Notes For Test 1
Notes For Test 1 PSYC 1001
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Marissa Mangini on Monday February 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Gomez-Serrano in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Psychology Lecture 1 Notes Psychology Psyche soulbreath Logos study of 9Study of the soul originally 9Study of the mind next 9Scientific study of behavior and mental processes current definition Mental processes thinkingmemory and reasoning language solving problems Scientific experiment means that if you repeat it it is always the same History 1879Wilhelm Wundt opened the 1St lab where psychology was studied as a science Came out with a way to study consciousness called Introspection With all the senses asked what did you experience Wundtresponse9William Iames Harvard William James starts a different branch of psychology America Father of psychology Wundt Father of American Psychology lames Consciousness is a continuous event Iames Agrees on the study of consciousness but disagrees on breaking it down to study it Focused on the function of consciousness Iames school is called functionalism Functionalism Iamesreaction9Behaviorism Father of Behaviorism lohn Watson John Watson Psychology should be about something you can observe behavior Skinner put behaviorism to the public eye positive reinforcement Voluntarism Wundt s9psychoanalysis Freud Psychoanalysis Freud saw the root of physical illness on the unconscious 9 In order to treat the physical illness the quotproblemquot should be moved from unconsciousness to consciousness Something in your unconsciousness is shown through physical symptoms Wundt lames Behaviorism and Freud Psychoanalysis Behaviorismreaction 1910519605 Humanistic movement by Roger and Maslow Humanistic Movement Our decisions are not motivated just by the consequences As humans we have choices responsibility Past can t go away but the future is up to you Behaviorism 9Humanistic and Cognitive psychology Cognitive Psychology Based on using a computer as a model for the human brain MIT Now they use MRI to study how we thing we use logic Around the 70s Biological Psychology Explains behavior through biology Evolutionary Psychology Explain the behavior looking at evolution Ex Take female and male and give them a map males are predicted to read map better because when there were hunter and gatherers the ones that would come back could mate and pass down that trait Lecture 2 Notes Methods of Psychology 1 Scientific Method 2 Descriptive Method a Observational techniques b Questionnaires c Case Studies Scientific Method 1 Initial observation stating the problem a Whatever you are observingwondering can be tested 2 Develop hypothesis a Prediction b Educated guess c If A then B finding a relation between two variables d Hypothesis needs to be based on theories 3 Design the experiment a Try to test hypothesis b You need to define i Variables lmportant to define the variables on a way that can be measured ii Groups c Variables i If I study moreindependent variablethen my grades will improve dependent variable ii Independent variable manipulated by the research grades depend on the amount of study iii How you measure the dependent and independent variable is operational definition of the variables d Groups i Control constant and experimental manipulated 4 Collect data analysis of data Compare the groups to see if the manipulation did something statistical analysis pvalue i Pvalue4 A 60 chance that the groups are indeed different significant difference B 40 chance then the differences happen by luck P01 A 99 sure that the groups are significantly different B 1 iii P005 or below means data is significant ii 5 Replication 6 Draw conclusions and make predictions a Study Publication presentations Does technology improve learning Groups Book and technology Just the book Internet and ebook Check grade at end of year Descriptive Methods 1 Observational techniques have the problem of time a You have to be the observer but mark the same as the rest 2 Questionnaires qqrhrbgosrsv h 3 Case S a b Ethics Lack of honesty Lack of knowing itself Boredom Selfselecting bias Misunderstanding question Bias by the designer of questionnaire Trying to get people to take it Anonymity tudy Intensive examination of one case very few subjects In psychology famous case studies i Phineas Gage had a metal bar go through his face and forehead and nothing happened he was fine His intelligence memory was fine but he stopped being goal oriented Later worked in circus and was a driver of a carriage with eight horses His frontal cortex had a whole he lost the ability to control himself 19589American Psychology Association APA 0 Rules that must be applied when doing research with humans 1 Informed consent a The subject must be informed about what is going to happen during the experiment b Sometimes they use deception to prevent the subject from changing his her behavior 2 Freedom from coercion a Subjects can t be forced to be part of the study grades or money 3 Protection from harm a Subject must be protected from any physical or psychological harm b Tuskegee experiment 19321972 i 400 had syphilis and 200 didn t ii Denied them treatment because the doctors were looking at the development of syphilis iii At the end of the study 74 were alive 40 wives infected 19 kids infected c 194619489American men injected 695 people in Guatemala with syphilis d Nazis i Figure out time to freeze e Milgram study i Study on obedience ii No protection from psychological harm 4 RiskBenefit analysis a The subjects should not experience any risk bigger than normal life risk 5 Debriefing a Informed consent deception b By the end of the study if deception has been used the people need to be debriefed They go home knowing what the experiment was really about Other Concerns 1 Confounding variables a Variables other than the dependent and independent variable 2 Expectations a Researcher is predicting what is going to happen i They may see what they want to see researcher bias b Subject Bias c Double blind study i Neither the researcher nor the subject know the group they belong to ii Third party doing the experiment is also a blind design 3 Correlation is not causation a Correlational studies you are looking for a relation between two variables but there is not cause and effect i Broken families and emotional problem b 2 types of correlation i Positive 1 19when one variable increases and so does the other ii Negative Rvalue one variable goes up and the other goes down Biological Basis of Behavior Genes cells brain Genes Information to make proteins 0 Proteins chains of amino acids I Examples of amino acids muscles receptors neurotransmitters enzymes Nucleus has DNA 2 strands of DNA is a gene 0 2000025000 genes DNAtranscribed mRNA single stranded ribosome translates mRNA into proteins Ex Some alcoholics have version of A1 of DRD2 dopamine receptor dopamine 2 These receptors are not as sensitive so they need more and then it eventually hits them Genes proteins Cells 0 Glial cells990gt14 billion I Astroglial cells Function is to make the bloodbrain barrier Lipid soluble go through I Microglial cells The are macrophages of the brain I Oligodendroglial cells Make myelin fatty substance around the axon o Neurons910gt15 billion I STUDY DRAWING OF NEURON I Soma neurotransmitters are made I Axon highway to transport products from soma to the terminal Carries electrical current The myelin is key to speed up two electrical transmission I Dendrites receptors place where neurotransmitters attach Function Neurons Resting Firing Resting Neuron The electrical charge of a resting neuron is 65mv The inside of the neuron has a negative charge compared to the outside IONS make the inside more negative than the outside A proteins K9potassium goes out Na9Sodium goes in Cl Chloride goes in What keeps the ions in those concentrations 0 3 forces working to keep the charge at 65mv 1 Chemical gradientgtconcentrations tend to equalize a Based on the chemical gradient K would leave the cell 2 Electrical gradient a 65mv990mv b Based on the electrical gradient the K would go back in c Na keeps going in because the inside is still negative 65mv930mv 3 NaK pumps a Takes 3 Na from the inside out b Takes 2 K from outside in
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