at parents so you hit your pillow Projection project your unconscious stress onto outside world amp it comes back to you ex person who says everyone hates me is the angry person Denial that doesn t apply to me Reaction formation shows opposite of what they re feeling ex man amp woman who constantly argue really have lust for each other Sublimation put your stress into something socially acceptable shows up in something else lntellectualization review steps so you don t lose control Rationalization rationalize stress so you don t need to deal with it Stages of development IF Freud39s Psychesexual Stages ef evelepment I 1 L39 1quot HHAL i3 The child learn ta resperhizll m same efthe demands ell seeietyr such as betrel and bladder c li39ll l39 HEAL Ciel Infant athiesres gr tlllIIEEIiti threugh erall asc39l l39II39ities suell39l 7 as feeding thumb seem a and babbling I 5 FH LlLlEE 393 LATEHCT L i Fagquot EEHITHL I le edult The child leerhe The child eeetiheee an 2 The geeHing te realliIe the his er her deeellepa adelesee t shakes di erenees between merit but sealsue efi39 eld dependeneies males and femalee lures are relatively and learns tie deal and hegemres aware efrsexuallity e 7 matureljr 1ariilil39n the eppesite sex quiet Eeipai gl rt bril u alll i iii Eaee Oral dependent Anal control Phallic oedipalelectra con ict Latency concern in object loss Genital remerging electra ampoedipa issues Why ages not precise for stages of development Oedipal con ict Boy Girl Loves mom Loves dad Original love Fantasize removal object of original love object Superego Slow internalized internalization of superego Castration Penis envy anxiety Identi cation Identi cation with dad with mominferior love object Criticisms of Freud39s theory 0 Cannot be tested more of a philosophy condescending notions of women as incomplete men sexual desires as primary motivation Lecture 3 compare with Freud eeeuimt Nertsure end purpeee generalize euree eeuree peyeiltiie elf the lfiilhiirle If eeeehie err energy ee eeifiie metieetieg e rerrge eeeuel igretifiieetiri ref bheeiere Nature the etsrehruse e f r et reheuee fer uneerreeieue l39EFJfEEEEdl mereerie uneeeteble eiieeifie te the repressed eeree individual an giur EaipEEi fif TEE thE e neeetrel pa individual Eeuse elf heheei ne est eeper39erleee iri Pest eepseriierleee edditen t future particularly in eeeiretien ehildhed personal unconscious Embraces all repressed forgotten or subliminally perceived experiences by one individual 0 Contains infantile memories and impulses forgotten events and experiences originally perceived below the threshold of consciousness Contains complexes 0 Emotionally toned conglomeration of associated ideas collective unconscious o Emotionally toned experiences derived from ancestors o Responsible for myths legends and religious beliefs 0 Refers not to the inherited ideas but to man s innate tendency to act in a certain way whenever experience stimulates a biologically inherited response tendency Contains the archetypes Archetypes 0 Universal thought form or predisposition to respond to the world in certain ways 0 Persona shadow anima animus great mother wise old man the hero the self persona mask that one wears in order to adjust to the demands of society 0 social role that one assumes in society shadow unsocial thoughts feelings and behaviors we potentially possess amp other characteristics we don t accept devil withinquot anima feminine side of the male psych animus masculine side of the female psych introversion psych oriented inward to the subjective world more comfortable with the inner world of concepts amp ideas extroversion the psych is oriented outward to the objective world more comfortable with people and things personality types 0 2 attitudes amp 4 functions make 8 psychological types components of personality types Attitudes Introversion vs extroversion 0 Functions sensing more comfortable using the ve senses amp dealing w facts amp reality vs intuiting looks for relationships amp meanings or possibilities about past or future events amp thinking prefers to use logic amp impersonal analysis vs feeling more concerned w personal values attitudes amp beliefs role of ego ones conscious mind part of the mind that selects perceptions thoughts feelings amp memories that may enter consciousness Through the ego that we establish a sense of stability Freud lunq Ego functions in Ego functions in the conscious it is unconscious Ego Seeks to gratify the ID Ego Executor of the sensations perceptions thoughts feelings memories that enter life every day personality Ego responsible for establishing our Libido refers to sexual drive identity and stability Ego not true center of personality Libido may refer to sexuality but to other hungers as well 0 Each individual seeks to cope with the environment amp develop superiority in a unique way 0 Results from combination of inner goal orientation amp forces of the environment Ruling type aggressive domnating people who have little social interest or cultural perception Getting type dependent people who take rather than give Avoiding typepeople who try to escape lifes problems amp engage in little socially constructive activity Socially useful type people with a great deal of social interest amp activity Three major life tasks according to Adler Work love ampsocial interaction Importance of school in Adler39s theory 0 Through edu our innate amp shared concept of social interest amp justice could be made to ower amp provide the most appropriate form of compensation for our weaknesses but school systems compound feelings of inferiority by extensive use of tests that have builtin mechanisms for failure Birth order effect family constellation First bornmore intelligent achievement oriented conforming amp af liative oriented toward the past to regain glory before they were dethroned concerned w power 0 Second child feel the need to accelerate amp catch up with the rst child dream of running to catch things competitive amp ambitious often surpass the rstborn not concerned w power Lastborn sociable amp dependent lastborn who is spoiledpampered will continue a helpess amp dependent lifestyle into adulthood may try to surpass older siblings PROBLEM CHILDREN 0 Only children like rstborn enjoy being center of attention spend a lot of time with adults so mature faster but may also be pampered Does research support Adler on birth order effect 0 Shows weak and inconsistent effects which vary depending on other factors such as culture 0 Does not consistently con rm Adler s predictions though there are many supportive ndings lnferiority Organ lnferiority Compensation for weakness leads to strength superiority Superiority Striving striving to achieve personal best ctional nalism A person s image of the goal of his or her striving 0 Not ction because it s false but bc it cant be proven true belief in god can be good or bad judged by usefulness Neurotics have unrealistic goals as ctional nalisms someone who felt rejected as a child may set standards too high for themself inferiority complex Stagnation of growth in which dif culties seem too immense to be overcome feeling one never will be strong enough feeling one never will be intelligent enough overcompensation exaggerated effort to cover up a weakness that entails denial rather than accepting the truth superiority complex neurotic belief that one is better than others feeling no one else is as athletically t feeling one s own ideas are better than anyone else s Idea of unconscious direct opposite of freud didn t deny unconscious but reduced them to temporary unawareness Sumvan Interpersonal theory 0 People develop their personaility within a social context energy transformations personality is an energy system tensionpotentiality for action two types needs amp anxiety energy transformationsactions themselves Behaviors that satisfy our needs and reduce anxiety needs Tensions brought about by a biological imbalance between the person and environment Zonal Needs arises from a speci c body part 0 General Needs over all well being of a person anxiety 0 can interfere with satisfying interpersonal relations 0 Chief disruptive force blocking the development of healthy interpersonal relations Prevents people from learning from mistakes Persisting pursuance of childish wish for security Ensures people will not learn from experience 0 Its presence is worse than its absence Dynamisms Traits or habit patterns those related to tensions Disjunctive between evil and hatred Malevolence 0 Feeling of living among enemies o 23yrs when child is ignored rebuffed or punished 0 adopted for protection 0 timidity mischievousness cruelty antisocial behavior isolating o lust o autoerotic behavior 0 hinders an intimate relationship 0 increases anxiety amp decreases selfworth conjunctive o intimacy close interpersonal relationship between 2 people of equal status equal partnership decreases loneliness amp anxiety 0 amp selfsystemmost complex consistent pattern of behavior that maintains peoples interpersonal security by protecting from anxiety dissociation security operation to reduce anxiety amp insecurity includes impulses desires and needs that a person refuses to allow into awareness dreams selective inattention security operation refusal to see things that one doesn t wish to see personi cation peoples images of themselves or others 0 begins in infancy amp continues throughout development rarely accurateleads to stereotypes eidetic personi cation imaginary friends 0 projection of traits to others levels of cognition Refers to ways of perceiving imagining and conceiving Prototaxic undifferentiated experiences which are highly personal Parataxic communicated to others in a distorted fashion Syntaxic consensually validated and symbolically communicated stages of development 1 g 1 I fi l Ll lili il 1 II I iii III M l a l Ll LL 5 Ill Ll iii if WirLi fMIFLiii39 u I 7 fin i ii ti at viii lilijljig iE JLI E LI fJH il iw i1 Ll gii Infancy Mother Tenderness Good 02 Bad Childhoo Parents Imaginary Syntaxi d 26 Playmates c Language Juvenile Playmate Living with Compet Era 685 5 Peers ition Compromise Cooperation Preadole Single Intimacy Affectio scence 85 Chum n amp Respect 13 Early Several Intimacy and Balanc Adolescence 13 Chums Lust e Security 15 Operations Late Lover Fusion of Discove Adolescence 15 Intimacy and Lust ry of self amp world Chumships 0 Beginning of genuine human relationships Criticized for neglecting narcissism and maintaining a stubbornly optimistic view of human nature Lecture 5 Horney comparison with Freudsimiiarity and differences Humans motivated by need for security and love not by sex and aggression o The Overvaluation of Love result of coming off as second best in the competition for a manquot m u i Eoliooo i tlirotohiloliooo sexual ooporionooo shape21 ooooonoliitj inohilohod quot Poole1 moo omohooio n tho onoooooiooomi Helios od childhood oooiojl to oiooio omoiol for pen Eo oo on Sodohjlr ooodomiom touoodtif a looroom ooo oomoof hoiploomooo iggoro our doom follow and motility 39i C i t ed i m t i39 ionogoo oporogo 39 a pf do 5amp1 an m ooocoo on ooiooool ty I Eioooii oimt fomolloo ooiiooiog shot Em log of motion and e mso r oomooiho ro wool quot softened from quot lama motiloilomo p ouporegoo and suffer fpuonio my o o yquot onloooooltor supremo Neurotic Neurotic persons create a protective structure to deal with their concerns ways we protect ourselves from anxiety Securing love and affection Being submissive Attaining power Withdrawing basis of anxiety pervasive feelings of loneliness and helplessness womb envy Countered Freud s idea of penis envy Says that men are envious of women because they are able to carry a baby for nine months and have a special connection as a mother with the child that the father doesn t masculinity complex 0 the entire complex of feelings and fantasies that have for their content the woman s feeling of being discriminated against her envy of the male her wish to be a man and to discard the female rolequot neurotic needs Irrational defenses against anxiety that become a permanent part of personality and that affect behavior neurotic trends Affection and approval gaining affection A dominant partner submissive Power attaining power Exploitation attaining power Prestige attaining power Admiration attaining power Achievement or ambition attaining power Selfsuf ciency withdrawing Perfection withdrawing Narrow limits to life withdrawing movement away detached strive to become selfsuf cient desire for privacy maintain emotional desires movement to compliant intense need for love amp affection urge to be loved manipulate others to achieve goals 0 think of self as helpless surpress desires to control exploit others aggression against survival of the ttest see self as superior driven to succeed to compensate for feelings of insecurity personality types idealized self normalbuilt on exible realistic assessment of one s abilities neurotic people in exible unrealistic selfappraisal tyranny of should DENY TRUE SELF AND BEHAVE IN TERMS OF WHAT WE THINK WE SHOULD BE DOING lncongruty Incongruity between real and ideal self causes stress Bowbly39s ndings 0 Research in orphanages Baumrindparenting styles Indulgent Authoritarian Authoritative Neglecting Rejecting Fromm cause of basic anxietyisolation from Humanities separation from the natural world concept of human dilemma Reasoning facility 0 Awareness as isolated beings Permits them to survive Tendency to solve insoluble dichotomies fundamental dichotomies Life and Death 0 Complete Self realization and shortness of life 0 Separate Individuals and Social Relatedness human needs Relatedness Transcendence Rootedness Sense of Identity Frame of Orientation non productive orientations Strategies that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self realization mechanisms of escape Authoritarianism Tendency to fuse with another person Masochism sadism Destructiveness By destruction people restore feelings of power Aytomatom Conformity Reactive acts like robots role of love for Fromm personality disorders cause people who are incapable of love and uniting with others
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'