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Second Two Weeks of Notes

by: Dilnoza Bobokalonova

Second Two Weeks of Notes INS201

Marketplace > International Studies > INS201 > Second Two Weeks of Notes
Dilnoza Bobokalonova
GPA 3.381
Globalization and Change in world Politics
Margarita Rodriguez

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This is the second two weeks of notes, so please disregard the file names "Four weeks of notes", as that one is not being opened properly. Hope this helps!
Globalization and Change in world Politics
Margarita Rodriguez
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Dilnoza Bobokalonova on Monday February 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to INS201 at a university taught by Margarita Rodriguez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 184 views.

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Date Created: 02/16/15
Tuesday anuary 27th WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT Predominant perspectives National development 0 Human development 0 Global development What is national development 0 Speci c measurements economic growth has to be sustainable Economic aspect sustained and sustainable economic growth 0 Social aspect education health welfare of the population 0 Social justice aspect Other sociopolitical aspect Economic Aspect Sustained economic growth 0 Measures using GDP poverty levels coefficients of inequality among other indicators Sustained and sustainable growth 0 Sustainable growth is built upon the idea that social life should be understood holistically across and integrated series of domains economics ecology politics and culture from the global compact city programme Social aspects 0 Capacity to improve the population s welfare Widespread access to effective education and health care for most of the country s population Social justice aspect Social justice 0 To reduce inequality 0 To secure Other sociopolitical aspects Sociocultural integration Granting of citizenship tights 0 Respect for human rights GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT 0 Predominant perspective in policymaking for example the UN World Bank and other multilateral organizations 0 Critical Global Perspectives in academia by some advocacy groups such as the Foro De Sao Paulo for example reading by Robinson on quotthe nine these of capitalismquot Human Development 0 The enlargement of people s choices UN s de nition People s choices refer to o Choices that quotlead to a long healthy life to acquire knowledge and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of livingquot UN 2010 2 The two sides of human development 0 The formation of human capabilities eg knowledge skills improved health and o The use people make of their enhanced capabilities as they participate in productive cultural social and political affairs 0 both production and leisure are important aspects of human development 0 The concept of human development likewise the notion of quotpersonal developmentquot emphasizes also on quotselfhelpquot self developmentquot efforts at individual improvement economically intellectually emotionally Human development has been de ned also in a narrow sense as the development of human capital DEVELOPMENT CITIZENSHIP AND GLOBALIZATION Citizenship as a status related to rights and obligations within a given nation state 0 Citizenship as enabling condition Human development Emphasis individuals producers consumers communities 0 Economic indicators and issues pertaining to the creation and distribution of wealth are examined in relation to how they relate to people s choices and as aspects of their development 0 United nations Millenium Development Goals ZOOpresent 0 At the millennium summit in September 2000 the largest fathering of world leaders in history adopted the UN Millenium Declaration o The declaration committed the nations to a new global National security foreign policy and global development o Is there a link between the two of them 0 A former secretary of State s view on this issue Thursday January 29th Perspectives on Power Relevant Questions 1 What is power 2 How is power exercised 3 Who are the actors in the power relationship that you are examining 4 What is the role and place of the actors involved in a power relation Power in International Relations Theory 0 The ability to in uence the behavior of others to accomplish the outcomes one wants Joseph Nye Power as capability Economic political military diplomatic technological Power beyond capabilities The mere possession of capabilities does not secure the ability to modify other actors behavior Power in International Relations Theory Relational power Calls attention to power beyond this issue of capabilities o It includes issues of perceptions the intersubjective and symbolic aspects of a power relationship for example perception of the willingness to deploy and use the capabilities in a given situation and negotiation ability to offer material and nonmaterial goods for the advancement of interests 0 Structural power The ability to shape the conditions in which other actors behave at a systemic level 0 Structural power The ability to shape and determine the structure of the global political economy within which other states operate This refers to their political institutions their economic enterprises scienti c programs etc Soft Power 0 quotSoft Powerquot The ability to in uence decisionmaking processes and events in other states or the international system through persuasion or cooptation rather than military or nancial coercion It involves the use of culture economic means shared value in the efforts to modify other actors behavior It involves acceptable approaches to other states sensitive issues such as environmental issues agricultural production migration etc when negotiating with them Institutions associated W soft power Official Development Assistance ODA Associations with volunteering capacity eg Peace Corps Volunteers 0 Soft Power refers to strategies that incite admiration and respect in other parts of the world Hard Power Soft Power and Structural Power 0 The US China and Russia have hard power in the form of capabilities such as large military forces and dangerous weapons and perceptions about their readiness to deploy them They also have capabilities related to soft power such as attractive cultural backgrounds attractive market opportunities and valuable natural or technological resources However the US has a greater advantage in terms of structural power because it is well positioned to in uence these two states place in the international system through its in uence within the World Trade Organization the World Bank and the IMF I Given the cultural linguistic economic technological and educational aspects of its hegemonic position globally the US has a great deal of soft power Hard and Soft Power After 911 First stage The use of hard power was emphasized it doesn t mean that soft power was abandoned The predominant approach was America will use quotevery tool in our arsenal military power better homeland defenses law enforcement intelligence and vigorous effortsquot in war time to quotreaffirm the essential role of American military strengthquot Second stage Transition into a combination of hard power and soft power quotIn the cause of ending tyranny and promoting effective democracy we will employ the full array of political economic diplomatic and other tools at our disposalquot quotOur strong preference and common practice is to address weapon proliferation Political perspective on quotBalance of P0 wer Balance of power is a concept that tries to capture how states deal with the problems of national and international security in a context of shifting alliances and alignments Assumption behind the concept Peace among nations is usually associated with an approximate equilibrium in the distribution of power between nations in this system 39A balance of power creates peaceful structural conditionsquot way of thinking endorsed by many IR theoreticians such as Waltz Morgenthau The idea is that the balanced system is produced by the clustering of individual national interests in opposition to those of other states Economic perspective on quotBalance of P0 wer De ned as a mechanism by means of which a given states can separately orjointly reduce protection costs both absolutely and relative to their competitors and rivals Other approaches to power Max Weber on power Max Weber author of The Protestant Ethics and The Spirit of Capitalism He provides the sociological perspective quotPower is the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his will despite resistance regardless of the basis on which this probability restsquot The role of coercion interests and legitimacy in a power relationship Coercion Re ects a power asymmetry that is employed through intimidation or similar mechanisms for the purpose of modifying other actors behavior against their will Interests Emphasizes obedience loyalty and compliance in the calculation of the bene ts of a given position in a power relation what is the dominant actor eg ruler or the political ruling class providing to the subjects Legitimacy Emphasizes the perception that authority is justi ed Moral justi cation in the exercise of power The state international nancial institutions and other actors may be legitimate because they deliver bene ts or create consensus An erosion of legitimacy can lead to the collapse of an authority quotLegitimacy is a conviction on the part of persons subject to authority that it is right and proper and that they have some obligation to obey regardless of the basis on which this belief restsquot Authority Descriptive sense The capacity of the sovereign or any other in uential actor to maintain order and being obeyed Normative sense The state and other in uential actors have authority if the capacity to maintain order and being obeyed is legitimate for a critical mass of the followers An erosion in the capacity to rule based authority is perceived as an erosion of the legitimacy of power The political authority is not perceived as to be justi ed right and for a good reason Tuesday February 3m Michael Foucault on power French intellectual He coined the term biopower Emphasizes techniques of power technologies of power the subject of power and subjugation quotSlavery is not a power relationship when man is in chains In this case it is a question of a physical relationship of constraintquot Consequently there is no facetoface confrontation of power and freedom Does freedom disappear everywhere power is exercised Foucault emphasizes that there is a complex interplay of freedom and power in a power relationship Furthermore in modern societies freedom may appear also as the condition for the exercise of power freedom must exist for power to be exerted Freedom is also the permanent support of power Without the possibility of recalcitrance de ance resistance Foucault argues power would be equivalent to a mere physical determination Michael Foucault on power techniques or power the subject of po wer and subjugation The subject and power o quotThe human subject is placed in relations of production and of signi cation he is equally placed in power relations which are very complexquot 0 Notice that it is not a Marxist conceptualization on power because it looks for the understanding of power without Power relation and location in a power structure 0 Thus conceptualizations of power is not a statecentric one insofar as it looks for the formation of power relationships Michel Foucault on power 0 There are quottransversalquot struggles what we would call today transnational struggles that is they are not limited to one country 0 Of course they develop more easily and to a greater extend in certain countries but they are not con ned to a particular political or economic form of government 0 For example the quotcontrol of the medical profession over people s bodies their health and their life and deathquot Biopoitics For example prevailing laws norms and values on abortion vaccinations physical con nement in prisons social norms and values related to abstinence Or sophisticated mechanisms deployed by the government to regulate the size of the population and their characteristics such as laws that affect fertility mortality or migration rates The pa werknowledge matrix Foucault emphasizes the link between power and knowledge 0 Mechanisms of control the ways in which knowledge is produced circulates and functions its relations to power In short the regime du savoir regime of knowledge Mechanisms of resistance quotstruggles against the privileges of knowledge opposition against secrecy deformation and mystifying representations imposed on peoplequot Foucault s P0 werknowledge matrix 0 The in uence of the media in creating public opinion How does knowledge is in uenced by trends in money allocation for research which are the topics that prevail Why Why some conceptual frameworks become meainstream while other not There are all features of a power structure The powerknowledge matrix operates necessarily through direct imposition but through techniques of power that may include co optation socialization through the family the educational system the religious institutions etc Michel Foucault on the po werknowledge matrix Subjugated knowledge blocs of historical knowledge that were present but disguised a whole set of knowledge that have been disquali ed are inadequate to their task or insufficiently elaborated nai39ve knowledge located down on the hierarchy beneath the required level of cognition or scienti cally popular knowledge it is through this particular local regional knowledge a differential knowledge incapable of unanimity and which owes its force only to the harshness with which is it is opposed by everything surrounding it is through the reappearance of this knowledge of these local popular knowledge these disquali ed knowledge that criticism performs its work Pierre Bourdieu on Power Bourdieu s theory of symbolic power He emphasizes the role of the subconscious cultural intersubjective aspects of power The need to gain greater understanding of the role of modern institutions in creating and recreating power relations Bourdieu s concept of capital Capital not just as a material or monetary expressions quotinvestment capital xed capital etc but also as 0 Cultural capital 0 Symbolic capital 0 Political capital 0 Social symbolic cultural and political capital can be accumulated and transferred across generations or social domains Cultural capital plays a key role in power relations it enables noneconomic form of dominations and hierarchy For example cultural affinities and tasted distinguishing quotpopular culturequot from quothigh culturequot Values and social norms are transmitted through formal educational institutions and cultural habits of certain social groups There is a constant shift from material of capital And all of them make up the relationships meanings and material bases of power and inequality quotcultural capitalquot and the means by which it is created or transferred from other forms of capital monetary political social plays a central role in power relations as this provides the means for a noneconomic form of domination and hierarchy as classes distinguish themselves through tastequot The shift from the material to cultural and symbolic forms of capital is to a large extent what hides the causes of inequality Bourdieu s symbolic capital The form that the various species of capital assume when they are perceived and recognized as legitimatequot Symbolic capital is not a different form of capital but rather should be seen as the legitimated recognized form of the other capitals In other words any capital may undergo a process of conversion so that it is recognized as legitimate quotcurrencyquot or assets Hence educational credentials wealth etc Honor or prestige for example is the outcome of the conversion of other forms of capital Link with theory Social theory of practice Structuration Theory Anthony Guddens Pierre Bourdieu 1 quotObjects and subjects should not be dealt with as distinct entities in practicebased research 2 The role of history in structuration theory The free will of agents and the constraints and opportunities offered by social structures family medical system social rules and norms etc work interdependently quotstructures are constituted through actions and actions are constituted structurallyquot Giddens lssue what is meant by historical 0 Historical as chronological sequence


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