CH 26 &27 notes
CH 26 &27 notes HIST 1113
Popular in Survey of American History
Popular in History
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Date Created: 04/18/16
I. President Nixon A. Nixon's Domestic Policies 1. Having won the presidency by a very narrow margin, Nixon moved toward the political center on many issues. 2. The Nixon administration created a host of new federal agencies. 1. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 3. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) B. Nixon and Welfare a. Perhaps Nixon's most startling initiative was his proposal for a Family Assistance Plan. 1. The plan would have replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with a guaranteed annual income, but it failed in Congress. B. Nixon and Race a. To consolidate support in the white South, Nixon nominated to the Supreme Court conservative southern jurists with records of support for segregation. 1. Both were rejected by the Senate. b. The Nixon administration also pursued affirmative action programs to upgrade minority employment. 1. Philadelphia Plan b. Trade unions of skilled workers strongly opposed the Philadelphia Plan. B. The Burger Court a. Warren Burger was expected to lead the justices in a conservative direction but surprised many of his supporters. b. In Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971), busing was used as a tool to achieve integration. 1. Boston b. Many whites came to view affirmative action programs as a form of reverse discrimination. c. In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), the Court ruled that fixed quotas were unconstitutional but that race could be used as one factor among many in college admission decisions. B. The Continuing Sexual Revolution a. To the alarm of conservatives, during the 1970s, the sexual revolution passed from the counterculture into the social mainstream. b. The number of divorces in 1975 exceeded the number of first- time marriages. c. Women made inroads into areas from which they had long been excluded in the 1970s. 1. Title IX 2. Equal Credit Opportunity Act 3. More employment opportunities b. The gay and lesbian movement expanded greatly during the 1970s and became a major concern of the right. B. Nixon and Détente a. Conservatives viewed Nixon's foreign policy as dangerously soft on communism. b. Nixon and Henry Kissinger continued their predecessors' policy of attempting to undermine governments deemed dangerous to American strategic or economic interests. 1. Chile. b. In his relations with the major communist powers, however, Nixon fundamentally altered Cold War policies. c. Nixon visited China in 1972. d. Nixon then went to Moscow, signing the treaties associated with the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). 1. Détente II. Vietnam and Watergate A. Nixon and Vietnam a. Vietnamization b. Antiwar protests climaxed in 1970. 1. Kent State and Jackson State Universities 2. Social changes within the troops b. Public support for the war was rapidly waning. 1. My Lai Massacre 2. War Powers Act of 1973 B. The End of the Vietnam War a. The Paris peace agreement made possible the final withdrawal of American troops in 1973. b. Vietnam was a military, political, and social disaster. C. Watergate a. Nixon was obsessed with secrecy and viewed critics as a threat to national security. 1. Pentagon Papers led to the plumbers. b. The Watergate break-in was covered up by the White House. 1. Nixon's tapes B. Nixon's Fall a. In August 1974, the House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend that Nixon be impeached for conspiracy to obstruct justice. 1. Nixon resigned. b. Nixon's presidency remains a classic example of the abuse of political power. c. Frank Church led investigations against the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 1. Church Committee revelations seriously undermined Americans' confidence in their own government. b. Liberals, who had despised Nixon throughout his career, celebrated his downfall. II. The End of the Golden Age A. The Decline of Manufacturing a. During the 1970s, the long period of postwar economic expansion and consumer prosperity came to an end and was succeeded by slow growth and high inflation. b. In 1971, for the first time in the twentieth century, the United States experienced a merchandise trade deficit. c. Nixon took the United States off the gold standard. B. Stagflation a. The United States experienced two oil shocks in the 1970s. b. By 1973 the United States imported one-third of its oil. c. "Stagflation": stagnant economic growth and high inflation. 1. Misery index B. The Beleaguered Social Compact a. Faced with declining profits and rising overseas competition, corporations eliminated well-paid manufacturing jobs. 1. The effects on industrial cities were devastating. 2. The growth of cities in the Sunbelt was dramatic. b. In some manufacturing centers, political and economic leaders welcomed the opportunity to remake their cities as finance, information, and entertainment hubs. c. Always a junior partner in the Democratic coalition, the labor movement found itself forced onto the defensive. B. Ford as President a. Among his first acts as president, Ford pardoned Nixon. b. In domestic policy, Ford's presidency lacked significant accomplishment. 1. WIN b. The Helsinki Accords were signed in 1975. B. The Carter Administration a. Carter ran for president as an outsider, making a virtue of the fact that he had never held federal office. b. Carter had more in common with Progressives of the early twentieth century than with more recent liberals. C. Carter and the Economic Crisis a. Carter viewed inflation, not unemployment, as the country's main economic problem. b. Carter also believed that expanded use of nuclear energy could help reduce dependence on imported oil. 1. Three Mile Island B. The Emergence of Human Rights Politics a. Under Carter, promoting human rights became a centerpiece of American foreign policy for the first time. b. Human rights organizations like the International League for Human Rights shaped Carter's thinking. c. Carter cut off aid to the brutal military dictatorship governing Argentina. d. Carter's emphasis on pursuing peaceful solutions to international problems and his willingness to think outside the Cold War framework yielded important results. 1. Camp David Accords 2. Panama Canal b. Both conservative Cold Warriors and foreign policy "realists" severely criticized Carter's emphasis on human rights. B. The Iran Crisis and Afghanistan a. The Iranian revolution marked a shift in opposition movements in the Middle East from socialism and Arab nationalism to religious fundamentalism. b. The president announced the Carter Doctrine in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. II. The Rising Tide of Conservatism A. The Religious Right a. The rise of religious fundamentalism during the 1970s expanded conservatism's popular base. b. Evangelical Christians had become more and more alienated from a culture that seemed to them to trivialize religion and promote immorality. 1. Jerry Falwell and the Moral Majority B. The Battle over the Equal Rights Amendment a. The ERA aroused unexpected protest from those who claimed it would discredit the role of wife and homemaker. 1. To its supporters, the amendment offered a guarantee of women's freedom in the public sphere. 2. To its foes, freedom for women still resided in the divinely appointed roles of wife and mother. B. The Abortion Controversy a. Anti-abortion advocates believe that life begins at conception and abortion is nothing less than murder. b. Woman's rights advocates believe that a woman's right to control her body includes the right to a safe, legal abortion. c. The abortion issue draws a bitter, sometimes violent line through American politics. C. The Tax Revolt a. Economic anxieties also created a growing constituency for conservative economics. 1. The tax revolt inspired a critique of government. b. Economic decline also broadened the constituency receptive to demands for lower taxes. 1. Proposition 13 b. The Sagebrush Rebellion in Nevada argued that certain decision- making power should be given over to the states. B. The Election of 1980 a. Reagan appealed skillfully to the white backlash. 1. Emphasized states' rights b. Riding a wave of dissatisfaction with the country's condition, Reagan swept into the White House. II. The Reagan Revolution A. Reagan and American Freedom a. An excellent public speaker, his optimism and affability appealed to large numbers of Americans. 1. Reagan made conservatism seem progressive. 2. Freedom became the watchword of the Reagan Revolution. b. Reagan reshaped the nation's agenda and political language more effectively than any other president since Franklin D. Roosevelt. B. Reaganomics a. Reagan's tax cuts marked a sharp retreat from the principle of progressivity. b. Supply-side economics assumed that cutting taxes would inspire Americans at all income levels to work harder, since they would keep more of the money they earned. C. Reagan and Labor a. Reagan's firing of air traffic controllers inspired many private employers to launch anti-union offensives. b. "Reaganomics," as critics dubbed the administration's policies, initially produced the most severe recession since the 1930s. D. The Problem of Inequality a. Reagan's policies, rising stock prices, and deindustrialization resulted in a considerable rise in economic inequality. b. When the national unemployment rate reached 8.9 percent at the end of 1981, the figure for blacks exceeded 20 percent. E. The Second Gilded Age a. In retrospect, the 1980s, like the 1890s, would be widely remembered as a decade of misplaced values. b. Taxpayers footed the bill for some of the consequences. 1. Savings and Loan scandal b. During Reagan's presidency, the national debt tripled to $2.7 trillion. B. Conservatives and Reagan a. Reagan left intact core elements of the welfare state and did little to advance the social agenda of the Christian Right. C. Reagan and the Cold War a. In foreign policy, Reagan denounced the Soviet Union as an "evil empire," and sponsored the largest military buildup in American history. b. He proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative, a space-based system to intercept and destroy enemy missiles. c. Reagan came into office determined to overturn the "Vietnam syndrome." D. The Iran-Contra Affair a. Reagan denied knowledge of the illegal proceedings, but the Iran-Contra affair undermined confidence that he controlled his own administration. E. Reagan and Gorbachev a. In his second term, Reagan softened his anticommunist rhetoric and established good relations with Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev. 1. Glasnost and perestroika B. Reagan's Legacy a. Reagan's presidency revealed the contradictions at the heart of modern conservatism. b. By 1988 "liberal" was a term of political abuse. C. The Election of 1988 a. The 1988 election seemed to show politics sinking to new lows. CHAPTER 27 I. The Post-Cold War World A. The Crisis of Communism 1. The Tiananmen Square freedom demonstration in 1989 ended in violence. 2. Germany reunified in 1990. 3. By December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. 4. The end of the Cold War ushered in a truly worldwide capitalist system. B. A New World Order? 1. Although George H. W. Bush talked of a New World Order, no one knew what its characteristics would be. C. The Gulf War 1. Bush intervened when Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990. 2. The Gulf War was the first post-Cold War international crisis. D. Visions of America's Role 1. Bush identified the Gulf War as the first step in the struggle to create a world based on democracy and global free trade. E. The Election of Clinton 1. The economy slipped into recession in 1991, and Bill Clinton took advantage to win the election. 1. A charismatic campaigner, Clinton conveyed sincere concern for voters' economic anxieties. b. A third candidate, the eccentric Texas billionaire Ross Perot, also entered the fray. B. Clinton in Office a. During his first two years in office, Clinton turned away from some of the social and economic policies of the Reagan and Bush years. b. Clinton shared his predecessor's passion for free trade. 1. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) b. The major policy initiative of Clinton's first term was a plan to address the rising cost of health care and the increasing number of Americans who lacked health insurance. 1. The plan would have provided universal coverage through large groupings of organizations like the health maintenance organizations (HMOs). 2. It was attacked by doctors, health insurance companies, and drug companies. B. The "Freedom Revolution" a. In 1994, for the first time since the 1950s, Republicans won control of both houses of Congress. 1. Newt Gingrich and the Contract with America b. Viewing their electoral triumph as an endorsement of the contract, Republicans moved swiftly to implement its provisions. B. Clinton's Political Strategy a. Clinton rebuilt his popularity by campaigning against a radical Congress. b. Clinton signed into law a Republican bill that abolished the program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). c. Clinton easily defeated Republican Bob Dole in the presidential contest of 1996, becoming the first Democrat elected to two terms since FDR. C. Clinton and World Affairs a. Clinton took steps to encourage the settlement of long-standing international conflicts and tried to elevate support for human rights to a central place in international relations. b. Like Carter, Clinton found it difficult to balance concern for human rights with strategic and economic interests. 1. Rwanda b. The most complex foreign policy crisis of the Clinton years arose from the disintegration of Yugoslavia. c. With the Cold War over, protection of human rights in the Balkans gave the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) a new purpose. B. Human Rights a. Human rights emerged as justification for interventions in matters once considered to be the internal affairs of sovereign nations. II. A New Economy? A. The Computer Revolution a. Computers and the Internet produced a new economy. b. Microchips made possible the development of entirely new consumer products. c. The computer transformed American life. d. The Internet expanded the flow of information and communications more radically than any invention since the printing press. B. The Stock Market Boom and Bust a. In the United States, economic growth and talk of a new economy sparked a frenzied boom in the stock market reminiscent of the 1920s. b. Investors were especially attracted to the new "dot coms," companies that conducted business via the Internet and seemed to symbolize the promise of the new economy. c. The bubble burst on April 14, 2000, when stocks suffered their largest one-day drop in history. C. The Enron Syndrome a. Only after the market dropped did it become apparent that the stock boom of the 1990s had been fueled in part by fraud. 1. Enron B. Fruits of Deregulation a. The sectors of the economy most affected by the scandals- energy, telecommunications, and stock trading-had all been subjects of deregulation. b. Many corporate criminals were found guilty and had to serve prison and/or pay billions in compensation. c. Many stock frauds stemmed from the repeal in 1999 of the Glass-Steagall Act, a New Deal measure that had separated commercial banks from investment banks. C. Rising Inequality a. The boom that began in 1995 benefited nearly all Americans. 1. However, overall, during the last two decades of the twentieth century, the poor and middle class became worse off, while the rich became significantly richer. b. The economy, in large part due to NAFTA, continued its shift away from manufacturers. c. In 2000, the United States was a suburban nation, which was also divided by income. II. Culture Wars A. The Newest Immigrants a. Because of shifts in immigration, cultural and racial diversity became increasingly visible in the United States. b. As in the past, most immigrants became urban residents. c. Post-1965 immigration formed part of the worldwide uprooting of labor arising from globalization. d. For the first time in American history, women make up the majority of newcomers. B. The New Diversity a. Latinos formed the largest single immigrant group. b. Numbering over 45 million in 2007, Latinos nearly equaled blacks and were poised to become the largest minority group in the United States. c. Only after 1965 did immigration from Asia assume large proportions. C. African-Americans in the 1990s a. Between 1970 and 2000, twice as many Africans immigrated to the United States than had entered during the entire period of the Atlantic slave trade. b. Most African-Americans remained in a more precarious situation than whites or many recent immigrants. c. The justices made it increasingly difficult for victims of discrimination to win lawsuits and proved increasingly sympathetic to the pleas of whites that affirmative action plans discriminated against them. d. Despite the nation's growing racial diversity, school segregation was on the rise. D. The Spread of Imprisonment a. African-Americans, compared to other Americans, had an extremely high rate of imprisonment. b. As the prison population grew, a "prison-industrial complex" emerged. c. Over one-quarter of all African-American men could expect to serve time in prison at some time during their lives. d. African-Americans were also more likely than whites to suffer execution. e. The continuing frustration of urban African-Americans exploded in 1992. 1. Rodney King B. The Continuing Rights Revolution a. In 1990, newly organized disabled Americans won passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. b. The campaign for gay rights continued to gain momentum in the 1990s. 1. AIDS B. Native Americans in 2000 a. The Native American population reached 4 million in the 2000 Census, reflecting not only natural population growth but also an increased pride in identifying themselves as such to census enumerators. b. Many Native American tribes have profited from casinos on their lands. C. Multiculturalism a. "Multiculturalism" was a term to celebrate group differences and demand group recognition. b. Public-opinion polls indicate a growth of toleration in America over the last three decades. c. Increased cultural diversity and changes in educational policy inspired harsh debates. d. The culture wars were battles over moral values that raged throughout the 1990s. 1. Pat Robertson and the Christian Coalition b. It sometimes appeared during the 1990s that the country was refighting old battles between traditional religion and modern secular culture. B. "Family Values" in Retreat a. The census of 2000 showed family values increasingly in disarray. b. Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania (1992) repudiated the centuries-old doctrine that a husband has a legal claim to control the body of his wife. C. The Antigovernment Extreme a. At the radical fringe of conservatism, the belief that the federal government posed a threat to American freedom led to the creation of private militias that armed themselves to fend off oppressive authority. b. An Oklahoma federal building was bombed by Timothy McVeigh in 1995. II. Impeachment and the Election of 2000 A. The Impeachment of Clinton a. From the day he took office, charges of misconduct bedeviled Clinton. 1. Whitewater 2. Paula Jones 3. Monica Lewinsky B. The Disputed Election a. The 2000 election was between Al Gore and George W. Bush. b. The election proved to be one of the closest in the nation's history. 1. Florida b. As in 1877, it fell to Supreme Court justices to decide the outcome. c. The most remarkable thing about the election of 2000 was not so much its controversial ending as the even division of the country it revealed. B. A Challenged Democracy a. Coming at the end of the decade of democracy, the 2000 election revealed troubling features of the American political system at the end of the twentieth century. b. Evidence abounded in 2000 of a broad disengagement from public life. II. Freedom and the New Century A. Exceptional America a. In the United States, people lived longer and healthier in 2000, compared to previous generations, and enjoyed a level of material comfort unimagined a century before. b. Ideas of freedom in the United States seem more attuned to individual advancement than to broad social welfare.
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