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Comprehensive History 17B Notes- All Weeks

by: Alyssa Metcalf

Comprehensive History 17B Notes- All Weeks History 17B

Marketplace > University of California Santa Barbara > History > History 17B > Comprehensive History 17B Notes All Weeks
Alyssa Metcalf

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These notes cover every lecture from History 17B. They are thorough, covering everything on the slides plus what the professor was saying.
History of the American People: Sectional Crisis-Progressivism
Lisa Jacobson
american, history, civil, War, Reconstruction, Progressivism, The Gilded Age
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This 48 page Bundle was uploaded by Alyssa Metcalf on Monday April 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 17B at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Lisa Jacobson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see History of the American People: Sectional Crisis-Progressivism in History at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
1-6-15: Lecture • The Market Revolution and the Politics of Republicanism: • What produced the Market Revolution? Creation of infrastructure: improvements in transportation and communication link distant • markets • Growth of commercial banking expanded credit • Granting of corporate charters to banks, railroads, and canal companies encouraged investment in big endeavors by reducing risk of investment • Transportation in 1815: Slow, Expensive, and Uncertain • Western settlement initially concentrated near rivers • Areas without access to rivers and canals are isolated How expensive was it? • • It cost more to move goods from NYC to Pittsburgh than NYC to London • In the absence of good transportation infrastructure, what do western farmers do with surplus grain? • Expensive to ship, lots going to New Orleans which could create a surplus and low prices • Solution: Reduce grain volume by distilling it into whiskey! • Whiskey doesn’t spoil like grain does Access to canals and steamboats stimulates commercial farming: • • Steamboats in the Ohio River, Cincinnati • Canals Connect Midwestern Farmers and East Coast Cities: • Roads and canals, 1840 (Erie Canal) • Canals and plank roads shorten travel time • Growth of Railroad Network: • 1860: 30,000 miles of rail • 1800: New York to Chicago in 6 weeks • 1860: New York to Chicago in 2 days • Lots more rail in the North, connects North to Midwest • South invests less in infrastructure, less manufacturing • Communications Revolution: • Invention of telegraph facilitated capitalist development- adopted for commercial use in mid-1840’s • Innovations in transportation and communications had, in Tocqueville’s words, “annihilated space and time.” • Banks Also Key to Market Revolution: • Provide loans to merchants, manufactures, and farmers • Banks increase the money supply • Government doesn’t issue paper currency at this time, only mints gold/silver coins All issued by private banks, no national bank yet • • Bank notes popular • Different banks can determine value of other banks’ notes: smaller states banks’ weren’t usually worth as much • U.S. Bank most trusted- still privately owned though • Cycle of Economic Growth: • Farmers can sell bigger surpluses and buy more consumer goods —> Manufacturers produce more goods —> growth of cities and towns —> repeat • Why did Americans both fear and embrace the market revolution? Americans concerned about how they can best preserve a republic • • Republics inherently unstable because they depend on the virtue of citizens who work for the common good • Lessons of history: republic usually became dictatorships when the people became corrupted • Key Concepts of Republicanism: Requires virtuous citizens who work in the interest of the common good • • People have to guard against conspiracies by elites to amass too much power • Maintaining economic independence key to maintain virtue • The Second Party System and the Market Revolution: Whigs- tariffs to foster domestic industry • • Federal government to fund canals and railroads • Big national bank • They like Bank of the United States because it provides loans, stability to help nation grow • Democrats- most support in the west/south (where agriculture dominates) Low to moderate tariffs • • No federal help for canals and railroads • No national bank • They see Bank of United States as a “Monster Bank” that concentrates too much power in hands of vested interests Suspicion of centralized power in federal government • • Interest in protecting slavery • Both parties use rhetoric to raise what is good/bad about any kind of economic policy Make-up Notes from the 1st Lecture: • Major Course Themes: • Contested meanings of liberty and equality • Impact of economic change on ordinary people and on debates over meaning of liberty and equality • How have those who’ve been disinherited from the American promise of liberty and equality responded? • Creation and redefinition of American national identity 3 Major Reform Movements: • • Abolitionism (and post-Civil War efforts to make good on the promises of emancipation) • Temperance/Prohibition movement • Women’s rights/women’s suffrage movement • Reform Movements and Constitutional Change: • Abolitionism (13th Amendment) —> 14th, 15th • Prohibition Movement (18th Amendment) —> 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th + 21st • Women’s suffrage movement (19th Amendment) Legacies of history continue to shape the present: • • Legacies of conquest, industrial capitalism, slavery and emancipation, immigration 1-8-16: Section • 1-8-16: Lecture • An Empire for Liberty?: Slavery, Native Americans, and Westward Expansion • The West: • “Carrying freedom” westward • Republican ideology- no monarchy, no aristocrats, all about equality • Very cheap land available • Americans being to think about the West in more positive terms: • New terminology: “frontier” instead of “backcountry” • Frontier implies cutting edge of innovation, advancement • West represent special part of the market revolution • Technological feats like the Erie Canal, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad • Republicanism and Western Expansion: Thomas Jefferson: the West represents what is best and exceptional about the US • • West is ever-changing and egalitarian • Bounty of inexpensive land helps create an egalitarian republican of land-owning citizens and provides a safety valve for class conflict • Land ownership is key, gives stake in society and maintains virtue/independence; stability of republic rests of virtue of its citizens • Land-owning farmers > low wage-earning, dependent workers who may become indebted • West is a safety valve for class conflict • Western states being admitted expanded suffrage for white men Problems with Jeffersonian Vision: • • West not immune from inequalities • Western settlement invites conflict and war over slavery and Indian entitlement to their land • Indian Removal Act (1830) • Forced migrations- blacks through domestic slave trade Forced Indians to move to Oklahoma • • Passed only by 5 votes • Justification for Indian Removal: • Many white believe that Indians are biological incapable of becoming “civilized” • Manifest Destiny: U.S. has God-given right and duty to conquer and settle the west Not all Americans supported Indian removal- Whigs, Evangelical Christians believed that • Indians could be converted and integrated • Andrew Jackson- one of the biggest proponents of removal • Democrats in general support this • Cherokees Undermine White Stereotypes: Chief John Ross leads movement to “modernize” Cherokee economy • • Commercial farming, textile production, iron foundry • Grow corn, cotton; adopt white gender norms and slavery • Become slaveowners- Cherokee owned about 1,000 slaves • Cherokee Establish a Republic: Written language, own newspaper • • Constitution and bicameral legislature • School and postal system • Still faced pressure to remove from west • Opponents (Whigs) say it was dishonorable, tragic; upset that federal treaties were overturned, Supreme Court was ignored • Tension between states’ powers and central government • Tragedy of the Trail of Tears: • 1/4 of Cherokees died along the way; very expensive removal • Poorly executed • Location of all those tribes were in prime cotton territory —> driving tragedy • Another Tragedy: Interstate Slave Trade • Rich cotton lands in southwest encourage planters to move slaves • 650,000 slaves sold in domestic slave trade • Entire network of slave traders, middlemen, and creditors 1808- Congress banned Transatlantic Slave Trade • • All of the slave trade is domestic • Breaks up slave families • 50% of all nuclear families torn apart • Especially dehumanizing- chained together • The auction block: a dehumanizing ordeal • Threat of being sold creates new form of plantation discipline • If you don’t work hard enough/obey, you’ll be sold 1-11-16: Lecture • Domestic Ideology and the Rise of the Middle Class • Distinct sphere in which men and women have specific roles • Public sphere= men; private, domestic sphere= women • Very particular to the middle class, not universal • Key Questions: • How did the market revolution contribute to the rise of the middle class and domestic ideology? How did domestic ideology help Americans assess changes in their economic/political • worlds? • To what extend did domestic ideology expand and/or limit women’s access to the public sphere? • BEFORE PICTURE: Household family economy in the 17th and 18th centuries: • No division between home and work; > 90% of families on farms • Authority vested in fathers; women inferior to men in all respects • Fathers took more active role in child-rearing • Women not entrusted with raising the kids b/c inferior/mercurial • Children valued as economic assets • All members of the family contributing to familial economic enterprise • Features of middle-class family: • Men labeled “breadwinners” • Women exalted as mothers and moral guardians • Women superior morally • Childhood viewed as period of prolonged dependency • Not supposed to be working; become educated first Family highly sentimentalized • • Family bound together by affection and sentiment instead of economic • Romantic love is now viewed as a prerequisite for marriage • Domestic Ideology Reflects Changing Ideas about Innate Nature of Men, Women, Children: • Men: competitive, ambitious, rational, corruptible, sphere: commerce and politics • Women: submissive, tenderhearted, sentimental, pious, sexually pure, self-sacrificing, sphere: home • Cult of true womanhood Children: not tainted by original sin, but blank state; “emotionally priceless but economically • useless”; consumers not producers • What caused this reformulation of gender and family ideals? • Enlightenment, 18th century John Locke- tabula rasa • • Conviction that evil was not innate but a product of the environment transformed ideas about childrearing • Late 18th and 19th century Protestantism promised new view of women as innately more pious, virtuous, tenderhearted than men Women are coming to church more • • Religious revivals- emotion as the root of salvation (associated with women) • Market revolution sharpened division between home and work • Glorify home as refuge from corrupt, competitive outside world; sanctuary, oasis, “haven in a heartless world” Domestic ideology both critiques and helped buttress capitalist development: • • “Our men are sufficiently money-making. Let us keep our women and children from the contagion as long as possible.” • Women and family are alternative to outside world • Wives’ duty is to help men recuperate from work in capitalist marketplace Mothers instilling virtues like self-control into children to help them be better competitors in a • capitalist society • Domestic ideology calms fears about whether republican government be sustained: • Republican Motherhood: • Republicanism reinforces society’s investment in seeing women as virtuous • Women could act as a moral counterweight to men and market values by educating children about proper republican virtues. • Other Characteristics of the Emerging Middle Class: • Income and occupation allow family to rely solely on male breadwinner • Comfortable to own your own home • Most were professional occupations: doctors, lawyers, business-owners, government officials Culture: domestic ideology and success ideology (hard work, thrift, sobriety, sexual restraint, • and self-control) • Created tension to ascend to the upper class • Domestic ideology limited political and economic opportunities for women: • Women could NOT participate in politics (no right to vote) Married women lose legal rights to their own property or wages • • Teaching was the only profession seen as suitable for women (especially single women) • Did domestic ideology describe reality for most families? NO! • Sexual division of labor in middle-class family depended on existence of families that did not adhere to middle-class ideals of gender and childhood • Homes free of labor were myths: laundry, cleaning, cooking • Several groups couldn’t model their families after this domestic ideology: • Working class • Slave families Slave mothers weren’t allowed time off to nurture their children • • Immigrants • Free blacks in north and south • Farm families • Women find some advantages in domestic ideology: Control of the household • • Expanded educational opportunities • Gave women opening to enter public sphere as reformers 1-13-16: Lecture • The Second Great Awakening and Reform Movements Temperance Movement, Women’s Rights, Anti-Vice (ban prostitution), Mental Health, • Utopian Movements • Market revolution and 2nd Great Awakening contributed to growing interest in reform • Some movements became more radical in the 1830s • Women used reform to claim a political voice • Women saw the moral problems as a result of masculine excess Various ideologies shaped the rhetoric of reform • • The Emergence of a Reform Impulse: • Calvinist ideas of original sin and predestination discourage reform in 1600s and early 1700s • They think sin can’t be eliminated, no point in trying to reform Second Great Awakening, 1820s and 1830s- rejects Calvinists approach • • Optimism that anyone can achieve salvation, as long as they undergo emotional conversion, confess sins, open themselves to the light of God • Individuals have the choice to do so • “Burned Over District”- fires of revival burned over this region (west-central NY) Growth of African Methodist Episcopal Church- started by free blacks • • Charles - minister and leader of Second Great Awakening • Faith in human perfectibility field optimism that sins of the world can be eradicated • Possible to eliminate social problems; recreate Heaven on Earth • Conversions convinced people that moral changes could come suddenly as well This is key for abolitionists; possible to make instant break with slavery • • Market revolution: also fuels optimism that social problems can be reformed • Dislocations and anxieties created by market revolution fuel Second Great Awakening and interest in reform • Middle class anxious that they’re losing control; scared of those without virtue endangering the republic; makes them willing to implement reforms to preserve republic • Women as Prominent Figures in Religious Revivals and Reform Movements: • Women naturally more pious than men, morally superior • Reworking domestic ideology: justification to participate in public life as reformers • Women have special duty to preside over moral transformation of society • Temperance Movement: • Americans consumed A LOT of alcohol: • Annual per capita consumption: 5-6 gallons of absolute alcohol a year • Equivalent to 10 gallons of whiskey or (~620-900 shot glasses); 30 gallons beer, hard cider, wine • Market revolution created need for new forms of labor discipline; sober workers are better workers • Temperance movement enables employers to assert control over workers and middle-class women to assert their moral authority • Temperance pledges • Goals are moderate at first: stop drinking hard liquor, just go to beer and wine Moved to pledges of total abstinence • • Temperance movement enables employers to assert control over workers and middle-class women to assert their moral authority • Domestic ideology shapes temperance rhetoric Abolitionism: What Makes it Radical? • • Initially, white opponents of slavery call for moderate reforms (colonization- send them back to Africa, gradual emancipation) • Make sure slaver owners are compensated • Many of the same people who supported Indian removal supported colonization Removing threats from the republic; ethnic cleansing • • Abolitionists call for immediate, uncompensated end to slavery • Reject colonization and call for full civil equality for blacks • Entire nation, not just slaveholders, complicit in crime of slavery • David Walker’s “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” William Lloyd Garrison- The Liberator; carries on Walker’s work • • Why did Abolitionists remains a radical minority in the North? • Many northerners thought abolitionists were: • Bad for business • Unpatriotic Racially suspect • • Abolitionist Rhetoric: • Commitment to idea of moral suasion, including use of shocking images • Explicit testimony by slaves used • Rhetoric shaped by Declaration of Independence, Christianity, and domestic ideology Constantly invoking language of sin • • Violation of family values- being torn apart • Criticized greedy, capitalist values 1-15-15: Lecture • Women’s Rights and the Women’s Suffrage Movement Challenged idea of separate spheres • • Men and women are naturally equal; human rights, drew upon Declaration of Independence • Domestic Ideology both Aids and Hinders Women’s Rights Activism: • Closes avenues to women who have legal status of a minor • No right to vote • Married women could not: • Initiate divorce or gain child custody • Have rights to their own property or wages • Sign contracts, execute wills, or bring lawsuits without husband’s permission Helps women develop group consciousness and awareness of common grievances • • Bond between women; bonds that imprison women (2 diff. types of bonding) • Encourages some to rebel against constraints of women’s sphere and assumptions of women’s physical and intellectual inferiority • Temperance and Abolitionism Stimulate Interest in Women’s Rights: • Women need to be able to divorce drunken, abusive husbands • Women initially drawn to abolitionism because they see slavery as violation of domestic ideology • Abolitionism teaches women important political skills • Abolitionist emphasis on common humanity of blacks and whites encourages women to assert fundamental equality of men and women • Why were women’s demands for suffrage so radical and threatening? • Challenged assumptions of male superiority and men’s monopoly of public sphere • While other women’s rights extended protections to women, the vote enabled women to act autonomously in pursuit of own interests Full equality between men and women in public sphere —> even more equality in home • 1-20-16: Lecture • Southern Society and Proslavery Ideology: • Northerners and Southerners Share Some Important Values and Interests: • Both see conquest of the west as the nation’s manifest destiny • Economies of north and south bound together by cotton trade • Southerners strong nationalists • Shared republican political vocabulary • Slave Labor and Agricultural Economy Make Southern Society and Culture Distinct: • Lack of cities, lower population growth, and geographic isolation strengthen importance of kinship ties r • Not a lot of immigration/emigration; more divided on black-white racial lines • Major southern crops: cotton, tobacco, rice, sugarcane, hemp • Violence and honor more central to southern culture; honor takes on martial/military meaning —> answer an insult with bravery, violence, courage • Generates more military academies because of this • Economic interests of dominant planter class make literacy and reform a low priority Planter class doesn’t want anaiy dissent on slavery- see education as a threat, toxic ideology • like socialism, feminism, abolitionism • Little support for public education, women’s rights, temperance only national movement • Reform movements and human perfectibility is threatening in a slave society; slavery rests on assumption that racial inequalities are inherent Domestic ideology is more conservative in the South • • Women entering public sphere is frowned upon in the south; discouraged from even taking teaching jobs; reform movements generated by cities; women not allowed much movement since men are supposed to protect their purity from black men (predators) • Racism overrides pronounced class inequalities and united southern whites Cotton trade produces vast inequalities of wealth, but racism overrides this • • Ambivalence towards Slavery Disappears by 1830s: • Principles of revolution make some southerners ambivalent about slavery • Apologists for slavery believed it would disappear • 1808- international importation of slaves banned Southerners Defend Slavery More Aggressively in 1830s: Why? • • “Cotton is King” (slavery is here to stay) • Abolitionists and Nat Turner’s rebellion (1831) put southerners on the defensive; their honor was attacked • Visions that God called upon Turner to avenge slaves- kill white men women children Southerners convinced that abolitionists convinced the slaves to revolt • • Engage in a lot of censorship- ban distribution of seditious materials • Portraying slavery in a positive light • Emancipation of slaves elsewhere challenges southern honor Proslavery Ideology: • • Religious Justifications: • Biblical support for slavery • Africans converted to Christianity • James Henry Hammond- tries to become great defender of southern values after sex scandal with his nieces; had 2 children by 2 different slave mistresses • Class argument: • All societies have lower classes- natural order of things, lets upper class do more important stuff • Paternalistic masters more benevolent than exploitive capitalist- slave masters are nicer than competition of capitalism • George Fitzhugh- argues slaves are inherently dependent, childlike • Racism: Blacks inherently suited for manual labor • • Blacks created for the benefit of whites- not from Adam and Eve • Economic defense: • Northerners benefit from slavery as well 1-22-16: Lecture Slave Culture and Slave Resistance • • Early Theories of Slave Culture: • African traditions wiped out by slavery • Stanley Elkin’s thesis (1959): slavery wiped out slave personality and any remnants of an autonomous slave culture Elkins thesis accepts Sambo stereotype of the contented, docile slave as reality • • What’s wrong with this? • African heritage not obliterated • Slaves created counterculture that subtly subverted masters’ authority and helped them survive dehumanization of slavery; give space for slaves to create identity Slave Spirituals and Religion • • White masters envision religion as form of social control; pick particular passages (ones about obedience, slaves, humility, respect, property) • Religion a problematic form of social control; slaves could get hold of “wrong” passages • Religion recognizes the humanity of slaves, puts them on an equal plane; spiritual equals, may be equal in other ways • How effective was religion as a form of social control? • Slave conduct religious meetings in secret • Spirituals as a form of secret communication; calling away slaves to a secret meeting • Slaves don’t buy into masters’ view of slavery as God’s design Slaves use spirituals and religious services to validate their own vision of a moral and just • universe • Moral and Spiritual Universe of Slaves: • Slaves drew upon Biblical stories about deliverance from bondage or triumph of the underdog against the powerful; Old Testament, Moses leading his people from slavery, David, defeating Goliath • Spirituals gave slaves hope of transcending injustice in the present, not just the hereafter • Persistence will be rewarded; gives slaves a sense that they can realize their longings for freedom in the present • Other Forms of Resistance: • Overt: rebellion, running away • Covert: feigning illness, slowing down work, stealing goods, “accidentally” breaking equipment, destroying property (fires) Slave Family Survival Strategies: Importance of Kinship Ties and Naming Practices: • • Extended kinship networks expanded number of adult caregivers • “Fictive kin” adopt newcomers who hadn't been born on plantation and broaden notion of family • Children taught to call adult slaves “aunt” and “uncle” and call younger slaves “brother” and “sister” • Naming children after relatives sustained sense of family identity • Use of African names and surnames of previous owner to create separate identity from master • White Southerners Adopt Siege Mentality and Turn South into Closed Society: • Southern states make advocating abolition a felony • Southerners institute gag rule in Congress prohibiting debate on antislavery petitions (1839). • Southern states make it harder to free slaves and regulate free blacks more closely • This behavior elicited distrust in the North: • John Quincy Adams: “The South Carolinians are attempting to govern the Union as they govern their slaves.” 1-25-16: Lecture • Manifest Destiny, Free Labor Ideology, and the Mexican War • Spread of free labor ideology in the north made the spread of slavery in the west seem more alarming to northerners • Spoils of Mexican War gave Americans new territory to fight over • Political parties crafted compromises that exacerbated distrust between the sections • Previous Conflict Over Territory: Missouri Compromise, 1821 • Henry Clay • Missouri slave state, Maine free state • No slaves above 36 30 line • Lessons Learned from Missouri Compromise Debates: • Keep slavery out of national politics • Make sure that each region has enough land for future expansion • Political parties recognize that they need both northern and southern support to win national elections • Free Labor Ideology: • Through hard work, anyone can achieve social mobility and financial independence Manual labor viewed as dignified; what had helped Americans expand/clear the frontier, the • source of wealth • Promise of upward social mobility • Failure result of individual moral failings • Ex: Abraham Lincoln, humble beginnings, lots of manual labor; little formal education (1 year) • Glorifies hard work, economic progress, and social mobility • Hard work —> social mobility and financial independence • Free Labor Ideology Placed Great Importance on the West: • Anxieties about creation of large groups of dependent wage earners Influx of new immigrants, presenting issues of unemployment, poverty • • Solution to problem: WESTERN LAND • Land ownership; if cities don’t have a lot of excess workers, wages can go up in cities • Free Labor’s Economic Critique of Slavery and Southern Society: • Slavery degraded free labor and bred laziness throughout the South Free Soil Party- want a Homestead Act passed • • Demeans free white labor, stigmatizes all manual labor as demeaning • Wages fall for everyone, unemployment rises • Job competition from enslaved blacks • South lacked economic vitality North has thriving society, premium on education, factories, cities, railroads, newspapers • • South doesn’t have this (or as much of it) • Racism: free labor ideology does not embrace social or political equality for blacks • Ex: Abraham Lincoln, not abolitionist even though slavery is wrong; doesn’t care about them voting, public education, etc. • Western Land and Manifest Destiny: • American Progress, painting by John Gast, 1872 • Recipe for Political Disaster: South Wanted West as Well: • Southerners needed fresh land for cotton Southerners worried about declining political and economic influence • • Southern honor: insult tot exclude slavery from western territories • Annexation of Texas and Election of 1844: • Tensions between north and south over western lands resurface over annexation • James K. polk, slaveholder from Tennessee, elected on expansionist agenda • Democrat, wants Texas admitted to the union • Wanted Texas annexed and goad Mexico into war • “Mexico Will Poison Us”- Ralph Waldo Emerson • Popular war, but there was strong undercurrent of opposition • Some northerners see war as unconstitutional and as a conspiracy to spread slavery across continent Mexican War, 1846-1848: • • U.S. victories led to acquisition of huge amount of territory and disaster for Mexicans in captured territories • Polk wanted all of Mexico, tip of Baja California cut across to bottom of Texas • Lost on racist grounds, didn’t want that many Mexicans in the union • Mexican cession- U.S. paid $15 million; allowed Whigs to feel like it’s a purchase, not an imperial conquest (although it was) • Wilmot Proviso (1846) Further Politicizes Issue of Slavery: David Wilmot, PA Democrat: No slavery allowed in newly acquired territory from Mexican • War • He’s racist; just wants slavery gone so white laborers don’t have to compete • Southerners outraged by this, honor has been insulted 1-27-16: Lecture • Sectionalism and the Tumultuous Politics of the 1850s • Main Points: • Main cause if Civil War is conflict over spread of slavery into territories Conflict over slavery leads to class of conspiracy theories; each side thinks the other is intent • on subverting republican liberties • Compromise of 1850: • CA enters Union as free state • Utah and New Mexico territories: open to slavery via popular vote • Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C. • Stronger Fugitive Slave Act • New Fugitive Slave Act created more controversy • Accused runaways not allowed trial by jury, couldn’t testify on their own behalf • Constant fear of being kidnapped, torn from families, returned to slavery • Criminal penalties even if whites refuse to assist or hide away runaway slaves • Federal Commissioners would get twice as much money if they ruled in favor of slave- masters • Fugitive Slaves Received Widespread Support in North: • Anthony Burns- recaptured in Boston and escorted by federal troops for return to Virginia • ~50,000 protestors line streets of Boston, antislavery activists • Frederick Douglass- violent resistance to FSA justified Harriet Beecher Stowe- FSA inspired her to write Uncle Tom’s Cabin • • US Government commits so much energy and resources to enforcing FSA, North is convinced they're corrupted by South • Northern Interpretation of Fugitive Slave Act of 1850: • Slave-power conspiracy Using republican ideology to express their dismay • • What happens when too much power is in the hand of privileged elite; liberty suffocated • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) —> Formation of Republican Party and War • Illinois Senator Stephen Douglass introduces bill to organize Kansas and Nebraska territories for transcontinental railroad Says Kansas and Nebraska can come in as either free or slave states through popular vote • • Includes provision that repeals the Missouri Compromise to appease Southerners • Kansas-Nebraska Act Unleashes “One Helluva Storm”: • Mass public outcry • Formation of Republican Party: Whig Party disappeared • • Northern Whigs (Conscience Whigs) became Republicans; Southern Whigs (“Cotton Whigs”) join Democrats • Free Soilers, Liberty Party, northern Democrats also folded into Republican Party • Republican Party a stronghold for free-labor ideology “Bleeding Kansas” Gives Republicans Huge Issues: • • Extremists on both sides try to influence outcome in Kansas but south has advantage • Violence, intimidation, and widespread voter fraud make mockery of “popular sovereignty” • “Bleeding Sumner” (1856): • Crime Against Kansas, Charles Sumner (MA Senator) Calls pro-slavery voters awful people, “rape” of virgin territory • • Preston Brooks, (SC Congressman) • Beats Sumner on the Senate floor with his cane- 30 times • Slave Power Conspiracy Determined to Squelch Free Speech: • Preston Brooks made a hero by southerners Only had a $300 fine • • Sumner has severe injuries • Dred Scott Case (1857): • Supreme Court rules that any prohibition against slavery by the federal government or territorial state governments is unlawful • More evidence of slave power conspiracy • John Brown: The Last Straw? Radical abolitionist John Brown attempts to start slave insurrection in Virginia • • Northern sympathy for Brown convinces southerners that North intends to abolish slavery 1-29-16: Lecture • Abraham Lincoln and the Secession Crisis: Understanding the Civil War • Abe Lincoln: Nominated by relatively new Republican party Most northerners at the time are not abolitionists, rather racist • • Why do northerners care about the South leaving? • Lincoln and the Election of 1860: • Moderate on the issue of slavery (focused on spread of slavery) • Not an abolitionist, although he thinks slavery is a moral wrong Wants to keep West open for economic opportunity, social mobility, so restrict expansion of • slavery • He thinks that slavery would just go away if it couldn’t spread anywhere else • He thinks southerners must abolish slavery themselves; admits that it would take more than a century for slavery to go away Lincoln and the Constitution; he’s essentially a corporate lawyer, very keen on Constitution • • Believes that the Constitution and Founding Fathers are, in spirit, fundamentally anti- slavery • Even though he didn’t like the Fugitive Slave Act, he thought northerners had to abide since it was constitutionally passed in Congress Republican Convention in 1860 (Chicago): • • Relative unknown at this point, more established politicians available • Republicans wanted a relative moderate to win the election; Midwestern states were key swing states that they wanted to win • Seward was too radical; thought an unknown would fare better Since convention was in Illinois, Lincoln had home field advantage • • Election of 1860: • Lincoln (Rep.), Breckinridge (Southern Dem.), Bell (Constitutional Union), Douglas (Northern Dem.) • South doesn't really matter, North is key to win for Lincoln Lincoln only gets 40% of popular vote, 60% of electoral vote; Rep vs. Northern Dem.; Bell • vs. Breckinridge • Lincoln not even on the ballot in most southern states • Makes southerners fearful; they don’t control their own political destiny • Jan. and Feb. 1861: Cotton States Leave the Union: • Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Caroline, Florida leave Led by South Carolina; slavery and cotton-production are key in these states • • Why did they leave? • Believed Lincoln was an Abolitionist • Cycle of distrust- no room for compromise or common politics • Government offices as abolitionist headquarters; ex: Customs houses —> conspiracy that people like postmasters, military officers are spreading abolitionist propaganda • Population and Economics: Can we afford to wait? • Southern economy lagging behind northern economy • This is a reason for immediate secession, fears that North would overpower the South • King Cotton: Would the North fight? Thought the North wouldn’t make war against King Cotton since it was the most • important export • Northern economy would collapse if they waged war/southern secession withholding cotton • Emotional decision- challenges southern sense of honor and mastery Upper South’s Dilemma: • • Strong Confederate support: need to protect slavery • States like Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia • Strong Unionist support: fearful of war, stronger economic ties with the North • Areas in Upper south (West Virginia) in which people don’t own slaves at all Buchanan still President at this point- Lincoln didn’t take control until March 1861 • • March 1861: Lincoln Takes Charge • Protect slavery where it exists; suggests non-repealable constitutional amendment with regard to slavery • No compromise on extension Secession is anarchy; demise of representative government —> if you can leave every time • you disagree with a decision of the government, there is no government • Fort Sumter Crisis, April 1861: • Lincoln: “Hold, occupy, and possess” Federal property • Supply Fort with food April 12: South attacked Sumter • • Upper South Leaves the Union: • Pro-secession forces triumph after Fort Sumter • Arkansas, Tennessee, NC, VA join Confederacy 2-1-16: Lecture • The Civil War: The Nation’s First Total War • *Staple rubric to back of paper What made Civil War so deadly? Why did Confederacy lose? • • Characteristics of Total War: • Continuous engagement and high casualty rate • 620,000 dead; more than every other war combined • Equivalent to 8.4 million people dead today • Expansion of government to mobilize resources and people in support of war • Funding calls for more government intervention; taxes like income tax introduced • War against civilian population Undermine economic and social support for soldiers in the field; war that seeks to • demoralize opponent • Union Advantages: • Manpower, industrial capacity • 2x population of Confederation • 3x railroad capacity; 9x industrial capacity • Naval power- victories in New Orleans • Creates blockade of the South- General Scott’s “Anaconda Plan” to blockade Confederacy Blocks ports; strangles south by blocking supplies and food • • Confederacy’s only advantage was cotton production • Confederate Advantages: • Stronger military leadership; Robert E. Lee • No need to conquer the North: DEFENSIVE WAR • North has to justify the war, convince people that it’s necessary • Anger in the North over a draft since wealthy could buy their way out of it • Rifle helped Confederacy inflict staggering casualties • Bullets can travel 400 yards and fly straighter than a musket • Trench warfare adds to the slaughter • Photographs made death more immediate to the public • What They Fought For: • Both sides thought the end would end relatively soon • Trash talk on both sides • Strong ideological beliefs; both saw themselves as fighting on behalf of republican liberties • Southerners saw themselves as rebels, defending states rights, slavery, colonies breaking from England • Northerns saw themselves as preserving Union, end slavery, democratic republican values • Protracted War led to Growth of Government: • Both sides introduced conscription and restricted free speech • Government fostered growth of big business and raised taxes to fun public spending • Birth of the IRS • Things like billiard ball tables, playing cards, yachts, tobacco, alcohol instituted • Alcohol tax was the only one to survive, even the income tax went away after Civil War • Horrible inflation (9,000%) in the Confederacy at one point Sustaining Support on Home-Front Crucial to Victory: • • North good at breaking Confederate morale • Also good at sustaining morale on home-front • North Effectively Made War on Southern Home-Front: • Emancipation of slaves • Naval blockade lowered morale of Confederate civilians • Destruction of southern industries, railroads, cities, farms weakened Confederacy’s ability to wage war Damage to railways and railcars • • Made it impossible to sustain effort • Northern Women Played Crucial Role in Union Victory: • Women work in conventional and unconventional ways to support Union cause and boost morale • Most worked in traditional ways, worked as union nurses and laundresses • Took on domestic roles- caregivers, made packages, raised money, care-packages • Thousands of women join U.S. Sanitary Commission to improve soldiers’ health conditions Biggest killer in the war was disease- 2x as many soldiers died from disease than direct • wounds • Total War Demoralizes Southern Home-Front, Weakens Resolve of Southern Women: • War exacts much larger sacrifice from Southern women • Total war dramatically lowers standard of living By war’s end, southern women encourage desertion • 2-3-16: Lecture • Who Freed the Slaves? • Traditional Interpretation: Lincoln as the "Great Emancipator" • Revisionists: Fugitive slaves and black abolitionists helped to precipitate secession crisis, pressured Lincoln to move toward emancipation, and contributed to victory • The Politics of Emancipation: The Players in the North: • Radical Republicans: Smallest group, radical abolitionists, concentrated in the North; Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens; see Civil War as a second American Revolution • Moderate Republicans: don't want to end slavery unless it's vital to winning the war; Abraham Lincoln; not initially committed to abolition • War Democrats: Oppose eliminating slavery even as a military measure; see it as a white man's war to defend white man's republic; Democrats in the border states; Andrew Johnson, General Butler, General McClellan (Union Generals) • Peace Democrats: Support peace at any price; South has the right to secede, too much bloodshed to preserve Union; abolitionists are the ones to blame, want Lincoln and Republicans out; advocate desertion and resisting draft occasionally; Clement Vallandigham; lots of Irish immigrants, wealthy in the border states • Lincoln Stakes Out Middle Ground to Avoid Alienating War Democrats and Border States: • Border states= manpower, less territory to take back if border states are already on your side Border states important economically; would've boosted industrial capacity of Confederacy • by 50% • Keeping border states means keeping Baltimore and Ohio railroad • Northern Whites and Runaway Slaves Begin to Redefine War Aims: • War Democrats and Moderate Republicans see emancipation as blow to Southern economy Larger strategy of waging total war • • Abolitionists: war needs higher moral purpose • Runaway slaves influence northern opinion • Slaves can provide manual labor; also good military intelligence- they know the land and the enemy well Impact of Refugees on Public Opinion: • • 1862 report on refugees • Emancipation Proclamation, September 1862: • Lincoln saw EP as important military measure; it'll weaken southern economy and morale • Changing public opinion: War needed greater meaning; moral justification for such a bloody war • Foreign policy consideration; some in Britain contemplating intervening on behalf of Confederacy because they want to stabilize cotton trade, want to split Republic in half; strong abolitionist sentiment in Britain as well • Both Conservative and Revolutionary: It frees only slaves in Confederate-held territory, not those in border states • • It redefines the meaning of the war; a war to preserve Union --> war for emancipation • Explicitly rejecting compensation for slaveholders; no language of colonization of freed men; blacks would be fully accepted into Union army • African-American Soldiers and Union Victory: • 200,000 troops and sailors serve late in the war- more than combined armies of Grant, Sherman; starts to take care of morale problem on the Union front- less pressure to continue the draft of whites • Most of these 200,000 are previously southern slaves; 1/4 are northern free blacks • Serve in the fact of severe discrimination; pay is lower than whites ($10/month instead of $13/month), not allowed to be officers; disciplined much harsher; risks they took were much higher if they were to be recaptured by southerners • Expanding the meaning of freedom • Blacks Help Turn Tide in Union's Favor, Securing Lincoln's Reelection: • "This morning, for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable. That this Administration will not be reelected."- Lincoln, August 1864. • He was in fact reelected, Republicans got the majority in the House • Contributions of Slaves to Northern Victory: • Runaways help create Confederate food shortages, undermine railroad network Difficult to rebuild Confederate infrastructure; makes repairs very slow and inefficient • • Slaves assert more power on plantation and refuse to work as hard • Slaves undermine Confederate moral • Challenging entire notion on which the Confederacy rests (slavery is positive) • Who Freed the Slaves: Lincoln or African American Soldiers/Runaways? • Saying it was solely Lincoln ignores agency of black abolitionists, freed slaves, slaves, etc. 2-5-16: Lecture • Reconstruction Whose vision of freedom would prevail? • • 3 Different Dimensions of Reconstruction, 1863-1877: • Political reconstruction • Confederate states being brought back into Union, what are the conditions? • How do we prevent this from happening against? What about secessionists? • Economic reconstruction • Reconstructing race relations • Key Players in Reconstruction Politics: • Radical Republicans • Break up planter class • Equality in every sense for blacks • Moderate Republicans (Lincoln) • Not invested in black equality • Northern Democrats (Andrew Johnson) • States rights • Racism • Southern Whites Define black freedom as narrowly as possible • • Limit everything for blacks • Blacks • Full freedom • How they defined freedom: Family autonomy • • Land of their own • Education • Political rights • Freedom to worship without white oversight First Phase: Lincoln vs. Congress: • • Lincoln: 10% Plan (hard war, easy peace); 10% of population in south pledging loyalty to union and accepting emancipation • Excludes high-ranking generals and government officials • Congress supports more radical Wade-Davis Bill Requires at least 50%; must abolish slavery • • Pledge political and civil rights for blacks • Lincoln vetoes it because he thinks it’s too radical • Congress creates Freedmen’s Bureau and authorized it to rent confiscated land to blacks • Lincoln seemed to be moving in more radical direction Presidential Reconstruction, 1863-1866: • • Andrew Johnson: easy on white southerners • Historians rank him in the top 5 worst presidents of all time • He hated blacks, wanted south back in Union without slavery but still should be ruled by whites Pardons former Confederates of treason except those who held more than $20,000 in slaves • • No to black voting, no freedmen’s bureau, returns confiscated land to Confederates • White southerners resist even these extremely mild terms and institute Black Codes • Try to limit black economic advancement and autonomy • Blacks have to pay taxes if they choose to work outside of farming/domestic service Blacks convicted of “vagrancy” could be fined and auctioned to the person who paid the • fine • Children could be indentured to former masters without parent’s consent • Republicans refuse to seat southern representatives • Congressional Reconstruction: • Civil Rights (14th Amendment, 1866) • Bands Confederate loyalists from taking office unless 2/3 of Congress approves • Voting (15th Amendment, 1868) • Troops to police South (Military Reconstruction Act, 1867) • Limited military occupation • 5 military districts Not very effective • • Education (Freedman’s Bureau) • NO LAND REFORM OR DIRECT ECONOMIC TO SOUTH 2-8-16: Lecture • Reconstruction, Part II: Was it a Failure? • How “Radical” was Congressional Reconstruction? • Weaknesses: • No land reform No franchise for women • • Insufficient military occupation • 15th Amendment contained loopholes that opened door to subsequent disenfranchisement • Strengths: • U.S. only nation to abolish slavery that also gave former slaves citizenship rights • Rejected idea that only whites were entitled to citizenship • Principle of equality of law in 14th Amendment invalidates discriminatory laws in north and laid groundwork for future black freedom struggles African-Americans Achieve Some Gains: • • Public education: by 1870, black literacy rates rise to 20%; by 1920, they rise to 50-70% • Voting rights for black men • Blacks hold elected office • 2,000 blacks across South hold public office • 2 blacks elected to U.S. Senate, 14 elected to Congress • 700 blacks elected to state legislatures • Sharecropping: a mixed bag • Blacks refused to work as wage laborers or gang laborers; wanted maximum autonomy, don’t want to work under supervision of planter • Preferred sharecropping: land owner provides seed, tools, and land for black labor • Promotes indebtedness but preserves measure of family autonomy, autonomous worship, opportunities for worship • Disastrous End of Reconstruction (1870-1877) • By 1876, all former states of the Confederacy had returned to Democratic control (white, conservative rule) • “Redeemers” • Georgia, Texas, Virginia return to white rule less than 3 years after being readmitted to the Union • Why did the South Return to White Rule? Old elites desperate to restore white supremacy • • Extralegal violence against blacks and Republicans (KKK and Mississippi Rifle Clubs) • KKK said they were just defending southern honor • Northern apathy • Becoming distracted by other issues- political fatigue • Not enough troops to deal with white violence- rifle clubs 2-10-16: Lecture • Conquest, Dispossession, and the Myth of the West The Myth of the West: • • Frederick Jackson Turner: • Availability of free land shaped American character, making it more egalitarian and democratic • Spare America fate of previous republics that had class conflict, warfare, poverty, etc. • Truth: American west created vast inequalities of wealth and opportunity • Frontier acted as “safety valve” • Virgin territory; ignored Indian occupation American society is continuously reborn/rejuvenated • • Wilderness transformed Americans into rugged individualists with shared identity • Masculine- Americans were independent, hostile to authority, resistant to tradition, restless, eager to strike out on their own • All ethnic identities melt away and form composite American identity • Truth: a lot of the settlement in the west was heavily subsidized; Homestead Act • Truth: lots of ethnic diversity and conflict • Frontier: the meeting place of “civilization and savagery” • Native Americans either savages or passive in the face of white superiority (too weak) • Heroic Story of Conquest Created Shared Sense of American National Identity: • Rallying point for both northerners and southerners- reunite them, unite against Indians • American Indians Under Siege: • Pressures on American Indians increased thanks to: • Homestead Act- claim up to 162 acres of land for $10 as long as you live on it for 5 years • 162 acres wasn’t really a lot in arid areas- larger farms result from wealthy Federal subsidization of railroads • • Huge land grants- 10% of all land is given free to railroads • Growth of new capitalist enterprises • Mining companies, cattle ranchers, timber companies also picking up land • Completion of the transcontinental railroad (1869) Indian Wars, 1861-1890: • • Indians face 2 options: reservations or resist • Plains Indians were intent on resisting • Huge slaughter of buffalo for business- deliberate US Army policy so you remove something essential to Indian survival Sioux, Pawnees, Crows • • Plains Indians battle US and settlers to preserve land and way of life • Why US Army prevails: • Attack Indian means of subsistence • Genocidal implications- total war; generals from Civil War take part in Indian Wars Railroad give them advantage • • Allows them to move into position quickly, take them by surprise • Federal Indian Policies: • “Peace Policy”- best way to end all conflict with Indians is to convert them to civilization • Benevolent gloss on policies that were anything but kind Dawes Act (1887)- divide Indian land into 160-acre allotments; centerpiece of “Peace Policy” • • Just like the Homestead Act; those who accepted allotments would be accepted as US citizens • Goal- break up cultural power of tribal structures by destroying notions of communal property and making male-dominated nuclear family main organizing unity of society Supporters of Dawes Act hate communal property- Teddy Roosevelt • • Reconstruction plan for the West: just as slavery had to be destroyed to reunify the nation, Indian communal property ownership had to be destroyed to make room for economic progress • Ultimatum- accept this or die “Friends of the Indian”: • • White, middle-class Christian reformers saw themselves as emancipators of Indians who would liberate them from their backward Indian ways • Wanted Indians to remake themselves in the image of their conquerers- change religion, language, dress, laws, gender norms, family relationships, abandon tribal loyalty • Devastating Impact of Indian Policies: • Dawes Act: • Huge giveaway to whites • Indians lose nearly 2/3 of tribal lands (138 million acres in 1887 —> 48 million acres in 1934) Indian Boarding Schools: • • Separated children from parents • Provided grammar school education and mostly vocational training • Extremely strict discipline 2-12-16: Lecture • The Rise of Big Business and the Creation of a National Market • Robber Barons or Masters of Organization? • Andrew Carnegie, William Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller How did big business maximize productivity and profits? • • Vertical Integration- supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. • Eliminates all middlemen • Vertical Integration: Oil Industry (Standard Oil) • Oil fields —> oil transportation —> refineries —> retailers • Productivity Advantages of Standard Oil: Most efficient refining technology • • Not dependent on outside suppliers: own railroad cars, own barrels, own pipelines • Frantic devotion to cutting costs: the glue example • 30 globs of glue —> 24 globs saves millions of dollars over the years • Lower price to consumer at the cost of workers • Economies of scale: price of kerosene falls • 14th Amendment Amplifies Power of Big Business: • Supreme Court applies equal protection clause of 14th Amendment to protect business from regulation and suppress unions • Corporate personhood • Supreme Court rulings reinforce “laissez-faire” (meaning to leave alone) political ideology of Gilded Age • New Technologies Help Big Business Achieve Economies of Scale: • Economies of scale- the bigger you are/more capacity = lower cost of goods • New technologies facilitate mass production • Ex: cigarette industry Expansion of Railroads Facilitates Development of National Markets: • • Delivery of goods to rural consumers • Delivering produce/neer • Creation of National Markets: • Big business wants to rationalize demand by consolidating local and regional markets into national markets; national advertising • Key obstacle: traditional retailers such as the neighborhood general store • A lot of consumers base their decisions on the local shopkeepers/general store • Big business need to trump local store retailer • 1. Lots of retailers sold to people in bulk, generic version 2. Storekeepers were known to recommend substitutes • • 3. Storekeepers would bargain with consumers of prices • Aims of National Advertising: • Increase brand recognition and brand loyalty • Teach shoppers to be brand-conscious consumers Teach shoppers to choose branded goods over goods sold in bulk • • Teach consumers to place trust in the corporation • How did Big Business Justify its Power and Growing Inequalities of Wealth? • Social Darwinism: • Inequality a natural byproduct of competition in which only fittest rise to the top Andrew Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth” • • Rich should use wealth for betterment of humanity • Upsides: • Lower prices for consumers • New jobs and opportunities Technological innovation • • Downsides: • Cycles of boom and bust become more pronounced and frequent • Many workers and small businesses lose out • Growing inequality and corruption of politics Specter of monopoly • 2-17-16: Lecture • Labor’s Response to the Rise of Corporate Capitalism • Gilded Age: Period of Enormous Strife between Capital and Labor: • Great Railroad Strike (1877) spreads across country, sparking fears of new civil war • Nation had already been in depression for 4 years Started in Baltimore, spread throughout; spreads to other industrial workers • • Violence in Pittsburgh- burning railcars • Militia called in, kill 20 people —> army called to restore peace • Workers get 10% pay cut, stockholders get 10% dividend • 1877 marks end of Reconstruction “Great Upheaval of 1886”- 700,000 workers strike • • Demanding 8 hour day • Starts peaceful, ends in violence with 12 people dead • Between 1881-1905 • 37,000 strikes, involving 7 million workers Causes of Increasing Class Conflict and Labor Unrest: • • Economic hardship • Stagnating wages- most at or below poverty line • Immigrants supplying cheap labor • Stagnate wages mean more profit for companies; companies thought it was best for workers to only earn a little- paternalistic “saving them from themselves” • Only 15% considered middle-class • Poor housing/working conditions • Cycles of boom and busy more pronounced and frequent: 1873-77, 1893-96 • Mechanization displaced skilled workers and expanded pool of unskilled workers Transforming wage workers into proletariat that have little hope of social mobility • • Driving out local store owners- potential pool of middle-class Americans sympathetic to unions because they’re struggling too • Many workers believe the new industrial betrayed the promises of free labor ideology • People fear the US is turning into Europe in terms of class conflict Inequalities of wealth more dramatic and perceptible • • Richest 1% earned more than bottom 50% combined • Richest 1% had more wealth than 99% • How do Workers Respond to and Resist Rise of Big Business? • Working-class culture resisted values and demands of industrial discipline “8 hours for work, 8 hours for rest, 8 hours for what we will” • • Working-class saloon very popular- escape from work, freely mock bosses and ruling elite, mock temperance reformers —> communal values, mutuality, solidarity; treating friends to drinks • Direct challenges to system: Strikes, boycotts, • • Unions • Campaign for 8-hour day • Socialist Labor Party • Redistribution of economic and political power Government ownership of transportation and communication • • No more big giveaways of public lands to corporations • Progressive income tax- inheritance tax • Public employment of unemployment • Equal pay, equal work for women Radical democracy- people have to own machinery of government • • No more vetoes • Direct vote for all in all elections- no electoral college esp. for Senate • Universal suffrage- legal holidays for voting • Citizens initiating legislation Workers using numerical advantage at ballot • • The Knights of Labor: • Open to all laborers, doesn’t discriminate by skill, level, race, or gender- had to work with hands • Only people deemed to be “parasitic” weren’t allowed- bankers, lawyers, liquor dealers, etc. 1886: 750,000 members • • Goals: • 8 hour day • Abolition of child labor • Equal pay for women Graduated income tax • • Government ownership of key industries • More land for homesteading • Cooperative vision of small producers • Sudden Downfall of the Knights: Factionalism: Strike or no Strike? • • Haymarket Affair (May 1, 1886) and repression • Can Freedom Exist in Conditions of Extreme Economic Inequality? • Supreme Court invalidates labor movement’s reforms in the interest of protecting “liberty of contract” • Right of employers and employees to contract freely • Ruling against labor consistently • Ex: case against coal companies in which workers wanted to be paid in $ instead of script lost Labor’s enumeration of inalienable rights: • • “Life and the means of living, Liberty and the conditions essential to liberty.” • Political freedom meaningless without economic freedom • Labor identified big business as the new Slave Power • American Federation of Labor: “Pure and Simple Unionism” • AFL more exclusive: • No unskilled workers, women, blacks, Asians • AFL had narrower goals: Better wages and working conditions • • Family wage- single male breadwinner can support family • Shorter hours (8-hour day) • Marks growing acceptance of permanent wage-earning class • Samuel Gompers • Barriers to Unionization: Homestead Strike, 1892 • In 1892, Andrew Carnegie and William Frick cut wages to compensate for falling price of rolled steel Had cut out every union except for one • • Wanted to cut wages 20% • Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers protested


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