Physiology ch 3-4
Physiology ch 3-4 BME3403 EABS
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Date Created: 02/13/15
551fole WLAiflUl u39oxE QJl l mam barf 417 WW 31 130161170 V Ir 39 a V i 1 swam Ubf39jul fh n Ul l cj chajg Suppo r Qnmunw od ton mug ll 4 Pr 5 enowwvmm W H cpuhh s Ch5 39l l39l l R l i I l T l HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 5 1 About this Chapter AN INTEGRATED APPROACH CS Dee l39nglaub Silverthoru l hD Cell structure and types Cell differentiation 39 Compartmentalization Chapter 3 r 8 an 3333 Mechanical properties and cell functions Cell junctions Tissue types and characteristics mecrl oim Lecture Slide Presentation b a l S he 74 Dr llllll39Ll l lluulh l l39x lRZ NSUI willinlug llawzci39u Mulligan l39niwhiii 394 Ci quoth S p I V t Jg s31qumaxim b puwmvrgnHunmmHumm C If f WLMZ pmw Mac 3 0 0 w L nCJUS a 18 39 l quot Pml cw 071568 J1 Eowmch om J Naquot 1 I4 I but paler is palmetqu 07 w 7 NW 3 14 M It 39 Cell Cytoplasm Cytosol Organelles l Inclus1on mae J i V t uNonmemblanous Mumbranous 0 I 1 d A mganeiles organelles Cyloskelexon i Milochondtia 39 39Cemrloles Endoplasmac 39 Insoluble 3 5 Extracellular quotUld Fi um 34d c Anatomy Summary chals ofOrgmum lion System 0 Cell m h r m hm WNW Figure 33 Amap for the study ol ccll structmc mu bSmsls v water that lYavtlS m or 3 W99 3 00 09AM Cw w H1le mumwhm algopemem 0 W WWWRA sums om Amsw 2mm hocl US m macaw unstable molrwlc Uhpa ir flf C7 VOJ W Nonmenbranous rganelles Ribosomes Free Fixed Protein synthesis 39 Vaults large nucleoprotein particles mostly protein which have 39 fold symmetery 3X the size of ribosomes and are present in many types of eukaryotic cells Highly conserved among eukaryotes Precise function unknown but they may play a role in protein synthesis in transport of mRNA to cytoplasm and may play a role in ghting pathogens Internal lumen and membranes for protected reactions x enerates cell energy ATP have molt15 H86 adt COM Cytoplasi n at cell Matrix Siam HUM quotTen Db ltfttwnhrane mth end10 Muse1i ii trquot 139t tutLlil39i n t m l mier thuiowim mow Find ribolomn are attached to ho mcmbmms oi quotrrwlglli 3wintimation r in rimming llcntmirtf ununl lgw modh 7 Small smunrt Lame subunit ibownw Figure 36 Ribosomr an nomnembnumus organelles composed of RNA and protein inhi Cfmrmbmm SP a motors ivy VIIQLLcnIL Pctrag r3 3 cu A64 y l 15 El carnage nap C gTn Qlci Squot m39 E Hams W l llnmn dictators Q W 7 mu u quotan I1ltwm NADH you a in nt m M n I l rim Ms j t l M pm a morth 0quot 91 lurth t t claw m N ml V mudm YMMV W l 0 tr mourn H PH l 39 OW 39 you i as N In m Figure 1 Mitochondrial Structure and ATP Generation Panel A shows elongated mitochondria laments in a living skin broblast from a healthy person staining with the mitochondriaspeci c cation tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester TMRM and visualized wtth uorescence microscopy The more intense red the TMRM signal the more negative the mitochondrial membrane potential Aw Panel B shows the tragmented mitochondrial structure in Irving skin fibroblasts from a patient with a mitochondrial disorder Leigh39s disease caused by a mutation in NDUFSZ which encodes a subunit of complex I TMRM staining IS less intense ie membrane potential is less negative than in healthy broblasts in the electron micrograph shown in Panel C individual mitochondrial laments arrows can be seen in the cytosol of a fixed primaryslim broblast from a healthy person T dark line is the membrane at the cell nucleus Panel D shows mitochondrial ultraslructure and compartmentalization highlighting the mitochondrial outer membrane MOM mitochondrial inner membrane MIM and intemiembrane space lMS Panel E summarizes the main ATP production pathway in human cells In the cytosol glucose is converted into pyruvate which is subsequently processed in the mit0chondrion to acetyl coenzyme A 00A and the reduced terms at NADH and llaviri adenine dinuclcotide FADH2 In addition to using pyruvate as a substrate the mitochondrion can also use fatty acids and glutamine Mitochondrial ATP Droductron is carried em39m DOAo mammaer Sng p iasmiz mh MU no quoti hpara39ivs N to some WM U132 l t r V Ea we in ribos ems 360 ion Figure 1 Glycoprotein Biosynthesls and Congenital Disorders 01 I h Glycosylation 1 3 m Far the Ngiyoosyianon of proteins a glycan precursor is assembled from monosacchande units on an anchonng isoprenoid alcoholr dollchol in the membrane 0 the h P u endoplasmic reticulum Eat iycan E 40 I g 1 I hm l j rm m precursoris then transferred en bloc r pa mrriltuum t cmhune V o O ipid synthesis amp conversion r 1 I bosomes protein assembly 8 transport vesicles b H a1 5 Ribosomas are attached 18 a it i t r d r 4 gussgmttm 4 l Coho rr or39L wm x A Tranzlrt39Itlmka Var I 4 i to a specific asparagine residue in the 39 nascent peptide chain at a protein 3 being synthesized by a ribosome and 3 entering the endoplasmic reticulum Because lranslemn brown line is abundant In blood it is used as an indicator ol the elftcrency of the glycosylation system Translemn has two glycosyiation sites The protein IS transported to the Golgi apparatus and the glycans are modi ed in 0 multiple steps Each fully modi ed glycan is terminated With two negatively charged sialic acid resrdues Thus the transferrin molecule carries a total at tour siali i acrd residues It a genetic detect at 0 impairs synthesis of the precursor E s w v n Nmal llxuidt oerqu Nu chart modmution 9 w l 395 u 7 v 39 h v i u f quot39 quot439 1 d g y A 4 39 funquot i zquot hquot 6 abig I Gunman r39 31th Hquot 1 maquot IMJtelnglucoumne WE 43932 quotSane 14561 t 7 W glycan in the ertdoplasmlc reticulum and or both glycosylation sites of COOL transferrun may remasn unoccupied white arrow Such defects are classified as congenital disorders of a 39 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum glycasyial on We 39 606quot lquot I q lacks momma congenital disorders of glycosylatxon r s39 quot typo II COGll the defect occurs In 1 the modi cation or the already 3 The holsow tubes at tho translerred glycan Both glycosylntion ER are loaned by a continuation residues may carry a 9 yeah but at the Outer nucl68r membrane lttose glycans may he missm terminal static aCld residues and end With aalactose mannosn or N Figurc 310 the cndoplastmc reticulum H I V z I Emma3 qul www v a it i39c39iraur l h n u t t39tir lm tml m Smootl i312 laoui39h EPA or quotVi3amp5 Ltontf liqbu m0 notht0 j ONiUM pm fem at S cmbLj transJeri ff S2995 vtaci s y io lSSOVMS V tweaks clown QMOKO39 GOlgl Golgi Apparatus Golgi Apparatus r estas 6C1 2 quot WVHLM pacl acjin l Protein packaging 51 S h L PS Tb Secretory vesicles Hquot SecretedtoECF Rab TD labs Auxl Secretory vesicles lam wth newly satkaqed pr awnm nitm my a m Figure 3 1 39lhc Golgi apparatus Lo hrwtl S N l WittLl sq in man illvii mamin r aturt italinl39i tl ll rm ltulvzlthc snqmt uquotutt my Don t USC WMW poroaiu on a cut Figure 1 MembraneTraf cklng Pathways 1 Shown are the main tral oking pathways along the secretary and l endocytic pathways The transport at newly synthesized proteins starts horn the endoplasmic reticulum where after loldmg the proteins are sorted into budding vesicles that are generated l through 1 con protetn complex ll COPII The vesicles then move to the endoplasmic reticulumGolgi intermediate compartment lrom whlch the cargoes are transported to the Golgi complex In the Golgi complex the cargoes enter the sisGolgi network Intracellular and proceed toward the trans Golgi quot network and the machinery proteins d are returned to the endoplasmic reticulum in a manner that Is dependent on coat protein complex I COPI At the transGolgi network the ditlerent 0 caer are packaged in different vesicles which then carry them to thequot nal destinations such as the lysasornes the plasma membrane or o g the secretary granules in specialized Dells Most membrane proteins undergo d endocytosis which occurs through both e clathrindependeht and clalhrinA independent pathways 39 Macropihosomes are large internalized D membrane units whereas in specialized cells phagosornes mediate the rntemalization of large objects whrch are then digested in the g d lysosorrtes The endocytic centers F converge in the early endosomes when the cargo protelns are sorted toward several destinations the plasma membrane the recycling endosomes A A 39 quot quotquotghhu x39wm s 39 me transGala network or the late amen Motc nren Int39t15lt tzr m rmmm gum 33912 LVWWS quotd WWW Lysosomes and peroxisomes um vesrcles lrlled wrth pnv umwmau mp matohm mm may yr 39 bx d 4 39 I t 39 Chwmmb WM open con AM d SYNCtuft Nucleus AA W brmm Nuclear envelope WWW Nuclear pore complex 7 Nucleolus contains DNA that controls synthesis ol ribosomal RNA a Chromatin is DNA and protein Chromatin 39 Nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus lromthocytoplasm l l DNA form genes Nucleoli 1 50mm DNA concentrations j Control rRNA synthesis quotWt 0 BN9 MS 39 39 r trmnmwmnmg quotunityVifTIlrLIk nrr39ni39tldollrlzt t rtl vfnhnrgrul39un lrtzmquotunmixg gum 339I3I39H Ewlcw Cm room in tmghmg 5mm gnome qmnn w a W Jr QWth hutUM MVJQOQL Nuclear poms regulate SH movement at material n h into and out at the l r 7 Inner membrane ol nuclear antelope Broken edge at outer membrane Outer membrane of nuclear envelope i whorls He Alma bm YibbSomaal 2W 339 m M 7 a V 39 4 391 t ma PM a UWelwmu 3 up at g LbumliS n I M a v quot 39 l U A I if 1 tamq Pu 4 r r quotf 51 31303 quotl j lmSCrlb I a a I Whom 4 7 Eachens quotJ C U39M R j a x pthJCcL Overview Cells to Organ Systems Cell Membrane 90 hguc EXTRACEJJW Run Phosgholplo quot x Hyd ml P A V M I39Gycollpld r 39 IIKZU C Membranesaannvnq r Glyropvalc n 14 fHymaphomc m fl 0Q vi olm T j 391 1 g Ii f 39 quot Ce a 39 r7 I membrane ll x I 3 NR quot quot O d357 quotq sl 1 I39 l I a u r 2 it 23912 39 s h who szs wquot 6 y H in r l as a fgw x l ll 2 4 1 Lg xi i 3amp4 39 39 Haul 39 39 39 739 39 I quot 39 I 4 We 3V r WIch few33323 g 39 e r 39 n 7 7 l I x I l 3le gt l 1 V hDV6 1 n MMSS 9quot ll 1 l1 5quot oncxwewv quot 2 39 39 L E I V i l A 0 U u r A Pnosphohpd bIayvr CYTOPLASM ibis Figure 36 The cell manbrzmc nquot mam L Figure 3434 Armonny Summary Levels ol Organizmion Sysxml to Cell re an n nnm H mm marmalnmm l m Ol l5 S lWC Ml A UClcuS loan Abole VF bugoma 7 le lmQNR 093 TLL gphuhj lxapglma 3 Small MimiLe 61 T rag14 M95 9 Umn17 6 an 39 39 Membranes are physvca barriers of wt 0 37227213Zigggfgggz39equot75 mammi a imples g CellCellJunction can befmn m mrmknwmmm open and close sent In many tlssuesi Protems and fhe exfraceluar environment Phosphaluj assoc1ated Wlthi g sr1 1 4quot Pro I39LL n group 39 4 membrane is essenfiaIya cu r u 39 v 39 39 ell Cell J unct1on 1n Eplthehal hydrophobic permeabi y barrier g Mama Ussue that does not allow much movement of consist g of phosphorpia s a 5 gymmidi andmembrm proteins Palm 1 32 w melbetwen celaProte1ns as 001atedmth quot 9 35 quot39 ec 3 Blood Bram Barmer e a Membranes can rain amphlpafhic Non lar 33911quot molecules such as phospha dy faj WA Nonpolu Aquot tail ewwww efhanaamine an example of Md 0 pgospzzgycerlzes rigqr dos mm matrix anchoring j unctlon Protems associated 5 I I 5m 5 c a A 39 C eZe quot quot0quot quot P 0 P quot390 4 gquot W1th an quot pm J CLVTS 397quot39 quotquot 7 5 quotquot39quot quot1 ru ru rw lk39n 39m Wm39mquot Ztnipi1fmm u 21239lmupid naeum m m v lvllz vl 39nllrh1 G T m P 39 9quot4 quot539quotquotv quotHIquotINH39 m gm V K 39 phbsvlmam 5wa0 G 191W cl MA 5 arc amp l4 E chmolamx b low Chain CLC C143 are 19 S Oubbz M PVVMFMMPx A twatu s H Cgrhcay l NlLClSBngt WTWW A Junctions T l a ghl lunction f 7 l no m W a Shela0n 6xra mtgLear AWN of commxi m MH aoh39w mas n 9 00 I 0V t w Pl 0 LCMAL l m lam min 7 Qa wrm icerah HOSEw 9m 2 im ym Key Junction Proteins Figure 3l4 Types ofocll junction Connexin cadherins occludin amp integrins I CELL JUNCTIONS v V eff 39 39LL 4 3 Function I Communicating 1 I 0cmme i Anchari nls 7 7 7 39 girl Hf Gap Junctlons between heart muscle cells ggwm quot 39 LuaLIL2m 39 39 39 39 Loam 7 r A I t Tlghtgunctlons blood braln barrler i H a 1 7 L fwiwl Type LL I I Tuthlmw Fdhe39tquot La D s Fccaiaanesc39 E Hemxdes zfnmmnj I v 7 A 39 INN sz W o m 9317 39 a quot 39 8 SW attach to Intermedlate 7 1 I w I V V laments of cytoskeleton Cymskelelon km quotCm w cm odmta A K n I t link actm 1n adjacent cells Mmm 39nv39z vli un nu39l EIIWW39 I Figure 315 Amup ol39wlljuncliom 4 mi an 1m pulilrhumzul cmmuquotn39ml nyu 9 A n v ct 41 t 39 nction between racell a actin and matrix proteins 4T39 lquot 39n39 Iu v r I WNA lumjn icvmzmuvummmw Three Dimensional Scaffold of Actin Intermediate Filaments and Microtubules Responsible for Cell Shape internal organization movement intracellular transport and assembly of cells into tissue cytos eleton Cell Matrix Anch 3i39t1s5 n ind intracellular actin to different matrix proteins such as bronectin trong junctions that anchor intermedia e bers of the cytoskeleton to matrix proteins such as laminin w A w9 l 13951ij ALHVquot Microvilh mcrmso cell surface area They are summrted by rmcrohlarncnls a network lust Inslde the cell membrane Microtubulos 39 7quot avolha lamest 39 Lquot a cytoskclelbn fiber v I 1 A 1 Intermediate 4 1quot t lamcnlsmcludc n 4 L nan r1 nilMalquot V i 12ir w fnmw iz H m mp Figun 217le cytuskclclon and cytoplasmic pmlcin bers mrsummn quotl8 mtu Wnal l thlmo im Cytoskeleton m l O Strength Support Shape Transport Cell to cell links awn L39n I39ublwl39mg Humm Clt Y LQ l Villi the nucleus It consists of two W oriented at right angles to each other embedded in a mass of amorphous material containing more than 100 different proteins It is duplicated du ngm Just beforemhe two centrosomes move apart until they are on opposite sides of the nucleus As mitosis proceeds microtubules grow out from each centrosome with their plus ends growing toward the metaphase plate These clusters of microtubules are called wJ39 Cur raiMWx P mirl bc handHR Cytoskeleton s Composed of Actin lament c posed of Myosin and other proteins 39 a 39 1 rgest cytoplasmic protein bers Create ce trioles cilia and agella Composed of tubulin a globular protein s Composed of multiple protein c ains hat bind to the cytoskeleton Proteins involved include myosin Kinesins and Dyneins a ll 11 at A Centrosomes are the microtubule organizing centers undies of microtubules Centrioles are built from a cylindrical bundle of 27 microtubules arranged in nine triplets a Centrinles d 51 DNA n vmemec mu cc l Lll vr srifn c Cnlia and agella rave 9 calm o m39ut lr32 suncwi n a central 03 CllJr v Figun 3835 Ccnuiolcs cilia and agella Cilia and Flagella Extracellular Matrix M qLY CLd e ox 533 7333953211337333 39 Extracellular material that is synthesized and l quot RT secreted by the cells of a tissue 9 Composed of Proteoglycans glycoproteins or proteins covalently bound to polysaccharide chains and Insoluble protein bers such as collagen bronectin laminin brillin and elastin Motor proteins 29 microtubule pattern Cilia move uids F1 3 g ell a move Sperm cell It provides strength and helps anchor cells to the d flagella v V 39 39 Had 1 Attachments between the ECM and proteins in I p 1 cell membrane or cytoskeleton are one means of j 395 communication between cell and environment Figure 384 d Ccnlriolcs cilia and agella 9W1 uz39ltvi mimich lziulllfl1lgrEl11nquoturulvngl I vrlvrmlu wulcumhuman Vlllquotil lu gll eni39urmquotumtl lrlg C Nata Oil 5 0 a air 4F quot1 Dm li nitwwtow matrix Um my tissue 33 PVD39i eeabycanS Proteoglycans The point of attachment is a Ser residue to which the glycosamino l is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge For examplez m WIm GalGal XyI PROTEm 39 gave all I MHo M73 The Ser residue is generally in the sequence SerGly XGly where X can be any amino acid residue although not every protein with this sequence has an attached glycosaminoglycan The chains are long linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively gum boW Wis h be Cell Membrane Proteins Cell Adhesion Molecules CAM s e r 39 39 quot Iarn n 11 I gt p wLu 39 Membrane spanning proteins responsible for cell junctions and transient cell adhesions Include Claudins Occludins Cadherins Integrins and Selectins Attachments between ECM and Cell Membrane q are mediated Proteins or Cytoskeleton are a means of l by these Cell Adhesion Molecules communication between a cell and its external Growing nerve cells move along ECM with help of enwronment nerve cell adhesion molecules NCAM S 0 Cell Adhesions are not permanent so the bond between CAM s may be weak Chumr my lam pm 2 N 0mg 4739 3S U m 310 l P Hiram be r mbLS Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Tissue A collection of cells usually held 732 A 7 together by cell junctions that works together to 39 39 quot quot 39 quot achieve a common purpose 39 Amount of Emacelh ar Matrix in a tissue is Protects the internal environment of the body and hlghly variable regulates exchange of materials between the internal and external environment bu T 0 w 4 quotl L a 71 7 z quot7 2quot 4 a wyrA1 Hip pn r u 3 a a fifth lavr vulv v 4 V0 Jul Iquot Lint u i39 s 1 n lavquot w quotaxmm Lemom Canticle sated qr quotEpNLHHCU Uf lob 739 Dir eflh B W m a rhotot 4 013in v My mics 1Q Mannac Jo mcdq lf gt9 ibWS Hij Smeltbrig 3 07 f39 CD2 Qapillotms 43 when CllV39COH 3 Edk MONKC thSh39la WiLN mff tLDA m Meshnon Ttraat wmm t3 H 39und tlonj baud w iw Exchange Epithelial Tissues Leaky junctions Rapid transport dapmf yepl hdium quot Blood I Carbon d10x1de 139 Flue I 39 a Extra39cellular uid 39 Ions amp u1ds a Leaky exchange epithelium allows movement through gaps between the cells quotf exchanae exchange ED hcllum C 0 when protective ccytlmlvum WINK eminemm CHOW transporting DIME Hum wamoxm Lung alveoli Figure 3 83 chmcnl of substances across light and leaky cpilbcliu Figure 317 l suibmicn ofepithcliu in the body MWMQ sweeps mU39Cous eul l Prtvonli S mm g quot1 0 Lg er39mh quotJ LQ unas New sun i mmh pu out W P39W r WNW More Epithelia More Epithelia it lquot quot7quot Intestinal microvili p a Clllatad epithelium lining the airways Ti ht 39unctions I my t g n39 i39ut39ll wi 39i39lquotllx 39392ll iiljczirigl39l y fall TraChea L 39 1521quot H V rankff quot 1 391 quotmquot r Sweep mucous out Trachea 1 l i can 1 39 o 1 i39 L r Sweep mucous out g 1 l1 39 fr f o 145 quotV 39 r Skln Skin Mimi 39 Multiple cell layers wins Multiple cell layers 39 39 39 Prevent exchange Figure 318b Movcmuilol39substmsocs across light 1 S MVU a brach u Abqolocwm tissue W UCOUS cm F Oblong4 CQA LS Swat ycmAS gymsu Secretc ECP Bluecl Figure 3491 Ciliated epithelin cish c fsbosis mucus quotis Hale 8le Secretory Epithelia Secretory Epithelia Exocrine tissues WK Mucus w a rquot Mucous glands goblet cells Sweat glands Secreted externally l 39 Golg 39 apparatus Endocrine tissues A r Basal lamina Goblet cells secrete mucus Hormones into the lumen of hollow organs X 39 amp such as he Intestine Figure 3 20 Goblet cells be slow lm r 4 h bi cx l l 24 W gumin 11mmm39ummw quotnpnngll junmu lmwxm imLlILlm A V A 39himstblb i C C Connective Tissue Provides structural support and sometimes SW A p W 3 physmal barriers that along Wlth spec1ahzed cells a U helps defend the body from foreign invaders Kl 39 The distinguishing characteristic is an 39 lidealles skin and extracellular matrix with widely scattered cells pr V1 es suppo or sma g an s that secrete and modify the matrix Blood 0 4 1 vides strength and cartilage bone support tissues for skin and exibility ligaments tendons and muscle sheaths organs l 01 mm rT 64 do n S ECM of Connective Tissue is a ground substance u of proteoglycans and water in which insoluble m U 3 C protein bers are arranged c ills sun quot 39i e ciorig 1 bone if quot CLW nl CLyL Casha All awe Lemmamt Jrisst T 53 awe 39 8w Wt s A r s 39 1 39 lavUS 39 V nag quotu m mensttg wvt C6 pi 1m who Lon W453 e l but M Connective Tissues CT Connective Tissues CT w a i We pm Him Matrix Fibers amp their functions 7 he lav JAMUH Cailoc 39 n quot stars WIFE w V m I igmc322Ccllsand bersnfwmwclivclism HA 1 1le Ci r m H Cafo 39xi 1 39 l X Loose connective tissue Light micrograph of loose connective tissue iivisa 6man 4 quotWho W liOJWWLTl TU mm amm ci o Donut S Lulan quoti39LQ WWW k Lug mm 2033 More Connective Tissues mgr Mewivo Tendons amp ligaments Collagen dominates l lgun 3 23 Tcndom and lignlnL39nls NM 835 g 00 Hora Ocumntj mam Rmuu 39awus pears Beer bewj 33190 Hog OIWTUm in 673 rack a H39CCiH M OWW Mpg a at a W 3 35 Supporting Connective Tissues More Connective Tissues tat Adipose connective tissue r I Adipocytes S39i by t 5 it y a 5 1 ML i with ML W f O 323 wquot 39s M39saoghms mpocyws Womsxs imnwn MWIx t 39 39 39 vquot r quot739 i 0611C Fminvadmso a swag73 f Blood 39 m mro l J Plasma matrix r l 1 39 Promnbbas F bl d 11 ree 00 CG S i t a t H 7 llewocin39 Fibnmn Elaslm Collagen a i 39 Tim quotHim Comonscens FDINSYI39lJme IS England Slxli39bul to matrix and sheets mch venue 9 com 0 or Ahmedff telorg Paws Ce re dfpai ibag gmamw baA Wafth ne hem t Figure 325 Map of the components ofmnnecm39e tissue 2 mm 1 mar Jiiiini39CuLJZh In pquginguslmmnl39ummg 2 is ire x 31quot H 15 7 ssw mWrm4 sensm3 Wrap0 emf Muscle and Nerve Muscle Tissues 39 aeletalmucle as Contractile 0 Have very httle Extracellular Matrlx F J 0m i orce Muscle has the ability to contract and produce force and movement 39 MOVement Neural tissue has two types 39 EXCitable they x Carry information in the form of conduCt Slgnals x chemical and electrical signals from one part of Types 0 te body to aother 913 rovide support for neurons I 114R l I r 1 M15 Mu1rrquotl11rm39j puigiili39 mu cquotvnl39dutnn incpm n5ilvrianm39ummmg Figure 121 mlypes ofmuscles SH quot b 39 1g JVUM rhea thug 3 Swim iscicq39rcci 9r i LL ham4i a W r 36 Ci CGl i ii 39riquotlt W hung braang A 1 r39t W 0 menu ams LHOLS M dvmor W gquotlsDna mul pu LILLHCWC NOWquot WV HG Wipe64M blc Hr Cam 3amp4 flVich K 1c Cm Lew SCXUQ39 hum mama A 301 mm 4 wemown W mt r s e Nervous Tissues Cell Life Death and Replacement Neurons send signals I Axon Inl ncx Excitable Electrical 1 iiimquot I i Programmed cell death L Ohmmil Chemical mama a I v oes not damage neighbors Su 9 QLQ Ghal cells support 14 cam I 4V a quotquot t JJii 3991 e Pnslsymrinc A V Postsmap CL TUL Y mm 3 i Role 1n cell replacement Research uses and potential Figun 8 2 Model neuron In lama V bust Qiiacl ELM 02 S Harri nails 63m bin SQWGM 9 V0 ere a naturall ocurring process by which a cell is q directed to 5 lt2 3 21 Drags Apoptosis is based on a Q I x genetic program that isan indispensahle part ofthe 39 development and function of an organlsm In thls process OJ g A cells that are no longer needed or that will be detrimental to V an organism or tissue are disposed of in a neat and orderly 6 manner this prevents the development of an in ammatory response which is often associated with Necrotic cell death There are at least two broad pathways that lead to Apoptosis an 39 g 7 In both pathways sign ling results in the activation of a family of Cys Cysteine Proteases named Caspases that act in a proteolytic cascade to dismantle and remove the dying cell Mom s Nit WK 39 orcpniZQd v n 1 row L J i a tv i39 uuwxuwssul 3 3 nvwrzmw l Organs Focus on the Skin the Body s Largest Organ Functions of skm Organ de ned A group of tissues that carries out Cushions and insulates and is waterproof mlated funaions Protects from chemicals heat cold bacteria W Screens UV Epidermal tissue p Multiple cell layers We 34quot Clquot VC i39l Keritin hardened O Prevents unnecessary water loss C d Desmosomes junctions holding cells Sensory reception nerve endings d l Cquot l Q39l I Atoglt lier m I WJ d v Org V mmmm quot4quot wquot l not haw like S H 39gt 6 l SK in 8 Nrp c111 0 k mg 5639 hams f the on 1 use 815 n 97 w lhgwlgi r 6 t 1392 ChAQan v j Aid r EX C 39rAC lSt 6 lr x arms14 pm j 866 Sta 7 m m v W fr sw f m v in 7quot by CI Ewesm1 lt39 quotM96 at quotPain 27 MJXX a 4 grams 39Aikarmnlr it 58ch W p bquot beboptn r gt a WUS Hi iquot r ll1581 IV If l SPUmLNVIAC IQ w Remember a a Epithelium epidermis 19 j 2 Connective tissue dermis Muscle tissue Nervous tissue 4 W dic k bur n 393 mu lcswn mu 1 m m publv hmr n rmlmm mm nzv Epidermis 3 0v SP7 1 ChCJt 139 019 g Wif C l 1 oli crcm r illJ06 M czllg Epithelium layers on left and cell types on right calls are dead represented only by at membranous sacs filled with keratin Glycollpids In extracellular space Stratum camoum Cells are attened organelles deteriorating cytoplasm lull or Iamellaled granules release llplds and keralohyaline granules Slratum granulosum Cells conlaln thick bundles of intermediate laments made 01 prekeralln Stratum eplnosum Cells are actively mitotic stem cells some newly formed cells become part 01 the more super cial layers Stratum hassle Dennls Dermls LI immeL 4A we QMS M sensexi mincg m dcm ball 39 3M3 P39lco39 mcmi S Li n itercvbhecidJrey prunchch OrbCt Keratinized strati ed squamous epithelium Four types of cells Keratinocytes deepest produce keratin tough brous protein 0 Melanocytes make dark skin pigment melanin Merkel cells associated with sensory nerve endings Langerhans cells macrophage like dendritic cells Layers My dermis younges 39 3 mil bues o rot J from deep to Q super cial ces resist tension quot gt single row of cells attached to r spinyness is artifactual tono laments layers of attened keratinocytes producing keratin hair and nails made of it also nly on palms and soles horny layer cells dead many layers thick rmul39cmurvlw Strong exible connective tissue 39 iu39 Cells broblasts macrophages mast cells WBCs Fiber types collagen elastic reticular Rich supply of nerves and vessels Critical role in temperature regulation the vessels T wo layers see next slides W areolar connective tissue includes dermal pap1llae reticulum network of collagen and reticular bers 2 v In whim 3 l l39cr lmm nanm Cut yl 202 Pruch Edumuun burnt p by bliz ZJ el ill min 1 59qu D l 11 erma papl ael r 118 quotaquot 5quot 51f quot W Epidermis appears red erythema Dry texture Painful iwk or less to heal 5 w g be r l ovum h but Secon degree super cial partial thickness Extends into super cial papillary dermis Appears red with clear blisteis Blanches with pressure Moist texture Painful 2 3wks to heal Complications Local xrh infectioncellulitis b1 Zara Smudndegaen deep partial thickness Extends into deep reticular dermis Appears redandwhite with bloody blisters Less blanching Dermis layers II I V o Papillary layer 39 Appendamotskin Mentor pill f 39quot goubsdousoll Moist texture Painful Weeks to heal may progress to third degree 39 gland burn Can cause seaming contractures may require excision and skin grafting 474 sweat gland Hair ldllclo 5 full thickness Extends through entire dermis Stiff and whitebrown appearance Dry leathery texture Painless Requires excision Complications Scarring contractures amputation L13 r 4 xtends through skin subcutaneous tissue and into underlying muscle and bone Appears black and charred Dry texture Painless Requires excision Complications possible gangrene w in spy emit cf Hair rool l3 Um l 74 quotm Paclnlan covpusclo Sense norvo Hair toilich rocoptor root hair plexus Cutaneous vascular plexus Adlpose llssuc 5m whiqu r Beyum Cuminq l39 NIL1 cl nn r Um tr n 7r Lzx39w l WiOmmcm 2 Lttb ca 31 law mug Hepad fmig Sl39bna 0 its gymx Hch MamaWM S Wm Pl osum Shir allitch More on Skin Dermal tissues Loose CT V39 y Latin below the skin b amp 1 Fi ers muse es Also called 39 i f T I fascia Latin band in anatomy sheet of connective Halr sweat glands tissue Sebaceous glands M which stores fat and anchors skin H odermal tissues areolar tissue and adipose cells yp Blood vessels leferent patterns of accumulatlon N es male female erv Adipose amp loose CT u up ltnltmviu 5 n u in 39ulzmx r QMTH39W rpmw quot LU Conpomets ULHS SWV crow of out x I Piemm toriinfo MS Summary Cell components amp functions P Pylil 39ln 3 m nu39 l b gter quotW Membrane cytoplasm cytoskeleton llquot WIMquot 0 r CAM 34 7U M ribosomes centrosome mitochondria smooth m Cd l 8 rough ER golgi apparatus lysosomes n l 1 eroxisomes and the nucleus Cell junctions and matrix A 55 U155 I Hi it 391 3 flat 3 jbitigm Primary tissues types amp characteristics LA quotf z g g bf g re 3 0 3 St N epithelial connective muscle and nervous Sinf 3 S 0 Cell death amp replacement ea Skin as an example of an organ Raj i Pan S L39u Ni SW SJquot WW Furonug 4 g by a pcp hvsis ct m orbsts 5 Ti 3139 339 l5 LgtTQ quotPC intrin O 39Ahb w Can Show L QHVlt39 V qll a the it SS ve WV S C0 n A ileU UL S b wi l l Q numb VCMNQ f 3 DUNK Centaur mod x I ut x V wwwanka 1 KW Uan Half 3 We mp hint bl c IQ t Lap S CI U m 5 P39WFOFIYK 39Tlitr13 p ltf5L Wit 71quotan Hgch 0 1 1004393 Molecular and Cellular Basis of Disease MCBD ccquot Injury ML who Mow005 Lakew M 6m 5 05 may 85 01 ms Haw as Unw v t Sitn Marl Ask a mm on S w pf ng la 1 m Mpk Can Ouiaficd Wow W39iuplas io Reversiny 6 ess injured cell Apoptosis Irreversiny quot 39 Dead cell Injured cell Neerosns EJth Overview 1 Neemsis Kev a CLquot 3 x 39n I f Ofdl W ll N W 3 AJrlclddcs Hmm New W ewes agapreol a a Jags ut bi a r a COM 63 Umswiar 0313mm s aui menS mamak pm Ln TZ chowits can 4Ant5 an organs IYVWL boch39 v SEEM KmSin 22 banding mu39gang harte 654 STZJL QDDYVJY IQS i r I mm t ii miM aCnNS is jmal bla 1 mmgawm bmm Stress Stress gt Stress Stress Increaseddecreased workload cellular adaptation skeletal muscle and body building cardiac muscle and hypertension skeletal muscle disuse limb immobilization Increaseddecreased stimulation estrogenic stimulation of uterus in pregnancy estrogenprolactin stimulation of breast lactation denervation of muscle L i Liver an Razewa ie Lei 23 is nwfopu F s 5 FOX6 9 L2 We aim VLALed x SK 5 more cells Cellular adaptations to stress 9amp5 a a 1 physiomgic Mt met I Q S L Hyperplasia more cells 60 Hormonal breastuterus in pregnancy 39 TCCC n quotj o yC Compensatory liver after partial hepatectomy Q 2 Hypertrophy bigger cells U0 2 Patholo ic 3 3 Atrophy smaller cells 03 g Excessive hormoneGF stimulation of target tissue 039 f 4 Metaplasia different type 0f cells A Endometrial hyperplasia x s estrogen 39 J P Benign prostatic hyperplasia x s androgens a Connective tissue cells in wound healing 763 A ltgtJ d UUgt f 0 quot Hyperplasia t l WA hyperplaSia MCChanism 5 1 n CLQ b Cell proliferation 4 fqu Lquotl9 via increased production of in owm 51 TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS 3M 0mm due to Increased production of CF Increased levels of CF receptors Activation of intracellular signaling Results in larger organ 39T c M ncl quotN mm Optms Lp 1 1 64 New m anus grams h be XPPeSSecJ bm 1m bf maie Hypertrophy Comments 2 Hypertrophy larger cells Often involves switch from adult to fetalneonatal forms ie on myosin heavy chain Bmyosin Not due to swelling heavy chain Increased synthesis of structural components 739 Limited can only increase so much it Ric i423 Results in larger organ May occur with hyperplasia Hypertrophy Heart Hypertrophy of uterus g 4quot t J l I I I n z 39 gt 39 a rquot 3 5 m 139 39 quot a 239 u ev l39 w I l a I f1 quot uv 39 V 1 39 3 39 I 39 2 392 39 L 9 T J v H g I r H 339 i 5 v S39s 7 393 g 39 v 7quot 9 A 77 L a Uses82005 i gramme gives L9 i A I ll1U n 1 ug aa gw W39s I39m 3 3mm L OK L s dado Normal Hypertrophied Cardiac smooth muscle hypertrophy AJU quotST manner er Anglclcnwn tildc ll un arrMn mums ant hencares 39llll lch RECEPTORS 39 I i I y y l INDUCYION CF PACKERS PROTEIN GENES EMBRYONIC GENES 2 Jun Myaslr 39gh haln 1 myoan Maw msquot Frs Curdlac uaczm Skaml tractn Egr l Armquot mmumnc laum l I Increased OweH550 muscle canny wcwcad m Elsevlu 2005 Figure 14 Changes in the expression of selected genes and proteins during myocardial hypertrophy ll rquot Life 7 A F Mech Increased synthesis of structural proteins via anisms Transcription factors i e cfos and cjun Growth factors TGF B lGFl FGF Vasoactive agents endothelienl All l t mph I S Hoe nxoxh S O Cfvtfl ll c 3 H I Hm mm Pmoz SS smaller cells T l Physiologic During development ie notochord thyroglossal duct 2 Pathologic local or generalized via disuse Loss of endocrine stimulation denervation Aging ischemia Pressure Nutrition 00 oi rHq closure 69 WenS l39Scme a m Cl n 1 cm W weer In or Mariammg SITZ eelquot Dram Mgr Wou o M39lVprvi f all Sta H s lt slink25 t8 loCtA 12m MAIN7 H eidiWt replace i kOT Q39l e 39S Z x Elaewa 200 Normal Atrophied Brain atrophy thi loose hammer u tler rqu blow a v x i T H c ccrlr Pumps Sui mmt blogci vmduq more presiding ng are Mom 651 uremr mor vase13 mega 3 Lab m6 bximtrophy vgcui 0657 Mechanism Reduction in structural components Decreased number of mito myofilaments ER via proteolysis lysosomal proteases ubiquitin proteosome system Increase in number of autophagic vacuoles Muscle ber atrophy The number of cells is the same as before Resmual homes l39e39 hpomscm 9 brown atmphy the atrophy occurred but the size of some bers is reduced NB diminished function but not dead This is a response to injury by quotdownsizingquot to conserve the cell In this case innervation of the small bers in the center was lost This is a trichrome stain D OcWS mu of S w Mi C t i m it 5w e Ci 13 4 thatxe Lia V tSpaOVatbj 4amp1 meLi W chattel 5 3kbe kiwi UM W196 KPIQQQS Cmottrr asiv One adult cell type replaces another quot39 Reversible Columnar to squamous epithelium most common epithelial type of metaplasia v Chronic irritation ie in trachea and bronchi of smokers 5 Vit A deficiency squamous metaplasia in respiratory epithelium May be some loss of function xv May predispose to maligancy ix 0 m 2 Lo whgg W or 861 l thWSichal p P 39 bpf YUJCUVY Photomicrograph of the junction of normal epithelium 1 with hyperplastic transitional epithelium 2 rm DVQ L Chenx21 J mm Hi slams hm USUS S HQHHCJ curs 2 94L 8 e CI fCb r Com llmi s quot CUM Qr39OU 3 mme fad Dr 0 g w calm lit are un nivelabhl Lu ltrnrw3r Llccm 0 Supp 0 6 1 39iV mapped mn NLC i39lL Li gt Metaplasia Mechanism K Reprogramming 1 of stem cells present in normal tissues 2 of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in connective tissue Mediated by signals from cytokines GP or ECM 39 Leading to induction of speci c transcription factors I VLQquot t 1039 3 W ch ofquot y g quot quot p r O 9 LL 39 v l Iquot g L 39r u9c hgtir CLr gtqn 39 lrrt ulctnhf rml Am guqs CU substitution of a distinct kind of cell with another mature Ci Ci r 0 y 3 LU l cell of the similar distinct kind p m 1 at cl r an 5 wt N C Cm C r39z L g r l i i my 991 u 39 v n it 1 stimulus but 135 a nonreversible process quot Em quotC VCr Slbe PIE L M mvcrgilnm SUluxhh ioii DPQ clt gi inol 51 be LQLl bomb WW rmlwe w o e m SW at r l Caln gt 14 C1 w b C CMCLFDL 5 Com be pr 3 0 m WW m Ellingrmw Sioinulus mung marge 7m WW 3 m V A W 4Hng 375mm nut Ma WK h q m e M Q dmm NM mom Wore b D Wte 3 WWW CW HUMAN pHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Dee l39nglauh Silverthorn PhD Energy for synthesis and movement Energy transformation Enzymes and how they speed reactions Chapter 4 9 Erie39tef MetabOIiC Pathways 39 ATP its formation and uses in metabolism Synthesis of biologically important molecules wl r 5 Hi eeW l mxerPoinIquot Lecture 3139 1 Presentation b5 Dr ll z ilMonth ProfessorM I lin 2 mern aliu lngzln Plum13 U COW Wm mm me Pref1m rewr C D its S l DrCA m Fri bong 30 um Von great e 3 bDMl qt re btorc e lQ E My r 8 igluw bF eemo Mnanncs gt CY Q j M WIA Universe l Comm OF J mgrcalm Energy E Transfer Overview Walpolie Mme33 Energy does work 8 CD 9 S Kinetic energy VQ Haws DH Potential energy ADC0 0 Energy E Transfer Overview Energy conversion Wink in may l l D39Yl QXCl a gX u Cosh u M QWWM MNWQ N 9 1 30439 39 Quays 39 so YHobonb UWmemqesi 5 W Um 7V Chemosynthesis versus Photosynthesis Energy and Chemical Reactions Chemosynthesis 6C02 6HQS gt C6H12O6 68 Needs heat added such as from hydrothermal vents Exergonic reaction inthe deep ocean Aam V WWCD Photosynthesis 9quot MW 2n CO2 2n H2O photons gt 2CHQOquot 2n 02 e Occurs in Two Stages FADH2f Hampggnhale Stage 1 Light energy used to form ATP and NADPH Stage 2 Uses ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 quotwzi39l 7 r rustm m u in mu m N sum is u39 mum wng Kannylul r souIuwniumimn InFui39llxlimgnul rnm39rll39il39dmmug1 l iglm 45 Energy transfer and storage in biological reactions 3 h 3 h LR inquot quot chgfg l p t lickom Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate ATP 75 O OIO O CH2 o o o CWT m m Source of immediately usable energy for the cell Adenine containing RNA nucleotide with three Phosvmsrouws H H phosphate groups HORWOH 7 Id A r r L gt A G L Adonosine l gt1 th ff 1 HM Mter 0F waxW QLL iw Arr l7 o H PAYS A 0 WWWr VMHMX 031 bl t tOtSlS AAA thfsplnmK olxospul ws 5quot removal 435 PIVHSPLUIR Memnrane p 19 W0 quot W Mirein 39 V W b a e 0 03 A Solute Solute transported 4 7 wk 0 Macromolecules composed of comblnatlons of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide DP Peptide bond Q 939 O H 0 H o Dehydration t 7 H o H o l 539 t J 5 4 quot 9 3 3 all 393 31 a lb Mochanical work I M I OH f l I OH H H 39 quotr H Hydrolysls H H H 3 3quot a Amino acid Amlno acid 39 Dipeplide I H Rnctants Producl made Figure 216 c Chemical work Figure 223 H w are p39mttins W EwPlgt fampu 2W 7 when 4 w deputy or m quot 2 llNxr UAR in U nwmpPamj39 6x 679 Structural Levels of Proteins swam 5m 6ra A 7 bradc If quot tlrc be melt Structural Levels of Proteins L Primary amino acid sequence cm W O a Primary rue re Secondary alpha helices or beta pleated sheets OK 5 pawm39m H m quot SUWquotMP gt51quot19 54H S Lokl I g 7le Quadm va j 9in ph lQ P114 aiming an ZHl Uc 2 Secondary structure xxhulk l igun 2 17a c quotx39v u vuzmmr In H 39n p39tlthwc ElmnmquotHrvgtV439j Tm EmmaC Wu 8255 Pmt n Lo0 arm639 Structural Levels of Proteins Structural Levels of Proteins Home group Tertiary superimposed folding of secondary structures Quaternary polypeptide chains linked together in a speci c manner Figure 2171 c n r39 1 1 lr ITquotlnl39m39 39 39n1mlrlmvr f39 lagm 1r um m It Vim g r DNA 439 l twill Yranwlpoon 7 Extended and strandlike proteins y W Examples quot in v 1J39r a me n quot r1 A n r 39v rv l l n 3 r n imp 1 131 quot3 mcc nWHRM Q Compact spherical proteins with tertiary and 5 m l39 my e 0 0 quaternary structures 0 Q Examples W 3939 Uquot V39WWM 10 39W W a finale um M l 4 Ha up S Shim curc g r h A Fun1mg Figure 434 Summary of transcription and translation I r r 39 to g lbwll 3 MQMQ gt rLbOSOWj mm b KLS r exth W 439 Pmlem fezW s a the K m m MW plagmt l VCR d1 lwm Cr 41mm 03mqu w I p T 1 Wk amp ansfb th golgl emsst 193mg cm brass ileugmfeL vp am dhg Mil moow m M melonam fl Len Oilrll39IZL AMnS PO i39 itWi39 VY 5L20UUS Post Translational protein modi caiton Post Translational protein modificaiton 0 NEle transcribed mRNA goes to lhe cytoplasm Transport vesicle mRNA 0n ribosomes l translated mm a slung cl a39nsno BCldS WHICH IS directed mm the umen of the endoplasmic relaculum Post translahon modzlzcahcn be ms here 39 Lysosome or 1 storage vesicle 1 39 39 1 o Tcanspun mercies take prolems lo the Golgl apparatus Folding cleavage additions glyco lipo proteins 0 Post translational mndztcanon 1 continues In lhe Goran v Secretory if o Prolems max mquot leave the cell are vesmle 2 9 packaged In 5900ch vesxcles K o Prolems that lemam in me cell are 6019 apparmus packaged in lysossmes or slcraqe vesuzles Prater5 soursled or le extraz e m dr spate Figure 435 Posttramwin modi cation and the sccrclory pathway Characteristics of Enzymes Acuvallon energy Most are globular proteins that act as biological l catalysts Holoenzymes consist of an apoenzyme protein and a cofactor usually an ion Energy released by reaction a Nonetanned reaction Enzymes are chemically speci c Frequently named for the type of reaction they g 39 1 J t gregvgaylion Enzyme names usually end 1n ase mid Lower activation energy T Clem 7L by V C h h ammocatalyzed reaction Figure 219 mpuue r Hll39 nuninlu awn In quot393 mglrl cn mm winning In g gs gem Earthy St a lh Mour eq or 11 km Lenstan t X mtme d lxoxrlrlomci 4 0 an entryma Vb 42me m hi5 quot Compete wtW if Solois lmie F i at Sam scLe H r b m 7 3 0th bum matire Std1S oFHref quotHa re 412wa n Wm 81 Mechanism of Enzyme Action Enzyme binds with substrate Product is formed at a lower activation energy Product is released EDZjnxe C5 Amt Decides 071 l39fCO thC CUW en wthjS Figure 48 Two models olicmymc binding sites In in 37gt US oaL mint 043 40 mg Mm huml in otth Sil e axmt sgciwq w NSF mm m cuth or oatmle 3W actiaivquot 39 hhllbi i eg Chm dam p b 4 39 3 a 9amp1 JL Lower activation E 3 Q msmmgw will S i VV pee c 396 CL 5 ReveISIble lt Activeslte 39 Cefaetors unfolding of Modulators M l O Lye1quot proteins due to o 39 drops in pH Acldlty TL L QCth i h of andor 535 39 Temperature extKM increased Competitive inhibitors a temperature ff F m Allosterlc 39 m F 0 1 M Concentrations A Figure 218 m 01 Cth U WHjUUZLnJ Iut uhmginu znunWNW Cd idem CLY G L a PQCJIL org 2 V Month 5 WG Show 91M WW W babel tn Vim65 4 WM Emmi3 Z a 23quot jaw Lon omm om Protein Denaturation Law of Mass Action Law 0 mass action f whenareaclnonisal um um t erahoolme J roteins cannot refold and U W 1 S A 5mm WWW amengms w are formed by extr me pH or temperature ll Loni ll gtwa g m changes l l 0Hquot iii j 32 Substrate unable to bind 6 U1 l 39bvl Wquot S i iffil l lgxgersice cignw De ned Denatured enzyme I Add A and a Iosyslem Rf 39 i Ar ri39 ReveISIble A a w Marl ValQ Figure 218 quotL cl L mer B th wielah n 2 WillS ombmmdum arm P pmawhan mat DWCQKSS Types of Enzymatic Reactions Cell Metabolism U 535 an 3671M cm quotEv m l 39 v v l39 WM Pathways ism 39 W Gin case A 4 Ox1datlon reductlon Q 53 Intermediates 9kg Hydrolysis dehydration Catabolic Addition subtraction exchange 0144 S SUDMLCA39 energy Fmgm o g 1 a m h 0 39 quot Glycerolw r a DHAP Glucose 3 phosphme 3 6m 5 01 moUuULS 03 m f 101mm SyntheS S 539 RIDCSG 5v phosphate DHAP dxnydrnxyacelcne phosphate v 4 V K 9 I b S Malabollc pathways drawn like a road map t a S 1quot 36 S z39 Figure 4ltI8b A group ol39mclabolic pathways Humble a mad mup x m tn 2 b aldw m h 661199 of Hi 7 393 51 a Yang Control of Metabolic Pathways at Low booth ATP Production loom we more 2sz nus Glycolysis a 39 H l39 0 00 th MmJquot Feedback mhlbltlon l j P vate s mm 393939 quot mm Cyfuso Anaerobic MW Magda respiration enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3 r gt gt C quotgt I ADP l O 35997 15113 I 39 production 39 E 39 A Feedback inhibition co2 o f dm C WW gvelectrom ML 4 lb 5 W can you r A ECTRON m 5 any I i we I 9 Fwdbad inhime Figure 421 Overview ofnerohic patim39ays for A1 Production xgu huhJ Iz whwvlkm Ll try1le 39unz39wnin 2 wv nu 39 n39 r Vb MW Nrzjy r u frz ino Wkly WOWOH Wit WSU H W OP hwy6 quotfwk omes m l CCLCJhon 3 ew 7 FCLMLM MELT9 7 lxvou39cj h bio mob LL13 Pyruvate Metabolism o a O O O 0 Aerobic respiration NVO HL quotquot m x elm 3 o a In mitochondria v p we 7 J I Acetyl CoA and CO2 M 0 39 Citric Acid Cycle or Kreb s Cycle or TCA Cycle L I wry xx Energy Produced from 1 Acetyl CoA Um a l I A w r n Ac quot a 39 giggling A Waste 2 C023 WW Figure 423 l yruvntc melnbolism 5 MW W Mews W mm 5k U1 o 39us m rte Mitem dew1L Gmmme JD on Pl bclU Uc W blooamp OOA Dt MM10 f5quot 7 mamahmm Wowgm m 6xquot r CCU1 Md Electron Transport quot m mdthn a High energy electrons Energy transfer ATP synthesized from ADP H20 is a byproduct In a typical individual this amounts to approximately 400 ml day Emamama o ammummwmam o Elfalum at quotv mu m Inc 0 Menu rmqu n in M u 1 me to mum rm 1 J t enmgy mamas symm rur v H 4mm warm m197be39connnc Mum W pass carved by NASH ma mm mm the mm H39 and alyw39l u may Sam Lrcn an NIH nmmu 2mm loan was may 5 cammed r A lupingmt a 1mm n 1 V m NM kw M w l g 1 m M u m libm n m whhhhm r Figure 4 25139I39hc clccu39on transport system and ATP synlhasis W quotb Vimm1 p nsM is W TO 0x1 whim Q wwb mg W 1th Protein C atabolism Biomolccules Catabolized to make ATP Egggl lgdrates 03310 Glycogen H2024 9N Deaminaited catabolism O C Conversmn 39 V Liver Storage Glucose 7 EDP Glucose 6phosphate Glucose chL an 39 3 An mph 39 MuSde Storage mediseasesagtcogen Acetyl GOA an Du P39VBWC Glucose produced 17mmszszzhcasxm OJ N Logen mth 204 3 Der Figure 4 26 Glycogen cambolism gluing 9 b Lou 09 rinkin A rm H1ng illr9 Kielx Qese 4355x111 3 CW6 9 Protein Catabolism Prom ooooooooooo a H otySIs of r r 7 WWW ClTRC ACID CYCLE pnde m H H o H H o t e v V l 4 4 c Ammonm 15 Jun mm mm lw unvanen to mum I W 7 7 r H c NIJAC NCC i g i H H 0H gt M H 77quot V MI NH HUNquot R R Ammonia mmmmm min fquotquotquot39 Aznl39zr w 7 39 lawnm 0Dc1minau39on 5 4 V c Hm an n quotw n a Irom arm nannyEmu an nonm t g a nag m W i AD H n 10 0 0 0 c C wvu i C 0 Beam me mmmmm quot1 OH R Fl in Organic aqu v J G colyslsm smugQuorum chm Minced mmimalzlmnc m mm Figure 4271 mleincnlubolism and deunimu39on U W C n D h x i r L L 32A Si 8 E7 M965 air We bml LLJWW C jib Aid Acehacpnji C09 39 5 quot Baha i comm V Mm rum is t OHM will r o la hoofi rm L 3mm W46 N can u arcW Aswan m c M o 41 Liver triglycerides 450 kcal iMusce triglycerides Liver glycogen 400 kcal 3000 kcal Higher energy content Triglycerides to glycerol Glycerol 39 Fatty acids Ketone bodies liver Oh C Muscle glycogen 2500 kcal r fl Hill l m balm 0035 Wth COW SQ 0U 19 Data for a 70 kg lean subject m m1Pmmler 1le mid 39Jilng Irmm n mnnnnp a bumQ low reels Wm bf g Hm mug blues lam 0 1036 mum m qwcoww wegis 1h anyway mi39u xb iiCl C C97 milm Lipogenesis Hm 1 MS Liverjikidney ix iiv A T o R l Liver storage Siam Y i I ma Hf a v Acetyl Co A or Glucose to I Glycerol WY 9 b Adm glycogen g t I 39 enamor E Fatty aCIdS M m 01 av Wit 405 Amino acids E Tnglycendes Glycerol Wm Lactate quot f quot AMINO ACIDS 39 PLACTATE vi m 4 29 Gluconeo is g gem Figure 430 Lipid synthesis lbymm 5 ch a bCJLCDK Lipogcncsis Summary Gm Energy chemical transport mechanical work i Reactions reactants activation energy E directions L o 39 Enzymes characteristics speed amp control s rm pathways w Metabolism catabolic anabolic Acoryl cm 0 ATP production anaerobic aerobic glycolysis l V L Fatty and CoA 4 7 5113quot A o n u n o o a H 39 a a o n n a Fatty acids citric acid cycle amp electron transport arc1 CM 1 13 Synthesis of carbohydrates lipids and proteins Figure 30 Lipid synthesis
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