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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Haydo Ruiz on Monday February 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH101 at University of Washington taught by Jonathan Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Monday 29 Defining Intelligence 0 the ability to acquire knowledge reason effectively and solve problems Varieties of Mental Tests 0 Achievement Test 0 Assessment of knowledge in specific areas I Midterm exam 0 Aptitude Tests 0 Measure potential for future learning and performance in specific areas I SAT GRE 0 Intelligence Test 0 Ability to quickly solve unfamiliar problems I IQ test Guiding Questions Q Is intelligence a single general aptitude or many specific abilities Q How can intelligence best be measured 0 What are the relative contributions of genetics and upbringing to intelligence Forms of Intelligence 0 Fluid Intelligence 0 Ability to solve problems for which personal experience does not provide a solution 0 Uses stimuli unfamiliar to everyone or familiar to everyone 0 Crystallized Intelligence 0 Ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to solve current problems 0 Uses items that are familiar to some people but not to others Historical Figures 0 Sir Francis Galton O Darwin s half cousin 0 Developed the correlation coefficient 0 Studied family histories and concluded that some people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking 0 Coined eugenics 0 Charles Spearman 0 Using factor analysis Spearman 1923 noted that tests of mental ability are positively correlated O intellectual performance is influenced by two factors I General Intelligence called g l Taskspecific abilities Q Thurstone O argued there is no such thing as only 7 specific abilities O Gardner 8 types of abilities O Sternberg analytical practical creative 000 0 Measuring Intelligence Alfred Binet Q commissioned to design an intelligence test to identify remedial students 0 Believed nurture env was more important than nature heredity Q Assumptions 0 Mental abilities develop with age at a constant gradual rate 0 Intelligence is best measured w unfamiliar abstract problems rather than familiar concrete ones 0 Approach 0 Mental Age l the age at which a child is performing on mental tasks 0 Intelligence Quotient l The ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 l Average IQ 100 l maca 100 IQ l Later renamed the StanfordBinet test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 0 Most popular IQ test 0 Yields a general IQ score as well as scores for specific skills 0 intellectual ability in specific areas 0 Processing speed amp performance 0 Scores are normed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 IO scores predict 0 Educational attainment and job performance 0 SES attainment even with education held constant 0 Longevity especially in women 0 Predictions hold true across race ethnicity and gender not within those groups though Nature vs Nurture 0 Many environmental factors influence IQ scores 0 nutrition O stimulus rich environment 0 Parentchild interactions 0 Flynn Effect 0 IO scores have risen 25 points in the past 50 years 0 Due to nutrition more complex learning env and advances in tech Modeling Variability 0 Researchers model variability among people 0 To what extent do variations in genetic similarity predict variations in observable characteristics 0 Without variability there is nothing to explain 0 If we reduce variability in genes we find that only the environment matters 0 If we reduce variability in environment we find that only genes matter Assessment Techniques 0 Twin studies 0 compare correlations between identical monozygotic twins who share all of their alleles with fraternal twinks who share around 50 0 Adoption studies 0 Compare correlation between adopted children and their biological verses adoptive parents or siblings 0 Twin adoption studies 0 compare identical twins who were separated at birth Typical Correlations MZ Together DZ Together MZ apart Adopted correlation 86 60 78 32 Genes Matter 0 M2 twins r 86 are only slightly less similar than MZ reared together r 60 Growing up together makes less of a difference Tuesday 210 Development Developmental Psychology 0 Study of the psychological changes that occur with aging 0 Major Issues 0 Nature vs Nurture l Differences between DNA or environment l which is more relevant 0 Continuity vs Discontinuity in Stages l is change gradual or abrupt 0 Timing I Are their certain periods during which something needs to occur critical periods or are more likely to occur sensitive penod I such as Language 0 Continuity vs Stage 0 Continuity view sees change as uniform and gradual like the growth of a tree 0 Stage theory treats change as rapid w qualitatively different stages evident across the lifespan like a butterfly I once a threshold is crossed you can t go backwards I distinct stages Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget 0 Swiss scientist who worked with Binet 0 Cognitive development passes through a series of discrete stages that culminates in the ability to display abstract symbolic reasoning 0 Exploration Curiosity amp Play 0 cognitive development is driven by the child s active attempt to manipulate physical objects 0 The infant is viewed as a solitary scientist whose personal curiosity propels change 0 Schemes Assimilation amp Accommodation 0 Behavior is controlled by schemes now called schemas that mentally represent objects in the physical world and the things we can do with them I Assimilation the process of applying an existing schema to a new object I Accommodation the process of modifying a schema to manipulate a new object 0 Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage birth till 2 0 Infants understand the world through sensory experience and movement 0 Infants act on objects only when objects are physically present 0 They lack Object Permanence l According to Piaget infants can t mentally represent an object 0 Stage 2 Preoperational 2 till 7 Q Can mentally represent a physical object but can t mentally operate on transform them Q Milestones l Language l Object permanence O Deficits l Understanding is still based on appearance only with no distinction between what seems to be and what is I Conservation 0 not knowing that two diff things can have the same amount if they don t look the same water glass problem I Irreversibility 0 Cannot mentally reverse actions 0 can t make aflattened ball of clay back into a ball I Egocentrism Q Believes other people share hisher visual perspective 0 Stage 3 Concrete Operational 712 0 Children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible concrete objects and situations I understand concept of reversibility l Easily solve conservation problems 0 No abstract hypothetical thinking 0 Stage 4 Formal Operational 12 adult 0 Individuals can think logically about abstract problems form hypotheses and test them using a hyptheticodeductive model of reasoning 0 Not everyone reaches this level of development Assessing Piaget Q Piaget underestimated the capacities of infants and preschool children 0 Piaget rarely considered the role of culture in cognitive development 0 Cognitive development is more complex than Piaget proposed and does not strictly follow a stage model Current Views of Cognitive Development 0 Two views on the origins of knowledge 0 Tabula Rasa eg Locke Berkley Hume l People are born a blank slate and experience is the source of all knowledge 0 Nativists eg Descartes Leibintz Kant l People are born with knowledge and cognitive structures modules needed to organize interpret and understand sensory experience 0 Piaget sided w Blank slate theorists Modern Research on lnfancy 0 Modern researchers credit infants with a great deal of cognitive sophistication some of which is present at birth 0 Human minds are designed by evolution to know things at birth and to learn certain things more easily than others 0 Eye Gaze 0 Infants look longer at unexpected complex novel stimuli than simple familiar stimuli O The longer infants look at a stimulus the more puzzled by it they are presumed to be 0 Occlusion 21 1 Wednesday Development Review Piaget 0 Cognitive development represents a biological unfolding 0 Child is a solitary scientist whose knowledge is acqired by manipulating physical objects Vygotsky s Theory of Cognitive Development 0 Social interaction not personal exploration is the principal force behind cognitive development 0 Children acquire cultural values beliefs and problemsolving strategies by interacting with more knowledgeable members of their social group 0 Child is apprentice as opposed to solitary scientist Zone of Proximal Development 0 the range of tasks that are too complex for a child to master alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skilled partner Scaffolding Q The process of helping children reach the outer limit of their zone of proximal development COMPARING PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY lssue Piaget Vygotsky Cognitive Development Primarily a matter of biological maturity invariant across cultures Primarily driven by social interaction and shaped by cultural forces What drives Primarily the result of independent Result of social interaction as caretakers cognitive explorations in which children sheppard children through their ZPD growth construct knowledge on their own Primary Egocentric processes give way to Social processes become individual Process social ones eg child abandons psychological processes eg children egocentrism in favor of social perspective learn to speak with others before they learn to privately think Facial Preferences lnnate Preference for Faces Q When newborns median age 9 minutes are shown figures like those on the right they gaze longer at the facelike figure than at the other two 0 Face Specificity Hypothesis 0 Humans have a specialized neurons in an area known as the Distress at Nonresponsive Faces fusiform face area temporal lobe that are dedicated to the perception of faces 0 By 2 months of age infants become distressed when interacting with an impassive unemotional face Facial Synchrony O Synchronized interactions between caregiver and infant in which each responds to the other in a coordinated fashion Social Attunement Q Why would it be advantageous to be able to recognize faces 0 natural selection for social attunement Facial imitation 0 Infants as young as 2 days old can imitate the facial expression of an adult model Social Referencing 0 By 10 moa infants look to caregivers for emotional cues when facing an ambiguous situation 0 Visual cliff is an exception once they learn to crawl Eye Gaze as Information 0 infants as young as 3 moa are sensitive to eyegaze as a signal of what someone is interesed in 0 Later shared attention facilitates language acquisition Theory of Mind 0 A tendency to explain behavior in psychological terms such as intention desire emotion and belief False belief Test 0 children don t pass till 4 yoa 0 if sally moves a marble while ann isn t watching where will ann look for the marble when she comes back Imitation of Intention Q 18 monthold children watch an adult play w a toy dumbbell that could be pulled apan 0 some see the adult successfully pull it apart 0 some see the adult fail at pulling it apart 0 some never see the adult w the toy 0 Children are able to gauge intention and pull apart toy even if adult failed to Thursday 212 Language What is Language 0 Oral or written symbols and the rules that govern their combination used to communicate meaning to ourselves and others 0 Cuneiform 3500 BCE 0 one of the first known forms of written language but spoken is believed to predate writng by many many thousands of years Patois Q Dialect O a regional way of speaking 0 Language 0 a patois with an army Component Definition Example Phonemes smallest unit of sound in a language that can signal Th difference in meaning A Morphemes smallest unit of meaning in a language words prefix The suffix plural tense indicators Cat Shred ed Phrases larger unit of spoken language that still signifies one the cat thing shredded my homework Sentence many meanings the cat shredded my homework Grammar 0 Rules that specify how lower level language units can be arranged to produce higher level ones Rule Definiton Phonology Rules that specify how sounds can be combined to produce morphemes Morphology Rules that specify how morphemes can be arranged to form words Syntax Rules that specify how words can be arranged to produce phrases and sentences Understanding Language 0 Surface structure 0 Morphemes and their order 0 Deep Structure 0 The comprehension of phrases and sentences Pragmatics Q BottomUp Processing 0 extracting meaning by analyzing words 0 TopDown Processing 0 Using existing knowledge and context to interpret what words likely mean 0 Pragmatics is a topdown process in which we use knowledge of language to infer meaning 0 ldioms How does Language Develop Nurture vs Nature Piaget and Vygotsy 0 Language is a biologically primed process that occurs within a social learning environment 0 Language acquisiton Device 0 An innate biological mechanism that contains general grammatical rules common to all language 0 Location unspecified 0 Language acquisition Support System 0 Factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of language Vygotsky Vocal Preferences 0 Infants posess and early preference for language 0 Babies as young as 2 hours old will suck a pacifier harder if it makes a human sound Distinguishing Phonemes 0 Babies under 6 months of age can hear the difference between any two phonemes in any of the world s languages 0 After 6 months they begin to lose this ability by becoming selectively sensitive to phonemes in their native language UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE TRAJECTORY MONTH Milestone Description 2 Cooing nonimitative of adult speech by 2 moa infants distinguish speech from other sound 46 Babbling Soudns the same in all languages 711 Babbling in native Babbling sounds more similar to native language language ability to distinguish phonemes narrows 1218 single words 1824 Two words telegraphic Speech 2436 Sentences Rapid development of complete speech Universal Grammatical Errors 0 3yoa children begin to make predictable grammatical errors that aren t imitations Q We goed to the store 0 i builded a tower Even infants with comprimised hearing can still babble and coo at same age and same rythym and cadence as children with normal hearing Deaf infants exposed to sign language learn to babble with their hands ls Language Uniquely Human
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