Soc Psy EXAM 1
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Social Psychology 82912 CHAPTER 1 Introducing Social Psychology Branches of Psychology Clinical Cognitive Developmental Health Personality Social What is Social Psvcholoov De nition the scienti c study of how people think about in uence and relate to one another Scienti c eld Cognition Affect and Behavior 0 How you think how you feel how you behave In uences of real or imagined others 0 Impact they have upon your cognition affect or behavior 0 Ex Getting dressed l think about how others will judge out t imagined How does social psych differ Personality psych all about how personality shapes a person 0 Vs social how situation affects a person Sociology l similar but usually takes a bigger scope when looking at things 0 Focus on societal institutions lower class vs upper class 0 Use less experimental methodology l would use observation Anthropology l studies cultural differences 0 Participant observation join particular culture to learn about it Why should we study social psych Curiosity Find solutions to social problems Isn t this all just common sense Contradictions 0 quotAbsence makes the heart grow fonderquot l opposite proverb states quotOut of sight out of mindquot o quotOpposites attractquot vs quotBirds of a feather ock togetherquot Hindsight bias tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome one s ability to have foreseen that outcome 0 Inaccurate predictions are stored worse than accurate predictions Social Psych Perspectives Sociocultural deals with cultural differences causes of social behavior lie within in uences from larger social groups Evolutionary Natural selection has developed socially adaptive behaviors in humans Social learning idea that our past learning experiences predict our future actions 0 Learn from the past both our own experiences and from observations modeling Social cognition look at mental processes involved in remembering interpretations making judgments of different social behaviors Scienti c Values Accuracy everything we re looking at is valid Objectivity unbiased in what is being studied Skepticism idea of don t buy everything you hear l replication to show reliability OpenMindedness be willing to accept results even if don t want to Reliability amp Validity Reliability consistency 0 De nition extent to which a measure applied repeatedly exhibits the same results Validity accuracy 0 De nition extent to which a measure accurately re ects to concept of being studied 0 External validity l applies to generalizability across situations 0 Internal validity l applies to the accuracy within the study itself Methodologies Naturalistic observation 0 Goal description be able to describe what is being observed Good for spontaneous behaviors ex Go to bar to see how men hit on women Bad for rare behaviors ex Go to bar to see brawl o Archival Analysis type of naturalistic observation Ex Go into data that is already available and test hypothesis on that data 0 Participant observation Correlational 0 Goal prediction of a behavior 0 Correlation is NOT causation o Surveys Hard to observe behaviors Cheap and easy to get larger groups Problems 0 Accuracy people lie or don t always know correct answer 0 Social desirability bias people want to be liked and viewed as being a good person 0 Sampling technique 0 Sample often not representative of every population due to technique being used ex Phone calls during 19605 election Wording can often in uence how people behave 0 Ex Hilary Clinton vs Hilary R Clinton 0 Ex Higher Interest in trees and plants vs low interest in botany 0 Double barreled questions Positive correlation variables move in same direction Negative correlation variables move in opposite directions Range 1 1 0 Sign indicates positive or negative 0 Number indicates strength Media Errors in surveyscorrelation methodologies Effect Sizes almost never reported Samples not representative of entire population Low Response Rates Biased Survey Questions Methodology Experimental Methodology 0 Goal causation 0 Experiment terminology Random assignment assigning participants to conditions so that all persons have an equal chance of being in any condition Cover story fake story about what experiment is about prevent bias Convenience samples Replication Operational de nition clarifying speci c meaning of variables 0 know how to operationally de ne for exam see handouU 0 De ne something very speci cally in terms of your experiment Mundane realism l is it realistic to what would occur in everyday life Psychological Reaism MetaAnalysis 0 Whole bunch of studies on topic take statistics to form hypothesis Variable Types know how to apply 0 O O 0 Independent variables manipulated Dependent variables measured Confounding variables variable that systematically changes along with the IV Mediating variables how something works Men are more aggressive than women because of testosterone mediating v Hypothesis speci c question Nu no difference Alternative difference Theory scienti c explanation that connects and organizes existing observations and suggests fruitful paths for future research never proven Types of Resea rch Basic deals with fundamental questions and theories 0 Ex Conservation of energy principle Applied applications of basic research to everyday societal needs 0 HOW l builds upon basic Ethics Informed consent Debde ng Institutional Review Boards IRB s l insists that you debrief Deceonn 0 Ex Cover stories is it ethical 0 Demand characteristics something participants try to see what the exp is measuring and try to give correct behavior Statistics Inferentialstatistics 0 Normal curve 0 Want sig level of 005 September 52012 Ch2 Notes SelfSchemas beliefs about the self that organize and guide the processing of selfrelevant information Selfschemas make up a sefconcepts SelfConcept how we think of ourselves ex Autobiography of yourself Development of selfconcept 0 Childhood o Adulthood psychological Failures and successes How others de ne us Types of self concept 0 Independent de ning oneself based on internal thoughts and feeHngs AKA individualistic Western America Europe and Men Men usually much more individualistic o lnterdependent de ning oneself based on one s identity in relation to others Eastern and Women Takes into account your family people you work with etc Types 0 Relational Female vs Collective Male 0 Relational relating with other people Collective de ne sef based on where you are in job or membership in some group political group SelfAwareness the act of thinking about ourselves ex Reading autobiography do not need to memorize for test but knowbe familiar with Independent cultures everyone takes care of themselves not including immediate family Identity based on your achievements and your individual goas People are very encouraged to express themselves and receive validation for doing so ex Facebook Emotionally independent Leadership emphasized Things that are ideal autonomy variety pleasure and individual nancial security Trust is individual Anger when goal is blocked l legitimate emotion lnterdependent cultures socialized to be emotionally dependent upon social organizations Emphasis on belonging Membership in groups ideal Strives for expertise order your duty and security Trust is placed in a group l trust a group the organization Anger is seen as a signal of social breakdown not legitimate Shame anxiety feeling indebted to someone more common negative feelings SelfComplexity how the self concept is organized High self complexity l more positive selfconcept 0 Ex You want to play the violin and you consider yourself to be fairly good If you have low sefcompexity and play wonderful concert but it goes wrong and you play horribly l then you will be shattered 0 Will think you suck at everything 0 Being a bad violinist affects everything else too If you have high sefcompexityand had a terrible performance you would say maybe I m not the best but it s okay Failure in one area with a person who has low selfcomplexity is affected much more Social Identity Theory Holds that you have a social identity along with your personal identity Identity that you gain from the groups you belong to Just as concerned that our social identity remain positive like our personal identity A lot to do with prejudice and stereotyping Components 0 Categorization Often put ourselves and others in different groups Labeling o ldenU cann Once make category then identify with one group 0 Comparison In groups by belonging to in groups gain boosts in self esteem Favorable bias toward ingroup vs those in out groups 0 Psychological Distinctiveness Desire identity to be distinct and positively compare to out groups Effects of Social Identity 0 lngroup biases favorable biases VERY strong effect favor your group 0 Black sheep effect Favor in group members but in group members in unique position to hurt us In group member who is making group look bad to outsiders Punish more harshly than you would to an out group member Prejudice and stereotypes discrimination o Categorize people by race ethnicity gender etc Caucasians favor Caucasians African Americans favor African Americans What does this mean when you can t leave your group can t change race gender ldentity Interference 0 Different identities may con ict with one another 0 Identity interference l STRESS l poor performance lower well being The Process of Creating a Social Concept 3 1 lntrospection Weaknesses worthless o Unconscious thought Social Comparison Theory When do we compare 0 No objective measure ex No mean test score to compare to o Uncertainty about yourself Who do we compare with 0 Initially anyone 0 Then those with a similar background ex ask friend who studied the same amount as you 2 Social Comparison to Ourselves We can compare our current self to 0 Our past self 0 Dreaded possible selves o Desired potential selves Regulatory Focus Theory 0 Prevention Vigilance 0 Promotion Eagerness Very eager to accomplish their desired potential selves 3 Goals and Comparisons Social Comparison to Others Goal of selfenhancement o Downward comparison 0 Can actually be helpful people who have bad health Cancer patients compare to someone who is worse off later feel happier 0 Ex Don t feel well about test score so compare yourself with friend who never studies Goal of accuracy 0 Similar others comparison 0 Ex Compare with someone who studied the same Goal of aspirations o Upward comparison 0 Compare ourselves to those who are better than us 0 Ex Little kid who really likes basketball compares himself to M Goal to strive for lntra amp lntergroup comparisons o lntra within Respect Compare within group do well respect 0 Inter between Legitimacy Compare my group to another group 0 Ex HS football team compared with Steelers 0 BC illegitimate comparison HS kids would be hostile towards the Steelers SEM SelfEvaluation Maintenance Model Goal maintain a positive view of the self Process 0 Distance ourselves from others who perform better 0 Move closer to others who perform worse Only applies when relevant is something you care about doing well in Can predict friendships l if someone gets better at something that you want to be good at then you may shy away How to change sabotage friend drop friend completely OR change selfrelevancy ex Say to yourself that you no longer care SelfAwareness De nition When people focus on themselves they compare their behavior to internal standards Hard to know when someone is selfaware 0 Ex Beeper study goes off every so often write down what you re thinking when goes off often people did not rememberknow what they were thinking Types 0 Subjectiveself awareness know that you are separate from your environment not attached to chair when sitting on it 0 Objective selfawareness organism s capacity to be the object of its own attention 0 Symbolic selfawareness uniquely human capacity to form an abstract representation of the self through language Recodnition of the self Recognition implies a selfconcept Cats and dogs CANNOT recognize self esp at young age Primates video chimp seeing mirror for the rst time 0 Have concept of bodily self that allows them to know that that image is equivalent to this body 0 Mark test mark child s cheek then they look in mirror and recognize self 0 Can primates pass this test as well Yes notices mark Not just humans and primates but elephants and dolphins too Importance of Social Environment To understand ourselves we must understand others Humans primates etc who cannot recognize self is due isolation Good and Bad of SelfFocus GOOD 0 Evaluation 0 Morality BAD o Binge eating 0 Alcohol abuse 10 SelfPerception Theory De nition when our feelings are uncertain we infer them by examining our behavior and the situation 0 Behavior must be freely chosen Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation 0 Intrinsic internal desire for behavior Ex Makes you feel good pleasure o Extrinsic external rewardpressure for behavior Ex grades Overjusti cation effect tendency for people to view behavior as caused by extrinsic reasons underestimating intrinsic reasons causing them 0 Students taught math with creative fun math games these improve math performance those offered rewards after the reward period for not choose to play math games o Overjust hurts more if initial intrinsic motivation existed Taskcontingent reward rewards that are given regardless of how well the task is done 0 Ex Passfail classes Performance contingent rewards rewards that are based on how well we perform a task 0 Ex Letter grades in school ABCDF o More about quality the better reward usually May increase intrinsic Can be too controlling l ex when effort is not adding up to grade 0 Create more motivation BUT also more anxiety SelfEfficacy De nition belief that one can achieve a goal as a result of one s own acUons o How you feel about your control over a situation 0 Linked with depression low se l depression Factors affecting selfefficacy 0 Experience done well in past so can do it again 0 Modeling see someone else do ne so you can do ne too 0 Social persuasion l someone says you do bad then you will do bad 0 Interpretations of Physiological Responses Increased heartbeat can be seen as nervous or excited positive 11 Nervous low selfefficacy Excited high selfefficacy Effects of SelfEfficacy on 0 Task Performance Fail l engage in less When se is high under prepared 0 Motivation Obstacles encouraging high se Low se so that you would do well compare yourself to others positive effect because you train harder 0 Failure interpretations High se l blame external variables Optimum level of SelfEfficacy a little above your ability because the challenge will increase the experience SelfEsteem De nition one s overall attitude toward the self Traitglobal vs State speci c 0 Trait l overall 0 State at this moment how you feel about yourself Sociometer hypothesis 0 Ex more friends then increased selfesteem Selfveri cation theory 0 Ex like to be close to others who verify our opinion of ourselves See us as we see ourselves Negative implications l those with low selfesteem then usually choose a partnermate who also thinks lowly of them Low selfesteem really means moderate selfesteem most have high selfesteem Effects of SelfEsteem 0 LOW selfesteem leads to Drug use Bad test scores Depression Terrorism but can also be from high 0 HIGH Bullying Narcissism Exhibitionism 12 Groups and SelfEsteem o Minorities display higher selfesteem compared to whites Rejection Identi cation Model 0 How we deal with being rejected by majority 0 Identify more strongly within group 0 Alleviates some negative consequences of prejudice 19905 at age 10 whites have higher SE puberty SE goes down for both then afterduring college blacks SE skyrockets past whites 0 Not prevalent during 605705 0 WHY So many programs focused on inclusiveness and importance of diversity 0 Con icting data on gender NOT SURE women may have slight lower selfesteem Gender gap stronger in minorities IF gap actually exists Above Average Effect Tendency for people to rate themselves as above the average on most positive social attributes o Protects against failures not bad to be unrealistic and optimistic SelfComplexity Role of Emotion 1 Twofactor theory 0 Arousal 0 Interpretation of Environment emotion Misattribution of Arousal 0 Study given stimulant drug increased heartbeat nerves 1 group told about drug and effects 0 Result remains calm steady heartbeat because expchng 2 group not told Result reported feeling uncomfortable because did not expect AROUSAL l INTERPRETATION l EMOTION Role of Emotion 2 Appraisal theory of emotion o Emotions result from people s interpretations of events EMOTION lIllIllIllIllIllIllIllIllIl 13 INTERPRETATION DDDDDDDDD AROUSAL SeIfReference Effect and Studying De nition people s orientation toward stimuli that are associated with the self 0 Apply it to yourself in order to remember the materials and concepts 14 Missed class 91212 ch3 September 19 2012 Ch 5 Notes Impression Management nishing off from lastmissed class Strategies for Appearing High Status and Powerful Display the artifacts of status and power Associating with those of status 0 Basking in re ected glory 0 Cutting off re ective failure cut off people who are less powerful than you Pitt fans we won the game vs they the team lost the game Nonverbal behavior portraying status 0 Those secure in status Relaxed open postures Visual dominance Interrupt Place of prominence ex Head of table Touch others Encroach on personal space 0 Ex Bus behavior nonverbal behavior on buses of women vs men 0 Men more likely to do above actions 0 Threatened status puffed up stiffen backs tighten brows thrust out chins Spotlight Effect De nition View ourselves as in the public light when we are not Fears of SelfPresentation Public selfconsciousness tendency to have chronic awareness of oneself as being in the public eye these people are more likely to self handicap Social anxiety fear the people experience while doubting that they will be able to create a desired impression Selfmonitoring tendency to be chronically concerned with ones public image and to adjust ones actions to t the needs of the current situation 15 0 Skilled at detecting manipulation 0 Skilled at reading emotions o More likely to be leaders When do we care about selfpresentation Observers in uence goal attainment Goals are important Observers have impressions different from the ones we want them to have Deception and Evolution Subliminal Processing Subliminal messages words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless in uence peoples judgments attitudes and behaviors Unsure of effectiveness lack of evidence Efficacy of Subliminal Messages Illumination No distraction No supraliminal messages Goal relevant Simple messages No matter what they do increase recognition and familiarity BUT there s little evidence that they control behavior Voting study Great for priming when not expecting a behavior DECEPTION Detecting Deception 54 accuracy in lietruth judgments Typical paradigm includes 0 Participants view videos in which the actor either lies or tells the truth 0 Typically receivers are judging 16 messages 0 Receivers and senders are usually strangers What about the experts Sample Mean Secret 6412 service Polygraphers 5567 16 Police Judges Psychiatrists CoHege students Secret service the best but still not that good considering profession Polygraphs Detects higher arousal comparing control and target questions Great chance of inaccuracy Liars can also trick machine 25 accuracy worse than ipping a coin Why are we bad at detecting deception We pay attention to the wrong cues o Hesitation in speech 0 Fidgety bc nervous o Won t look you in the eye 0 All of the above are incorrect Do not pay attention to the right cues o Behavioral rigidity But even when participants are trained they still detect deception at low rates Truth bias we like to assume people are telling the truth we want to trust people especially people we are close to or interact with How to nd liars Microexpressions youtube video eeting facial expressions lasting only a few tenths of a second lnterchanne discrepancies 0 When one part of face expresses one emotion and the apart expresses a different emotion Ex If you re smiling with lips but eyes look angry Eyes pupil dilation occurs when concentrating liars are probably concentrating more than nonliars Exaggerated facial expressions 0 Expressions that you don t really feel are held longer 0 Ex Fake smiles held longer fakes smiles often used when lying Higher pitched voices when lying Linguistic stvles of liars Higher tendency to start sentences stop and begin them again Liars use the words I and quotmequot less Negative emotive words More simple actions fewer speci ers The more detail less likely a person is lying 17 EVOLUTIONARY THEORY De nition Change in inherited characteristics change over generations Basic concepts Deep Time The geological time scale is very vast earth is VERY old approx 45 billion years old 0 Evolution of humans is like a blink of the eye in terms of time BCs Natural Selection Gradual nonrandom process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction Genetic variation within a species Inheritance of genetic codes Differential reproduction l certain traits more likely to reproduce than other traits Modern theory cares about reproduction and not survival The Speed of Evolution Reproduction rate Environmental pressures o Carrying capacities supportable population of an environment When low can t handle amount of population Diversity Success The more diversity the more possible mutations The more mutations the higher number of possible successful mutations The more successful mutations the better adapted a species is to its environment Principles of Evolutionary Psychology hint hint Principle 1 The brain is a physical system lt functions as a computer lts circuits are designed to generate behavior that is appropriate to your environmental circumstances Principle 2 Our neural circuits were designed by natural selection to solve adaptive problems that our ancestors faced during our species evolutionary history 0 Adaptive problems are recurring nding food nding a mate 18 0 And reproductive l survival is less important than reproduction Ex Most people do not like dung for any reason as opposed to dung beetles they mate on dung Principle 3 Consciousness is just the tip of the iceberg most of what goes on in your mind is hidden from you Most problems that you experience as easy to solve are very dif cult to solve Principle 4 Different neural circuits are specialized for solving different adaptive problems 0 Modules neural circuits specialized for speci c problems Minicomputer inside your brain specialized programs for a speci c task Principle 5 Our modern skulls house a stone age mind Brains are based in nomadic minds better with dealing with hunter gatherer situationssmall groups as opposed to large groups Easier for us to feel snakes than electrical sockets while it is likely that more people are injured from electrical outlets 0 Better at solving problems of ancestors than of in modern day cities Solving NonAncestral Problems Ability to solve new problems is a byproduct of solutions to ancestral problems 0 Ex Learn to skateboard from knowledge of walking Walking developing as stone age ppl realized it took less energy to walk on two feet rather than four less sun burn when two feet Misconceptions the following is false 1 Adaptive traits must be present at birth 2 Evolution is a theory about the origin of life 3 Evolution is like climbing a ladder of progress organisms get better and better 4 Evolution occurs entirely by chance 5 Evolution is a theory with weak evidence 6 Evolutionary theory excuses immoral behavior a Rape and aggression b Social Darwinism 7 We are descended from chimps we are descended from Neanderthals we just have common ancestors 19 8 Quick evolution nerds will take over 9 Behavior is genetically determined Universal Norms Evolutionary reasons why some norms are universal o Friendship o Incesttaboo 0 Status hierarchies TEST 6O mc 6 short answer choose 5 Focus on lecture in TB focus on key terms especially ones that she hasn t talked about and summary at end of chapter 20
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