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Comprehensive Notes from History 17A- All Weeks

by: Alyssa Metcalf

Comprehensive Notes from History 17A- All Weeks History 17A

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Alyssa Metcalf

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These notes cover every lecture in History 17A. Very thorough, covering more of what the professor says than just copying the powerpoint slides.
History of the American People: Colonial-Jeffersonian Era
Vanessa Crispin-Peralta
history, Colonialism, Independence, american
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This 38 page Bundle was uploaded by Alyssa Metcalf on Monday April 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 17A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Vanessa Crispin-Peralta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of the American People: Colonial-Jeffersonian Era in History at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
9-30-15: Lecture • Pre-Contact North America: • “Whereas the Indians saw nature as a world of spirits and souls, the Europeans viewed it as a collection of potential commodities, a source of economic opportunity” (Foner, 11). • A Few Preliminary Notes: • Terminology • Why include Native North America? • To show the dynamic nature of Native societies • To show the complex nature of Native societies • Challenge our Eurocentric tendencies • Ethnocentrism- evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture • Ancestral Puebloans: • Also known as Anasazi or Hisatinom • Very long history dating back to 9500 BP • Environmental management- irrigation, growth, development of wild plants • ~600 AD we see a growing dependence on agriculture • Pit dwellings evolve into more complex buildings • ~800 AD the rise of the “Great Houses” Pueblo Bonito- 1100 AD • • Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde • Mississippian Culture Area: • Mound-building cultures • 7th through 15th centuries • Culture region • Core religious concepts • 3 worlds: Above, Below, and Middle to create a sphere • Above and Below worlds are complementary, Middle world is the buffer between (where people live) • Contained spiritual deities in both Above and Below • 3 worlds are connected, usually by a tree • 4 cardinal directions: East (red, blood, life, success), West (black, death), North (blue, cold, defeat, troubles), South (white, peace) —> balance between specific qualities • Each direction has specific animals/beings associated with it • Above World= perfect order; creatures of the sky and Sun Chief (provided people with fire) live there • Middle World= imperfect version of Above • Below World= disorder/chaos; underwater creatures live there; accessible by caves, lakes, rivers, streams; fertility is associated with the Below World • Above and Below worlds are opposites • Everything must remain in balance, human beings must maintain this harmony Spiritual and Political systems connected • • Each chiefdom was unique • Power has to be earned, sense of obligation to the people • The importance of gift giving —> chiefs give gifts to his people • Commoners farmed • 3 sisters= corn, beans, and squash • Gender in Native Society: • The village was dominated by women, the forest was a place for men —> complementary gender system • Society was matrilineal; meaning female sexuality was not as strictly regulated as European tradition • Matrifocal- mother is the head of the household • Continual rise and fall • Chief lives on the mound • In decline by the 15th century; small settlements 9-30-15: Section • 6 C’s: • 1. Context- what is going on outside text @ the time? • 2. Citation- author/creator; when was this created? • 3. Content- main idea • 4. Communication- point of view/bias • 5. Connections- prior knowledge; link it to stuff you already learned • 6. Conclusion- what do we learn from this document? • Cherokee Creation Story: • Not a primary source- someone else wrote it • According to document, Earth was made by animals 10-5-15: Lecture • In the Wake of Columbus: • Columbus: • Why does he go? Driven by profit • Looking for Western passage to India —> exotic spice, silk trade • Hoping it will be quicker, cheaper; didn’t want to go the eastern route • Who funds his voyage?s • Spain, but only after asking once before • King Ferdinand and Isabella reluctantly agree in 1492 • Granted hereditary right to any new lands; sets a precedent that links social mobility to exploration • Crown has 20% stake in whatever goods Columbus finds • Geographical diffusion of Columbus’ first letter; gets other European countries interested • Columbus’ Legacy: • Begins the process of colonial settlement • Spain and Portugal in competition • 1496 Papal Bull gives Spain spiritual responsibility/authority for the Natives —> obligation to convert • Interactions between the Natives and Europeans • Should we use the term genocide? • The Columbian Exchange: • The Atlantic ocean becomes a “highway” • Animals brought to the Americas- horses, sheep, pigs, cows, cats, dogs, and many more —> duplicate what they already knew as familiar Disrupts ecosystem, agriculture, gathering practices • • Bring rats • Plants brought to the Americas- wheat, grapes, olives, etc. • Weeds and worms • Plants brought to Europe- corn, potatoes, chocolate, etc. • Wealth - extractive economies based on gold, silver, fur, fish, wood, etc. • Disease- smallpox, plague, flu, measles, etc. • A “virgin soil” epidemic Kills around 80 million people (1/5 of the world’s population) • • Death toll rises from colonial diseases over time suggesting… • Lack of immunities was not the only factor; process of colonialism actually worsens the infection/mortality rate • Malnutrition as a result of colonization • Disease was part of a larger cycle of population decline • Should we stop using the phrase “virgin soil”? —> Indians= weak, susceptible, virgin, female, submissive; Europeans= dominant, resilient, male • “Virgin soil” implies the spread of disease was totally accidental, not the case • The Spanish in the Chesapeake: • Early explorations in the northern regions • Rivalry with France pushes expansion • 1561- Spanish explorers and Don Luis • Gift Exchange: • Crucial part of the Native relationships; spiritual/economic bond - asserts dominance • One must give, receive, and reciprocate A violation of the rules of the gift exchange led to a loss in status • • Don Luis as part of the gift exchange • 1566- after a failed attempt at colonization, Don Luis goes to Spain • 1570- Father Segura leads a small group of Jesuit clerics • The priests enter the Native gift exchange • Neither side really understands the other • Abandonment • Another blunder Retribution • 10-7-15: Lecture New France: • • Mostly in Canada, spread down to Mississippi River Valley; very small number of colonists • Giovanni da Verrazzano: 1524 • Sent by France • Ends up in North Carolina; thinks that he found the passage to the Pacific Ocean (obviously he was wrong) • Goes all the way up to Massachusetts, then back to France • Writes about the Native Americans; describes them as beautiful European mindset that they have a right to the women (male gaze) • • Early explorers leave disease behind • Jacques Cartier: 1534 • Looking for passage to the Pacific (Northwest Passage) • 2nd Voyage: 1535- explores further into Canada in the summer (on the St. Lawrence River) • 3rd Voyage: 1541- Winter voyage; sees Native Americans in furs (primarily beaver pelt) The French and the Fur Trade: • • Private fur trading companies ask for permission from the crown to go to the Americas and come back to France to sell • The relationship between the French, the Indians, and fur • Few people, have to make alliances with the Native Americans Have to really get to know the Natives • • Gift giving crucial- establishes the relationship, allows for future trading • Kinship- marriage either through 1.) Manner of the woods (just start living together, no real ceremony of marriage) or 2.) Formal marriage in the church (after 1600) • Marriage offer a kind of protection for the fur traders and access to the richest hunting grounds; also offered some benefits to Native American women • Coureurs de bois- (in Canada and the northern US) a woodsman or trader of French origin. • Metis- (especially in western Canada) a person of mixed American Indian and Euro- American ancestry, in particular one of a group of such people who in the 19th century constituted the so-called Métis nation in the areas around the Red and Saskatchewan rivers. • Trading: • Spiritual goods- colorful things, shiny things, anything with spiritual significance • Alcohol- originally a spiritual item; used to speed up process of preparing for spiritual ceremonies Practical items- cloth, pots, metal tools, fishing hooks, hatchets • • Warfare: Pre-contact warfare was ritualized and limited • • Mourning war- after someone dies from conflict, small group of warriors goes and fights another tribe, takes a bunch of captives and tries to replace the person they lost; the point is the humiliate the other group • This just creates a cycle of mourning wars- the goal is to take captives and not lose anyone European weapons changed everything • • Changed to guerilla-style warfare; more deadly • Not more people dying, just making the injuries deadlier • Native Americans known for being skilled with guns upon being introduced to them • Guns as trade items The long term impacts • • Native powers trying to establish dominance • More people dying; more mourning war • Beyond the Fur Trade: • Samuel de Champlain establishes Quebec, 1608 • Colony is isolated, difficult to access • Extremely slow growth • Dependent on other people to bring them food, supplies; not self-sufficient at all • Habitants- early French settlers and Engages- workers Les Filles du Roi: 1663 and 1673- “daughters of the King”; crown paid for 800 women to • be brought from Paris to Quebec- expensive and not very successful • The Jesuits- Roman Catholic priests • God can reveal himself to anyone through many different ways • Jesuits believed that they could convert the Native Americans by infusing their culture with Catholicism • See God in the natural world; sets foundation for belief and conversion • Jesuit priests must go out and live among the Natives; live with various tribes and be accustomed to their traditions • Didn’t always go smoothly- contested • Vast majority of converts were women • Kateri Tekakwitha- becomes a zealot (basically a nun); completely devoted to God, priests warn her to not go too young; makes her a saint 10-7-15: Section • Christopher Columbus Journal- 1492 • Written by Columbus- first encounter with the natives • Thought he was in the West Indies • Sense of superiority evident in this document; ethnocentric- evaluating Native American’s culture according to their own standards • Ex: finds them “lacking” in religion simply because they are not Christian; finds them “lacking” in weapons because they do not have iron; thinks they can not speak because they don’t speak Spanish • Image of the Natives as “naked” (even though they weren’t completely) paints them as savages, infantile; Europeans much more covered • Coronado: 1540-1542 • Spanish conquistador • Not the first encounter between Europeans and the Native Americans • Coronado goes into more depth about the Natives way of life, traditions, customs, etc.; whereas Columbus is rather superficial writing about them Not as ethnocentric as Columbus- appreciates their culture more • • Talks more about the gender relationships in Native culture; men and women both work and contribute 10-12-15: Lecture • New France Continued: • **Read the first portion of the Salem book by next week (paper will be on this) **prompt on website • The French Crescent: • Mostly forts, small populations • Early English Efforts: • Takes them nearly 100 years to get a settlement plan in motion; why? Expensive, internal struggles @ home • • Roanoke: • Walter Raleigh’s vision; developed by private individuals and supported by the crown • Gets letter’s patent: permission to set up a colony in the crown’s name • It says that they can take other people’s land as long as they are not christian • 1584- explorers • John White- watercolors about Native Americans; pretty accurate but still ethnocentric • July 1585- first attempt at settlement (all men); immediately start looking for gold • Captain of their ship was a pirate, dumps them off on the island • The colony is abandoned • Small group of soldiers (10?) are left on the island to hold the claim • Roanoke Take 2: • July 1597- approximately 110 men, women, and children settle • John White, governor • Same ship captain, ditches them again in the same spot • George Howe • Tries to rebuild the relationship with local tribes White returns to England • • The “lost” colony; no indication of struggle • Jamestown, 1607: • First successful colony The Virginia Company- joint stock company (private investors put money into colony, profit • is divided amongst investors) • Troubled from the start • Only a few are listed as “laborers” • John Smith: Egocentric, not very well-liked • • Powhatan’s Confederacy • Pocahontas • John Smith’s abduction • Pocahontas “saves” Smith from Powhatan Adoption as a means of control • • Smith violates the gift exchange • Family relationship stronger than the gift alliance; Powhatan feels obligation to the colonists • Smith assumes control of the colony- not doing well • Runs colony like the military Gets them through the winter • • October 1609- Smith leaves the colony • Things go downhill without him • Nightmare at Jamestown : Constant warfare- fall of 1609 • • Can’t go outside walls of James fort • The “Starving Times”: 214 colonists —> 60 colonists • Desperation; drinking salt water • Average lifespan: 35 years 60 remaining colonists decide to abandon colony; new ship with supplies and colonists comes • and forces them to stay (spring of 1610) 10-14-15: Lecture • The Long Road to Success • Tobacco was the key to success in Virginia • Jamestown: • Kidnapping of Pocahontas, 1613 • She’s converted to Christianity; learns to speak English; adopts the name Rebecca; marries John Rolfe in 1614 • Marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas: They have a son named Thomas • • 1616- they go to England • Pocahontas dies before going back to Virginia (tuberculosis or smallpox) • Powhatan dies less than a year later; kin relationship is strained • Opechancanough’s War: • Powhatan’s death, 1618 • Religious prophet says that the Native Americans can defeat the English • 1622 attack- 347 settlers are killed (25% of English population) English come to the conclusion after this attack that the Native Americans are savages; only • result to violence • 1624- crown assumes control of colony • Can appoint governor and makes more decisions • 1644- the last major conflict; 500 colonists killed (only 10% of the population) • The aftermath: • English feel as though Natives have no claim to the land • 1619: • House of Burgesses- the lower house of the colonial Virginia legislature • First slaves arrive (20 of them) • Dutch in control of slave trade at this time • Was not a big deal; slow to develop Tobacco Brides • • An effort to have familial structure in colonies • Fluid gender roles due to gender imbalance; women will do agriculture because it was necessary • Married women did own property sometimes pre-1640’s • 1640’s- gender roles start to harden • Women will be defined as property • Virginia Succeeds: • Tobacco Labor intensive, land intensive, market is volatile • • The need for labor • Headright Grant: 50 acres for anyone who can bring in workers • Indentured Servitude- always meant to be a temporary contract with an end goal in mind • Anne Orthwood Advertise that women can find opportunities in Virginia; in reality, women are in more • danger as indentured servants because they can get pregnant • She comes in 1660’s from England because she’s running away (she’s a bastard) • Has little/no opportunities in England • Meets John Kendall; nephew of Colonel William Kendall and they form a relationship Colonel sells Anne to someone else • • She’s pregnant; goes to court for fornication • Sentenced to whipping; has 2 more years of indentured servitude • Tells who the father is during labor, Kendall taken to court • Kendall denies it and gets away with it Anne dies, daughter dies, only her son Jasper survives • • Jasper is an indentured servant until he’s 21; disappears afterwards • Slavery • Slow to develop • Slaves are expensive Slave ships don’t come to Virginia that often; most are going to the Caribbean and South • America • Slavery changes over time • New laws develop • Slaves are property Cannot escape slavery through baptism • • Slavery is for life, while indentured servitude is temporary • Racial divides deepen • Slavery is hereditary; child’s status is determined according to that of the mother • Families are torn apart; no protection for slave families 1669- any slave resisting his master can be beaten to death without murder charges • • Justification- death is not pre-meditated 10-14-15: Section • “Our plantation is very weak”- Richard Frethorne (1623) • Author: Richard Frethorne (indentured servant) writing to his parents • Conditions are terrible, asking his parents to buy out his servitude • Indian relations were bad at this time • Sending Women to Virginia (1622): Family as motivation for servants • • Settling down • Servants will work harder to support a family • They want more women; men outnumbered them 5:1 at one point • Women encouraged to marry men who own land because they are more equipped to take care of them • *Profit is the motive for the company* • Robert Beverley describes benefits of indentured servitude (1705): Audience: potential servants • • Temporary • Food, clothing, housing provided • Up to 50 acres of land available when their service is up • Indentured servants could complain about their Masters • Laws to protect them 10-19-15: Lecture • New England: • Key Characteristics of Virginia: • Severely imbalanced gender ratio • High death rate among settlers • Big gaps between the rich and the poor • Dependence on bound laborers • *Bacon’s rebellion* England’s Religious “Diversity” • • The Protestant Reformation- idea that Catholic Church is selfish and doesn’t have good policies/presenting corrupt ways to get into heaven • Henry VIII wants a divorce, Pope doesn’t allow it • Creates Anglican Church • Henry is the head of the Anglican church • Separatists- radical Protestantism, wanted Anglicanism gone, don’t think Anglican Church can be reformed • Puritans- believed the Anglican Church was flawed, but it could be fixed (purified) • Quakers- most radical; God can reveal Himself to everyone, he loves everyone, and everyone can be saved; don’t need a minister (just saw the Bible as a good idea, not literal word); “holy conversation”- God reveals Himself to you through conversation with other people of the faith; gender equality in the eyes of God “in souls there is no sex”; pacifists, no allegiances • Plymouth Colony: • Religious Separatists and “Strangers” • Leiden- Netherlands: had religious freedom, more interested in economic success there Worried that their kids are becoming “too Dutch”- want to establish a colony in America • • King allows them to go since he thinks they’ll die anyways • Plan is to go to Northern Virginia • The Mayflower and The Speedwell • Investors rob them blind- break off their relationship Recruit “strangers” to come with them on the journey • • More than 60% of the Plymouth settlers are not religious separatists • The Speedwell starts to leak- guy who gave them the ship purposely did this so he could steal all their money (all it needed was a new mast) • Everyone crammed on Mayflower- leaving in the Winter Land north of Virginia- lawless • • The Mayflower Compact • The importance of local governance • Locally elected assemblies are crucial • Protection of liberties Making landfall • • Come across empty Native village • They think it’s a gift from God- take all the corn, valuables from graves • The Natives were traveling (seasonally) • Colonists leave, want a safer place to settle • Plymouth Colony- 1620 • Samoset- Native; he speaks English and asks them for beer • Wants to set up meeting with local chief; colonists agree • Massasoit- chief; Squanto- translator (fluent because he was captive on English ship, comes back to his tribe wiped out) • Try to negotiate treaty • Massasoit want to create friendship through series of steps (gift-giving, smoking, etc) • English more interested in rules/law; demand peace, if Native American breaks English law, they’ll be punished according to that law (no flip side, Natives can’t punish English) • Alliance lasts for 50 years Thanksgiving • • Effort to prevent war • 3 days long • Not really the typical meal • Massachusetts Bay Colony- 1629: • Try to be model colony • Established by the Puritans “An errand into the wilderness” • • Puritan Commonwealth • Covenant • Between God and man • Between God and the church • Between the church and the individual • Between husband and wife- civil contract, allow for divorce • Between father and child, mother and child- punishable by death to talk back to parents Between master and servant • • Hierarchy • Must be member of the church to be a leader • Can’t let religious leaders be political leaders (separation of church and state) • Social division by classes Patriarchy within household • • Vacuum domicilium- empty land • This land is available so we claim it (even though Natives are using it) 10-21-15: Lecture • New England: • Massachusetts Bay Colony: • The importance of order • God is watching all the time, able to punish the Puritans at any point • Responsibility to keep everyone else in line • Watchfulness (of yourself and your neighbors) —> leads to lots of gossip • No freedom of religion; must worship the one true Lord God The Little Commonwealth: • • Family as the cornerstone to society • The family is a mirror of society • Patriarchy- supported by law; control over household, wife, children • The role of women Prosperity not possible without a wife • • Most men are getting married in late 20’s • Women are important, but “naturally inferior”; God says so • Support the husband, but can’t be equal or dominate • Linked to original sin (Adam and Eve in the Bible) Cooking is an all-day event for colonial women • • Raising children; cycle of pregnancy, birth until menopause (8-10 times) • Making their own cloth/clothes • Neighborhood economy develops as women are trading with each other • *To be a member of the church, you had to have a conversion experience; you felt pushed by God to join the Church* • Go in front of the congregation and tell them, elders will vote on whether your conversion experience was good enough • Men and women can be members, but only men have a say in how the church is run • Coverture: the legal status of a married woman, considered to be under her husband's protection and authority; no right to enter contract, debt no right to her children • Why is this important? Women don’t have a lot of legal protection without a man • Colonial Exchanges with Native Americans: • Farming and fishing techniques Trade items • • Wampum- a quantity of small cylindrical beads made by North American Indians from quahog shells, strung together and worn as a decorative belt or other decoration or used as money; used for ceremonial practices • English take this and commodify it, use it as money Religion • • Praying Towns (14 of them throughout New England)- separate spaces for Christian Indians, 1200 residents and 300 of them baptized • John Eliot- translating Bible into local Algonquian languages • Massachusetts Bay Colony: • Frontier of Exclusion- Native Americans on the outskirts; distinct from Plymouth and Virginia • Fur trade rivalries • 1636- war breaks out between Pequot and settlers May, 1637- Massacre at Mystic: during the Pequot War, when English settlers under • Captain John Mason, and Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to a fortified Pequot village near the Mystic River • They shot any people who tried to escape the wooden palisade fortress and killed the entire village, consisting mostly of women and children, in retaliation for previous Pequot attacks. Mohegans learn that the English are not to be trusted • • Trying to wipe them out- “genocide” • The aftermath • “Just War” King Philip’s War, 1675: • • (1675–77) the first large-scale military action in the American colonies, pitting various Indian tribes against New England colonists and their Indian allies. Marked by heavy slaughters on both sides (including killings of women and children), the war cost thousands of lives. • Back to the Wampanoag Massasoit —> 2 sons: Wamsutta (Alexander), and Metacom (Philip) • • Mounting tensions • English people see themselves as united whereas the Native Americans do not • Philip put on trial • John Sassamon War • • Fighting is widespread and brutal • English escalate violence- wipe out entire villages • Total war: everyone is a valid target, burn crops, burn houses, kill the pigs • 15,000 Natives killed and 3,000 settlers killed Mary Rowlandson taken captive • • Writes everything down- talks about faith a lot, says God is punishing her and that if she prays and repents enough she’ll be saved • Philip’s death • He and his family are captured, execute Philip (head, feet, hands cut off and put in various places in New England), sell his family into slavery into Caribbean • Every other women in village sold into slavery into Caribbean as well • Adult men had a foot cut off • Terrify the Indians 10-21-15: Section • How do you know more about the event after reading the documents from a specific point of view? What is the analysis/conclusion? How does it change/complicate your understanding of the Salem Witch Trials? • Structure: point sentence, evidence, analysis, conclusion • Citations: small document’s name, godbeer’s book (page #) • “The Arrival of a Comet and the Death of a Star Preacher” • Trying to rationalize preacher’s death using God • Physical signs= God • God’s will is invisible and visible @ same time • “Examination of Sarah Good (as recorded by Ezekiel Cheever)” • Sarah Good is an accused witch • “Bad carriage” miscarriage? She’s married (twice); poor, dependent on community • • Targets for accusation of being a witch: poor, lower status women; anyone who did not fit the image of an “ideal Puritan woman” • Why? Nobody will fight for them, status, gender roles • Writing the paper: • What- conclusion • Why- explanation How- evidence • • Able to use “I” if necessary 10-26-15: Lecture • Slave Trade, Slave Culture, and Slave Resistance (1650-1740) • Slave Origins: • Most slaves are African-born; culture not really being passed from generation to generation • Over time slavery grew • Diverse continent- diverse in terms of culture, customs, agriculture, climate • Slave Trade in the Americas: Most slaves didn’t go to America; most went to Caribbean, South America, Central America • • First time in history that slavery is permanent, hereditary, racialize • Indentured servitude declined because of bad reputation, decreasing poverty rates in Europe • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676): In tobacco country; people making a lot of money • • Overproduction of tobacco, prices go down; indentured servants have to go somewhere else • Nathaniel Bacon- lower taxes, more freedom • Only landowners could vote • Racialize slaves- blacks and indentured whites band together Governors trying to connect to the indentured whites, but not the blacks —> leads to “us and • them” using race • Triangle Trade: • Manufactured good from Europe to —> Africa which are traded for slaves Slaves from Africa are then transpo • • rted to —> Western hemisphere (Middle Passage) • Raw materials (sugar, cotton, tobacco) transported from Americas to —> Europe • The Story of Olaudah Equiano: Sold into slavery on Virginia; bought out his slavery and wrote a book • • Slave Trade Conditions: • Chained together- iron shackles • Forced to walk thousands of miles- from interior Africa to coast; 1/10 died on this journey • Slave inspections- determined where they would go; some were branded Slave ships- packed together; women are separate from men • • Use this experience to band together • Initial Reactions to Slave Life: • Isolation; language barrier Separation from families • • Role of language • Could connect because of their experiences with slavery • Many new slaves couldn’t understand slaves who had been in America for a while • Slaves would sometimes form Creole/Gullah languages Slave Culture: • • African past • Slaves would often make their own houses • “Country marks”- identifies which African community the slave was from; given by villages upon puberty • Combining cultures • Regional Most whites saw slaves as pagans • • Some where conversion to Christianity —> merging of Christian and African spiritual aspects • Biggest connection from Christianity to slaves: idea of freedom Stono Rebellion (1739): • • South Carolina- huge slave population; more blacks than whites • Slaves try to escape to Spanish owned territory; more likely to be free there • What do we know?- not a lot of sources • Second-hand stories, word of mouth Sources are from whites, not many from newspapers because they didn’t want create panic • or appear weak • Stono River, Stono Bridge • Stole ammunition, killed 5 whites • Continued down South- trying to get to Spanish territory; trying to incite rebellion Tavern- spared the owner, killed his 4 neighbors, set buildings on fire • • Arson was common in slave rebellions- distraction, destroy property • Used drums, had a flag • Using the master’s tools against them- why the slaves killed whites; instill fear • Lieutenant Governor William Bull- alerted local militia Slaves stopped, Governor Bull and militia caught up with them and killed them • (beheaded, heads put on spikes) • Slaves that were thought to be pressured into it were let go, the rest were killed • Multi-day rebellion • Stono Aftermath: 1740 Negro Act • • Made slavery harder • Meant to keep slaves in “due subjection and obedience” • Constant surveillance • Slaves could be killed on spot for disobedience; this is a new concept 1741 slave trade changes • • Prior unwillingness to cooperate. What is new? • Changes in power structures- due to Great Awakening • Difficulties with Natives- need to ban together and create regional comfort/control • Larger imperial struggle between Spain and England **slaves in EVERY colony; although there are fewer in the North, there still are slaves • Georgia- slavery discouraged; buffer colony that makes it harder to escape to Florida • Slavery and alcohol eventually permitted • South Carolina- established as overflowcolony from Barbados; unique type of slavery, agriculture **isolation of slaves even more prominent in northern colonies since their numbers were low 10-28-15: Lecture • The Middle Colonies: New York and Pennsylvania • New Netherland: • Primary focus was profit • Starts with traders • Dutch West India Co., 1624 Joint-stock company • • Manhattan • The colony was divided • Upper regions- fur trade • Lower regions- agrarian and urban • More conflict with Indians in the south • The Colony’s Unique Qualities: • Diversity- everyone was welcome as long as profit was being made The need for laborers and Dutch tolerance • • Not always peaceful; language and cultural differences • Non-Dutch settlers had rights • Citizens • Language concessions • Land-owning rights, voting rights, ability to trade • Jews couldn’t practice religion or vote • Enslaved Africans didn’t have rights • Efforts at acculturation • Religion and school • Dutch Reformed Church • Would officiate ceremonies for anyone • The status of women: • Women were independent • Right to property, contract, children, even after marriage They couldn’t vote; other than that they were full participants in society • • Slavery: • Most slaves owned by the Dutch West India Company • Half-freedom: your labor belongs to the company, you must pay annual fee to company to maintain freedom Could earn half-freedom by fighting in wars or just by buying it • • The English Take Over: • Context of the English Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars • 1664- Dutch surrender the colony Becomes proprietary colony of New York • • Some things stay the same • Diversity • Religious tolerance- as long as you don’t impose your religion on anyone else • Some things changed The status of women • • The treatment of slaves • Native American relations • Pennsylvania: 1682- William Penn’s “Holy Experiment” • • Quakers • Buys the land from Indians • Slavery initially allowed • Petitions advocating abolition 1688- rooted in moral and ethical questions —> denied because church said slavery • was a personal decision • 1696- Cadwalader Morgan’s proposal • Rooted in fear • Not very effective Pennsylvania’s Success: • • William Penn advertises widely • Advertising land, social mobility • Trying to attract laborers • German immigrants • Families • Redemptioners • German children • “Overseer of the poor”- check on the children; right to remove child from circumstances • Can sell that kid into indentured servitude until “maturity” • Indentured servitude might have seemed like the best option 10-28-15: Section • Short answer: 2-3 sentences; more in depth • Look at the index in Foner 11-2-15: Lecture • Public Life in the Colonies & The Seven Years’ War (AKA French and Indian War) • Midterm: True/False, fill in the blank, 7 short answer (1-2 sentences) • The Great Awakening: • Religious revivals: 1730s-1760s • Not easily identifiable as a denomination-specific event • Itinerant (mobile) ministers- spreading message, in competition w/ traditional congregations • Usually would preach outside • Based on emotions and personal experience • George Whitefield: • Arrives in 1739 • Salvation key component to his message • Starts advertising before even coming to America • First intercolonial movement • Newspaper crucial (also pamphlets, volumes)- continues to publish, interview • Emotional appeal, more positive, and more inclusive; God’s love is available to everyone who’s willing to convert- this message appeals to those marginalized • Preached to slaves, Native Americans, women • Benjamin Franklin- friend, but not a convert! • Critics (established clergymen mostly) use the newspapers too! • Why does the Great Awakening matter? • Laying foundation for Revolution; challenges individuals to contemplate contentious ideas • All of the colonies are being exposed to it • Consumerism: Consumer goods create a common experience (common language much like religion) • • Birth of Anglo-American consumer society • By mid-century more goods and more varieties • Common language emerges • Debt Anglicization- they want everything English/imported, only silverware/furniture American • • Tea • Salutary Neglect- crown lets colonies do their own thing as long as things are okay; hands-off approach • After the French and Indian War, the crown abandons this principle Dependence and taxes • • The politicization of consumer goods • Taverns: • Crucial part of every town Drinking, eating, sleeping, singing, dancing, public meetings, debates, business, news • • Licenses required to sell alcohol • Women often ran taverns (10-40%) • Women as consumers • Why do taverns matter? • The Seven Years’ War: • French and Indians vs. English and Americans • Fighting over “Ohio country” (where the rivers come together) • Key points: Conflict of empires • • Native American agency; making choices, not just pawns in the conflict • George Washington’s role- 21 years old at the time • Head of the American troops • Not that successful, but has the most experience American militiamen and British regulars (redcoats) • • British looked down upon the American militiamen for lack of cohesiveness, technique • Causes a lot of tension; lack of respect between Americans and British • The Amherst rumor- Amherst distributed smallpox infected blankets? No proof of this • Legacies of the War: • The Treaty of Paris, 1763 • West of the Mississippi is Spanish • British gets most of New France/Canada, Florida, some Caribbean islands • No conversation about Native Americans • Stronger colonial identity • Changed relationship with England; more tension because England thinks the colonists owe them • Standing Army; England leaves troops in North America • Huge debt- leads to taxes, no salutary neglect • “War that made America” 11-4-15: Section • Consumerism —> society becoming more secular —> need for Great Awakening • Established ministers with the church criticized people like George Whitefield • Challenging authority of the church Great Awakening very emotional, personal • 11-9-15: Lecture • Choosing War? The Build Up to the American Revolution • Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763: • Neolin, “the Delaware Prophet” • Visions of what things would be like before Europeans • Need to reject all European goods, Christianity; go back to traditional ways • Need to come together in Pan-Indian movement; create common identity • Pontiac- Ottawa Indian chief; credited with organizing and leading a rebellion against the British, during which he led a year-long siege of Fort Detroit 1763–64; agreed to terms of peace in 1766 • Anti-British • Builds a successful confederacy • Proclamation of 1763: • No colonists can move west of this line; doesn’t make anyone happy • Significant losses among Native Americans (disease, injuries) • The French • Refuse to help Pontiac • Confederacy getting smaller since tribes are pulling out; either don’t have faith in the cause or trying to negotiate peace on their own • The end of the rebellion • Treaty is detrimental to the Native cause; they lose a lot of land Pontiac seen as someone who sold out his people • • He was ambushed and killed in Cahokia by another man because he was seen as a traitor • The Legacy of the Proclamation of 1763: • Colonists are pissed • Crown leaves soldiers (10,000?) to uphold the line Colonists pay for the soldiers through taxes • • Natives start to see colonists as the enemy, not the crown • Taxes: • War disrupts the economy; Britain’s debt doubles after French-Indian War End of salutary neglect; crown can’t afford to have colonists not pay taxes • • Taxes are sometimes lower than they were before conflicts; same taxes that English are already paying in England • Colonial expectations of equality • Representation Crown says everyone is virtually representation through Parliament • • 13 colonies are only a small fraction of the British Empire; if they start getting special representation, everyone will want it • Representation is logistically hard • Manipulative The Stamp Act: • • Extremely unpopular, direct tax • Tax had to be paid in silver • The Stamp Act Congress • Includes delegates from 9 colonies Declared the Act illegal • • Non-Importation Agreements- threaten • Daughters of Liberty- voice in politics (without vote) through labor • “Extralegal” Responses (illegal): • Mob action and the “Stamp Act Crisis” The Sons of Liberty • • Try to get Andrew Oliver (tax collector) to resign- he does • 2,000 men show up (a lot) • Becomes a broader movement • Sometimes turned to violence • Feathering • Wanting to bring maximum humiliation to their targets • Gives critics a reason to call the patriots hooligans 1766- Stamp Act repealed • • Declaratory Act passed- Parliament has the right to pass any law they want • Propaganda: • “Boston Massacre” British abusing their power? • • Dog is a symbol of loyalty • 5 people died- specifically chose the word “massacre” to make it more dramatic • Result of tensions between colonists and soldiers; colonists weren’t totally innocent, they were throwing things at the soldiers John Adams defends the British soldiers • • Boston Tea Party, 1773: • Intended to be a organized and legitimate protest • Didn’t want to damage anything; said they would compensate the trading company for costs of the locks/chests, not the tea • Laws to being Boston back in line: • The “Intolerable Acts”/“Coercive Acts”, 1774 11-16-15: Lecture • The American Revolution Was the War really about Taxes?: • • Tyranny • Despotism • Slavery • Liberty Representation • • Taxes were a symptom of a much larger problem • Not a War for Independence: • Lexington and Concord, April 1775 Colonists fighting for their rights as Englishmen • • Loyalists: • 20% of population loyalists, 40% support Revolution, 40% neutral • Why be loyal? • Safer bet to back the crown; British are the world’s superpower States like Massachusetts were very Patriot, states like Georgia were loyalist; North Carolina • was 50/50 • Peter Oliver- Chief Justice of the Superior Court (the highest court) of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Loyalist during the American Revolution, and left Massachusetts in 1776, settling in England. Parliament and the Crown have authority; colonists have no right to question/overturn it • • Flees Boston in March 1776, land taken away from him —> goes to Canada —> England • Sees the Patriots as a bunch of thugs; broke the law • Samuel Seabury- pamphleteer/minister; first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. Leading Loyalist in New York City; never leaves America and changes his position when Patriot win • Loyalty makes the most sense because: • It’ll hurt people who didn’t have anything to do with the implementation of taxes; Patriots are selfish • It’ll piss off Britain Boycotts will disrupt their own trade/economy • • Why Independence? • No real consensus as to the cause of the Revolution • The many theories of historians Some argue the reasons are economic • • Some argue that Patriots were indebted to English merchants • Some argue that the reasons are about ideals (liberty, quality of life) • Some argue it’s about representation • Slavery and Liberty: Slaveholders were among the loudest voices for liberty. Why? • • They knew what it was like to live without liberty; didn’t want it for themselves • Because slaves weren’t white, they could justify their enslavement • Republican Ideology- public good before private gain; land (means true independence), weapons, virtue The Yeoman Farmer- ideal American citizen • • White, land-holding, man= political enfranchisement • Slaveholders felt safe calling for liberty • Control over everyone below them • Slavery is in all of the colonies • Many slaves bought into the concept of liberty • The reactions of slaves • Some whites questioned slavery Massachusetts- slaves would win in court based on the principles of the Revolution • • Fighting for Liberty: • Slaves around the colonies vowed to fight with Loyalists • Dunmore’s Proclamation, November 1775 Dunmore's "Emancipation Proclamation," signed by John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, • royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia. Declared martial law and promised freedom for slaves of American revolutionaries who left their owners and joined the royal forces • 5% of southern slaves escaped during the Revolution Tyranny at its worst- reconciliation would be impossible • • Free blacks and the Patriots • Originally accepted in Continental Army, but Washington is pressures to exclude them by southern states • Washington lets them back in shortly after because they were desperate for manpower (1777-78) • Asking slaveowners to let slaves fight in the army, offering compensation for owners after • Masters got a lot of money for allowing their slaves to serve • Slavery and liberty meant different things to different people Native Americans and the Revolution: • • Native Agency: • Deep divisions among Native groups; divided by religion, culture, language • Trade and land negotiations continue during war • Most tribes try to remain neutral to protect trade relations as long as they can Willing to fight with the British because of Proclamation Line, also see trading advantages • with British; no incentive to side with Americans (b/c of pressure for land) • Washington seeks allies, 1776 (particularly Iroquois); permission to recruit 2,000 Iroquois allies, come back with 200 —> eventually gets 700 Native allies, majority of those come from Maine Iroquois “civil war”- confederacy divided over the Revolution • • The Catawba- in North Carolina; limited population, surrounded by Patriots • Felt like no other option but to help Patriots • Help Americans win over English and Cherokee • After war, government creates reservation (12 square miles) 11-18-15: Lecture • Founding Mothers • Native Americans in the Revolution: 1779- Washington begins “total war” against the Iroquois • • Widespread destruction on both sides • “Treaties” at the close of the war • The Delaware- sign agreement with Americans, but they kill a leader and try to cover it up; Delaware go to fight with the British after Americans don’t treat Native Americans as an agency • • Increased frontier violence • The Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784- American gov’t to give land to Native Americans, but they are agreeing to be subject to Federal government • No legal claims to the rights of a citizen Essentially creates reservation system, makes Native Americans dependent on government • • The Experience of the Revolution: • Boycotts • Fundraising- to get cash in the hands of Continental Army; first originates in Philadelphia Women trying to collect cash —> they get a lot of money ($20,000) • • Washington rejects the money (he wants the women to spend it on “feminine” things) but women refuse to accept it back • Deputy Husbands- step up and take on the role of husband when actual husbands are away at war; temporary- just in the moment of crisis, things will go back to normal eventually • Mary Silliman • Participation in the War • Camp Followers- provide services to the army; many of these women had loved ones in the army, some just did it out of patriotism Essential for victory • • Molly Pitcher- piece of propaganda; woman who contributed to the war effort directly when her loved one falls • Acceptable because it’s temporary “heat of the moment/battle” • Deborah Sampson- enlisted in the army as a man (illegal because women can’t serve and she’s dressed like a man) because she’s broke • Served for a year and a half disguised as a guy • Works as an aid for a commanding officer, she gets sick and doctor tells him that she’s actually a girl • Officer says that she has done well and lets her off with an honorable discharge • Federal government gives her a pension because she got a letter of support from Paul Revere • Petitions again because she wants second pension but is denied; author publishes her life story and goes on tour —> she’s doing it for the money • The Influence of the Enlightenment: Prescriptive Literature- writing that tells us how to be/what to do • • Pamphlets, novels, newspapers • Education- women must be somewhat educated to teach the kids • Motherhood- mothers take care of the kids and educate the sons as well as daughters • Republican Motherhood: Study of this originated in 70’s feminist thought • • A new Nation required a new kind of mother • Expansion of educational opportunities- public schools for boys and girls; emphasis is on the children, household, domesticity • Republican Motherhood is an attempt to get women back in the home after the Revolution • Republican Womanhood: • Motherhood not necessarily the reasoning • Benjamin Rush- wrote a lot of prescriptive literature; says that women need to understand Republican ideals because they influence men —> if women are interested in it, men will be too Women influence men as much as children • • English- women need to be effective communicators • Handwriting • Bookkeeping- need to help husbands • Geography, History, Astronomy, and Philosophy —> make them more interesting to their husbands • Women take this and want an education for the sake of learning • Abigail Adams: • Elite, educated, married woman Wrote constantly to John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, other elite women • • “In the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies…” 1776 • Uses the same terms/ideas against them that they used against the British • What is she really asking for? • Protection under the law • Does it work? • No! Things get worse, fewer legal protections to things like abused wives • Mercy Otis Warren: • Elite, educated, married woman • Wrote to contribute to the Revolutionary cause • Supported by the men around her Not an advocate for equality • • “The kind mother acts her little Part and stamps the tablet on the infant heart.” 11-23-15: Lecture • Women and Natives in the New Republic: • Judith Sargent Murray: Elite, educated, married woman • • Began writing during the Revolution; doesn’t first publish/share them • Remarries in 1788- egalitarian marriage; he values/encourages her • 1790- “On the Equality of the Sexes”; questions gender roles/relationships • Because men have denied women the access to education, they look less intelligent but in reality they're just as smart as men; intellectually equal • Supported her family through her writing • Sought change through education • Natives in the Revolution “The Murder of Jane McCrea” July, 1777 • • Used as war propaganda • Patriots say that the British were complacent in attack • Paint McCrea as a victim of “savages” working for British, even though she was a loyalist • The evolution for her story; no evidence Used to justify violence against Natives • • Thomas Jefferson and Natives: • Notes on Virginia, 1785 • Naturally Republicanc In later writings he: • • Stressed their stunted development • Claimed they forfeited their place in the new nation • The Northwest Ordinances, 1787 and 1789 • Government needs to sell land to make money since they can’t tax; lots of debt • States can tax the people to pay the people who they owe back (makes no sense) • “An empire of liberty”- full equal participants • 1790- Trade and Intercourse Act • Only government can handle land negotiations with Natives People had to get permits to trade with Natives • • The Northwest Territory: • Frontier defense; subduing Natives so they can take the land • Land speculators • 5/6 of the federal budget goes to subduing Natives • Native resistance- try to build confederacy (Miami Confederacy) • Government underestimates the confederacy • St. Clair’s Defeat- Battle of the Wabash, the Battle of Wabash River or the Battle of a Thousand Slain, was fought on November 4, 1791 in the Northwest Territory between the United States and the Western Confederacy of American Indians, as part of the Northwest Indian War. It was one of the worst defeats, in percentage of casualties, suffered by the United States Army. It was also the largest victory ever won by American Indians. • The name “St. Clair’s Defeat” strips Native agency • Why does this matter? • Congressional investigation • Washington forces St. Clair to resign Congress doesn’t blame St. Clair • • Problem was a lack of funding and maybe some corruption within government • Executive privilege • Political factions- lays foundation for party system • Growth of the army Within a year, Native Confederacy is crumbling • • Battle of Fallen Timbers- Americans win; Natives must agree to treaty, give up 2/3 of Ohio 11-25-15: Lecture • The Constitution in Practice • Rebellion in the New Republic: • Shay’s Rebellion and the Articles of Confederation, 1786-1787 • Massachusetts is taxing its citizens to the point where they can no longer pay them • Landowners are on the brink of losing their land • Ironic because a lot of the patriots were from Massachusetts • Daniel Shay- led group that rose up in rebellion (4,000 people) • Used same language/symbols as in the revolution Demonstrations • • Marching on the court houses • Farmers • Elite helping as well- they see this as an abuse of power (political reasons for involvement) • Local militia raised to put them down with force, government couldn’t raise a militia 18 people sentenced to death • • He went into hiding • Only 2 actually hanged • Debate about the meaning of this • Thomas Jefferson’s response- the people were right, the taxes were unfair and out of line We need people to keep our leaders in check • • The Whiskey Rebellion, 1791-1794 • Hamilton- a new way to generate revenue through whiskey tax • Hit farmers really hard because they produce the grain Tax on all alcohol • • Challenging this tax by using the tactics and rhetoric of the revolution (hang the tax collectors, etc.) • Protests become more intense; more violence than stamp act rebellion • Washington’s response: Cannot use standing troops to handle internal problems, he has to raise a militia to deal with • this • First and only time a standing president leads troops into battle • Primarily in Western Pennsylvania The Constitution: • • Male land owner = full citizen • Independent • Non land-owning men? • Slaves? No Indians? No • • Only show up in the constitution to say they aren’t citizens • Women? Yes • Not full • Not allowed to vote • Coverture still applies, can’t vote because of this • Not as educated, morally inferior • Not defined as independent; looked at like slaves, children, non land-owning men New Jersey? • • State Constitution • Voting qualification is only property • Widows could vote for a period of time • Eventually the loophole is fixed • The Evolution of Politics: • Voting • 1789- limited to white, property-holding men • By 1800- 4 states have universal white male suffrage Newspapers were highly politicized • • Had their own agenda • During the revolution: patriot, loyalist newspapers, etc. • Political Parties: Transference of power was new • • Never been done before, still considered to be an experiment • Assumptions about politicians • Have to pretend you don’t want to run for office • Campaigning done, but not by the candidates themselves Jefferson’s early campaign • • John Beckley- thinks that if he carries Washington’s actions publicly, he is fulfilling his role as a virtuous citizen • Indirectly sowing seeds for his election 1796: • • Jefferson vs. Adams • Adams though him winning would be a given- reward since he served as vice president • Both are important in creating the new government • Beckley campaigns in PA Wrote a lot of pamphlets • • Jefferson appealed to the average farmer • Appeal is agrarian-based • Adams wins • Runner-up has to be vice president (Jefferson) • Adams tries to extend olive branch to Jefferson and almost split the job • Jefferson is a sore loser, doesn’t want to do anything because he didn’t win • Makes Adams job really hard Adams is a federalist; doesn’t want different parties, ideal for him to have 1 party • • Washington’s Farewell Address: • He’s concerned • 1800: Jefferson hates being vice president and working under John Adams • • Had been plotting for 4 years • Political blunders by Adams • Alien and Sedition Acts • Almost war with France Jefferson convinced he must win, starts actively campaigning • • The return of John Beckley • Leaks info about Hamilton having a sex scandal • Hamilton confesses • Mudslinging- how to discredit a candidate? Calls Adams: tyrant, new monarchy, hermaphrodite • • Jefferson: race, against religion • The Outcome: • Jefferson and Burr tie Adams loses • • Jefferson thinks Burr should be VP since he has more political experience • Has to be decided in the House • Had 36 votes that came out tied each time • Federalists wanted Adams, thought both these men were evil Hamilton • • Had personal issues with Burr • In a choice of evils, Jefferson is less dangerous • Thinks Burr will use presidency to only benefit himself, won’t put public first • After this, Jefferson emerges victorious First transfer of power from one political party to another without violence • • This in itself was a big deal 11-30-15: Lecture • The Early Years of Western Expansion The Louisiana Purchase: • • Purchased from France- Napoleon convinced Spain to give land back to France • Why does Napoleon sell? —> doesn’t want land on his hands, doesn’t like overseas territory • James Monroe- originally sent to purchase New Orleans b/c trade • Doubles the size of U.S. • Lewis and Clark Expedition: • Scientific expedition- analyzing the plants/animals/geography, weather/climate Economic component- looking for gold, resources to exploit (wood, coal, animals, metals, • jewels) • Told to look for the Northwest Passage- realize it doesn’t exist • Diplomatic mission- initially told to develop positive relations with Native Americans for trading, less conflict, • Sacajawea- Shoshone Indian guide and interpreter; joined Lewis and Clark expedition in what is now North Dakota and guided their travels through the wilderness and across the Rockies 1804–06 Important because she is a woman (with a child) —> eases tensions • • Questions about the LA Purchase: • Do the Northwest Ordinances apply? • Will these people be citizens? • Article III- admitted as citizens as soon as possible • The Problem of Citizenship: • Most residents weren’t American • Over 10% of the population were free people of color • Citizenship should be a gradual process • Assimilation will be key • The Extension of Citizenship: • The apply the principles of the Northwest Ordinances- slavery wasn’t banned though • Assimilation has not worked! • Citizenship will finish the task of assimilation • Tecumseh’s War: • Tecumseh and Lalawethika- brothers • Loss of family and land • Western expansion threatens their way of life • Indiana Territory: William Henry Harrison, governor • • Thomas Jefferson and the “Factory System”- (on the study guide)- strategy to try and get land out of the hands of Native people; build forts and encourage Indians to come and trade for manufactured good, develop dependency on goods and raise prices, so they go into debt and are forced to sell the land; indebted to the federal government so their only choice is to sell land By 1805, Indians are confined to a small area • • The Rise of a Pan-Indian Movement: • The power of Tenskwatawa’s vision • Tecumseh spreads the message Harrison’s response • • Tecumseh’s confederacy- United Indian States of America 12-2-15: Lecture • Sectional Differences: • The Eruption of Violence: 1810- Tecumseh makes overtures of peace • • The Battle of Tippecanoe- Americans win • Tecumseh Assumes Control: • Rebuilds his confederacy • 1812- War breaks out between the Americans and the British Tecumseh forms alliance with British • • Brilliance in battle • Abandoned by the British, Oct. 5, 1813 • Tecumseh killed that day- body mutilated • Land becomes open for American settlement/growth at the expense of native people • The Market Revolution: • Transformation of the nation from an agrarian to a capitalist society • Accelerated pace of economic activity and broader distribution of goods • Canals and railroads key 1807- Robert Fulton’s Steamship • • Center of economic production removed from the home • Industrialization: • Manufacturing increasing, mechanization • Lowell, MA and the “mill girls” • Can pay unmarried women a lot less; Growing dependence on wage labor • • The Cotton


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