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Social Psychology 360 Social Psychology the scientific study of how an individuals thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by other people Cognitive processes involved we think a lot about others to understand them appearances matter develop expectations Cultural content involved cultural norms beliefs and values shape our social understanding greetings proximity Implicitnonconscious processes are involved implicit attitudesdispositional attributions automatic tendencies to assume thats who they are categorization Environmental variables involved situational and cognitive factors affect our social behavior often below the level of awareness weather surroundings people Hindsight bias you think you knew it after you find out the answer Depressed people have realistic self perceptions others have self in ated ego Mere exposure effect more you re exposed to something the more you grow to like it Social Cog n ition study of how people think about themselves in their social world the selection interpretation recall and application of social information to make judgements and decisions People are not things People have motives manage their impressions have underlying traits people are dynamic people perceive us back Automaticity low effort thinking Cognitive Misers not all available information is used Categorical Info rmation fitting new information to what we already know by matching it to categories social cognition is greatly in uenced by past experience Seeing the social world through the lens of our preconceptions Schemas mental representations of various objects or categories contain defining features of the object or category and other organized knowledge about it Guide the selection interpretation and recall of information Functions of Schema help us to organize information and remember it better Help us to fill in details and make inferences Experiments participants remember more schema consistent items than inconsistent and remembered schema consistent stuff that wasn t there Tell us what to expect and not to expect Schema inconsistent events are surprising and require extra effort to understand and to respond Schemas help us interpret ambiguous information Schema Accessibility John Bargh s priming research Factors that help determine which schema will be used in a given situation Situational cues priming perceptual salience personal chronic constructs Cognitive Biases Schemas help us make quick judgements often with minimal information but they can lead to trouble Overgeneralizing misinterpreting inaccurate information Perseverance effect belief persistence holding onto false beliefs Confirmation bias seeing what you want to see Sort fake and real suicide notes told them they did good they said its because they were very socially sensitive later told that their feedback was fake and they weren t that good people given false positive feedback said they would be good at it if it were real Seek out confirming evidence Problems with researchers Snyder and Swarm Interview Study One participant is interviewer and one is interviewee IV Is interviewee extroverted or introverted but it was actually random Interviewer after given this expectation was shown a list of potential interview questions and asked to choose some questions from list some questions were introextro oriented Asked questions oriented with who thy thought they would be talking to Confirm their belief on which person they were told they would talk to Later played recordings of what interviewee said to new participants and rated them on introextro scale Ratings were similar to what interviewer thought person was to be Video Teachers told some students will succeed more Climate factor how teachers created a warmer climate for the expected kids Input factor teachers teach more material to those expected to do better Response opportunity factor kids have more of a chance to respond call on them more often Feedback factor if more is expected kid is praised more and positively reinforced teacher will accept low quality response for those not expected to do good Availability Heuristic basing a judgement on the ease with which examples come to mind May make you believe more extreme or sensational behavior is typical Representative Heuristic categorizing objects by how well they seem to represent the category Self Presentation Erving Goffman Social interaction is like a theatrical performance Self Presentation the process of constructing and presenting the self in order to shape others impressions and achieve ulterior goals Something your always doing in the presence of others Strategies Ingratiation presenting yourself as likable Self Promotion presenting yourself as competent Exemplification presenting yourself as moral Modesty downplaying your strengths Intimidation presenting yourself as threatening Supplication presenting yourself as weak Sandbagging strategically hiding your competence Person Perception process by which we come to know about other peoples temporary states and enduring dispositions Impression formation rapid assessment of salient characteristics into an overall judgement Attribution Integrating traits into a coherent impression Summation model valences are added up Averaging Model valences are averaged Anderson support for averaging model Highest rating sincere Lowest Rating liar Information Integration Theory personal dispositions of perceiver pre existing feelings toward target Weighted average of targets traits ValenceImportance Trait negativity bias Chapter 1 and 2 Terms Social Psychology the scientific study of feelings thoughts and behaviors in social situations Dispositions Internal factors such as beliefs values personality traits or abilities that guide a persons behavior Fundamental Attribution Error the failure to recognize the importance of situational in uences on behavior and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behavior Channel Factors certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but can have great consequences for behavior either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behavior in a particular direction Construal peoples interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situations they confront Gestalt Psychology stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device but by active usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole Prisoner s Dilemma a situation involving payoffs to two people who must decide whether to cooperate or detect In the end trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection Natural Selection an evolutionary process that molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations Theory of Mind the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires Parental Investment the evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex Naturalistic Fallacy the claim that the way things are is the way they should be IndependentIndividualistic Cultures Cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities tied to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational memberships but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others western InterdependentCollectivist Cultures cultures in which people tend to decline themselves as part of a collective inextricably tied to others in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over their lives Chapter Two Hindsight bias peoples tendency to be over confident about whether they could have predicted an outcome Hypothesis a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances Theory a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world Reverse Causation when variable one is assumed to cause variable two but the opposite direction of causation may actually be the case Third Variable not variable one or two causing each other but some other variable is in uencing both Self selection problem that arises when participant not investigator selects their level on each variable bringing with this value unknown other properties that make casual interpretation of a relationship difficult Longitudinal Study a study conducted over a long period of time with the same population which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behavior Control Condition condition comparable to the experimental condition in every way except that it lacks the one ingredient hypothesized to produce the expected effect on the dependent variable Natural Experiments naturally occurring events that can be compared to regular experiments where experimenter manipulates the conditions External Validity experiment closely resembles real life situations so results can e safely generalized Field Experiment an experiment set up in the real world usually with participants who are not aware that they are in a study Internal Validity confidence that only manipulated variable could have produced the results Debriefing asking participants if they understand instructions and found the setup to be reasonable etc after experiment its used to educate participants about questions being studied Reliability experiment yields consistent results Measurement Validity correlation between some measure and outcome that measure is supposed to predict Statistical Significance probability that a given result could have occurred by chance Basic Science science concerned with trying to understand some phenomenon in it s own right with a view toward using that understanding to build valid theories about the nature of some aspect of the world Applied Science science concerned with solving some real world problem of importance Intervention an effort to change peoples behavior Institutional Review Board IRB University committee that examines research proposals and makes judgements about the ethical appropriateness of the research Informed Consent participants willingness to participate in a procedure or research study after learning all relevant aspects about the procedure or study Deception Research research in which the participants are misled about the purpose of the research or the meaning of something that is done to them The Social Self not just a personality construct in uenced by experience and social context William James the self doesn t exist in isolation it interacts with others who in uence your sense of self Charles Corley looking glass self what matters most is what other people think of you George Herbert Mead we are aware that others are perceiving us and we try to present self in a strategic fashion to create an impression Self is Social in 2 Ways the way we develop our self conceptions depends in part on our interactions with others formation The situational context which often includes other people can affect how we see ourselves at any given point in time activation Self SchemaMarkus well elaborated knowledge about the self that guides the processing of self relevant information A lens through which you see yourself Schematics faster than aschematics to endorse as self descriptive words in schematic domain Schematics resist evidence contradicting their view of themselves in the schematic domain Self is not monolithic multifaced and context sensitive Core aspects remain stable across situations Peripheral aspects may depend on situation mood recent thoughts Spontaneous Self Concept McGuire specific aspects of self that are triggered by the features of the current situation Working Self Concept includes core self conceptions along with less central self conceptions that may vary depending on the situational context Self Consciousness Spotlight Effect Gilvoch overestimating ones salience to others appearance and behavior Barry Manilow and Vanilla Ice habituation had students put on t shirt with huge picture of them and had made them take a survey they felt very conscious about looking dumb They way overestimated people who noticed it Others are paying less attention to u and judging us less harshly than we tend to think Also overestimating salience or variability bad hair days internal statesemotiondeception Self Awareness Theory Duval and Wicklund most of the time were not overly focused on ourselves When people focus their attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values Associated with drop in self esteem Associated with behaving in line with socially desirable and probably internalized standards Beaman study participants were halloween trick or treaters Greeted at researchers door and left alone to help themselves to one piece of candy IV full length mirror behind bowl or no mirror DV how much candy kid took Results 34 broke rule when no mirror and 12 broke rule when there was mirror Cultural ContextMarkus and Kitayama Independent individualistic cultures western cultures identity is personal defined by individual traits and goals distinctiveness emphasized What matters me Disapproves of conformity Illustrative motto the squeaky wheel gets the grease Interdependent collectivist cultures Eastern cultures identity is social defined by connections with others fitting is emphasized What matters we Disapproves of egotism Illustrative motto the nail that stands out gets pounded down Self Esteem global positive or negative feelings about the self Self Serving Cognitions James Shepperd Asked college students about their performance on the SAT checked against actual scores Most students overestimated their actual score by about 17 points and this was more pronounced among students with lower scores Self Handicapping protecting self image by setting up a situation that make it difficult to succeed but creates a handy excuse for failure Berglas and Jones Cover story drugs and intellectual performance IV soluble or insoluble problems on aptitude test DV choice of drug before next round Drug A helps intellectual performance and B inhibits intellectual performance Results Soluble Problem Helps 87 Inhibits 13 Insoluble Problem Helps 30 Inhibits 70 Defensive Pessimism Norem and Cantor a strategy in which a person expects the worst and works harder because of this expectation Among honor students defensive pessimists performed better if they were allowed to have negative expectations Norem and cantor did not allow a group of participants to have this failure expectation When reassured they would do good and they would not fail they did worse Basking In Re ected Glory increasing self esteem by associating with others who are successful Cialdini 1976 School sweatshirts and team victories weekends when football team did well more students would wear team apparel IV failure or success on general knowledge test DV describe outcome of recent football game Results those who failed were more likely to share teams victory by saying we won When he gives negative feedback on test then asks how the team did they would say we instead of they social association Downward Social Comparison comparing ourselves to people who are worse off that we are on a particular trait or ability I got a C on my exam but the bitch got a D I feel better now Shelly Taylor research on breast cancer patients Asked patients how they are they respond by saying at least they didn t have this happen when they were young or at least it wasn t a full mastectomy Always compare themselves to someone worse and more misfortunate than them Attitude Formation Attitude a positive negative or mixed evaluation of people objects or ideas Where do attitudes come form Classical conditioning Pairing the attitude object with positive or negative experiences Example Krosnick Subliminal Conditioning advertisers pairing their product with a great event like basketball games Krosnick showed photos of strangers images ashed that have negative or positive ideas and people who they looked at while positive images were ashed were liked better Operant Conditioning reinforcement or punishment for expressing a given attitude Observational Learning exposure to models media and aggression Social Comparison do our views agree with others Clue to accuracy Validation People we like or respect in uence our attitudes friends with a movie Direct Experience liking something because you had a positive experience with it or vice versa Self Perception Theory D Bem we have certain strong attitudes towards certain things but many attitude objects we don t have clear attitudes towards Examining your own behavior to infer you attitude Often true with disgust Attitude Function Knowledge helps organize and structure knowledge about the world attitudes aid in the interpretation of new stimuli Enables rapid responding to attitude relevant information Rapid evaluative judgements good or badapproach or avoid Instrumental Function maximize rewards and minimize punishments Identity Expressive Function attitudes facilitate expression of central values or beliefs Flemming and Petty Study students high or low in gender group identification Presented new snack product IV described as mens favorite snack food or women s favorite snack food DV liking for product Results for people low in gender group identification description made no difference For people high in gender group identification liking was higher when product described as favored by own gender group Self Esteem Function consistent with social comparison Knowing we are right by holding attitudes that are validated by others Holding attitudes with strong moral component affirms self as a good person Ego Defensive Function protecting self from unwelcome or upsetting information Denouncing something about yourself that you don t like Impression Management Function creating a favorable impression by expressing the right attitudes Attitude Behavior Link Richard la Pierre traveled through US with Chinese couple prejudice high at time 183184 restaurants served them He later called and asked if they would serve orientals and 91 said no Attitudes do not predict behavior very well despite our intuitive assumption that they do Why Situational Constraints pluralistic ignorance misjudging the attitudes others hold believing erroneously that they are different from out owen EX Miller Monin and Prentince Attitude Strength stronger attitudes predict behavior better What makes an attitude strong Intensity Vested interest Sivacek and Crano students asked to participate in campaign about new drinking agepeople above new drinking age didnt really want to because it didnt affect them Degree to which it is based on personal experience Intensitypersonal experiencegtaccessibility Correspondence Between Attitude and Behavior broad general attitudes don t predict specific behaviors very well How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action start by considering various behavioral options Evaluate consequences of given behavior as positive or negative gtattitude toward behavior Evaluate beliefs that others want you to engage in that behavior plus the strength of your motivation to comply with those peoples wishes gtsubjective norm concerning the behavior Attitudesubjective normgtbehavioral intention Self persuasion need for cognitive consistency Cognitive Dissonance Leon Festinger assumed we feel tension when two of our thoughts or cognitions are psychologically inconsistent we change our thinking to reduce this tension Insufficient Justification Study participants perform very dull task asked to lie to incoming participant and say that it was very interesting IV one dollar dissonance or 20 dollars for no dissonance reward for lying or control group no reward no lying DV reported enjoyment of task Result participants in control group and 20 dollar group rated the task as boring Participants paid 1 who had insufficient justification for lying thought the task was somewhat enjoyable Being paid one dollar wasn t enough justification for them lying so they had to convince themselves it was a fun task Works with kids too when told not to play with toy with less punishment kids rated greater dislike for the toy later on because they had to justify listening to the person Aronson and Carlsmith insufficient justification works for punishments as well as rewards Reducing Dissonance Technique Change your attitude I don t really need to be on a diet Change your perception of the behavior I hardly at any ice cream Add consonant cognitions Ice cream is nutritious successful diets allow for cravings Minimize the importance of the con ict One cheat won t break my diet Reduce perceived choice I had no other choice it was prepared for the occasion Justification of Effort you will like something much more if it was difficult to get Why do people self persuade Cognitive Dissonance Theory to reduce tension Necessary conditions behavior must produce negative consequences behavior must be freely chosen physiological arousal must occur tension arousal must be attributed to inconsistency Alternative Self Perception Theory D Bem just rational inference inferring attitude from the behavior Both processes operate Elaboration Likelihood Model Two Routes to Persuasion Central systematic processing of information Relies on analysis of the strength of argument People do not always feel motivated to process carefully or unable to do so Peripheral heuristic processing or non cognitive factors using information other than the relative strength of the argument superficial cues Source variables areperson delivering material Familiarity Likability Credibility Physical attractiveness Halo Effect Similarity Message Variables Vividness enhances persuasive appeal of strong arguments Positive aesthetic pleasant imagery music Fear appeal initially thought to backfire if too strong but now known to be effective even with strong fear under certain conditions target believes danger is serious and probable message includes prescriptive information about how to avoid danger target believes recommended precautions will be effective target believes they have behavioral control Humor Repetition Mere exposure effect sheer number of arguments is itself a peripheral cue Channel Variables rapid speech Powerful speech Tag questions right Isn t it Target Variables mood Issue involvement relevance for self Response involvement self presentational concerns Need for cognition Self monitoring talking in an extroverted way when talking to someone extroverted more persuaded by peripheral and those low in self monitoring are more persuaded by central Discrepancies Chapter Seven Attitude an evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes three elements of affect cognition and behavior affect how much people like or dislike an object Cognitions thoughts that typically reinforce a persons feelings knowledgebeliefsmemories Behaviors approach vs Avoid Attitudes activate areas of the motor cortex that support specific actions Likert Scale a numerical scale used to assess peoples attitudes includes a set of possible answers with labeled anchors on each extreme 1never 7always Response Latency the time it takes an individual to respond to a stimulus such as an attitude question measures accessibility of the attitudes Attitude Centrality measure a variety of attitudes within a domain and calculate how strongly each attitude is linked to the others Implicit Attitude Measures indirect measures of attitudes that do not involve self report like M when people may not be willing or able to report their true attitudes 2 versions affective priming and implicit association test These allow researchers to tap automatic attitudes peoples immediate evaluative reactions that they may not be conscious of or that may con ict with their conscious attitudes Other Measures of Attitude nonverbal smiling or physical closeness Physiological indicators heart rate sweaty palms Amygdala is component to our attitudes receives information from thalamus Negative attitudes are stronger than the positives Predicting Behavior from Attitudes la Piere Study asian guy went to 250 restaurants and only got denied at one for being asian then wrote all of the restaurants and asked if they would serve orientals and 90 said no Attitudes do not predict behavior very well Why competing with other strong determinants of behavior like environment and understanding of norms attitudes are inconsistent attitudes are sometimes based on secondhand info we have attitudes towards general things and not specific targets we have automatic behaviors regardless of attitude we may not know reasons for our attitudes Timothy Wilson Dating Study showing we may not know why we have attitudes One group asked to evaluate overall relationship and another group asked to list why they felt the way they did and then go into overall evaluation When contacted nine months later participants in first group who evaluated relationship without considering the reasons were much more accurate than the group who had to think Conclusion introspection of our reasons does not predict true attitudes Predicting Attitudes From Behavior Balance Theory people try to maintain balance among their beliefs people favor balanced relationships and they assume balanced relationships Cognitive Dissonance Theory inconsistencies among a persons thoughts sentiments and actions create an aversive emotional state dissonance that leads to efforts to restore deficiency most in uential consistency theory Rationalizing your decisions Horse betters interviewed those before placing their bets said they had a fair chance in winning and those who had just placed bets said they had a good chance in winning Festinger said dissonance reduction only occurs after decision has been made but they occur before and after Effort Justification peoples tendency to reduce dissonance by justifying the time effort or money they have devoted to something that has turned out to be unpleasant or dissapointing sweet lemons rationalization it s really not so bad hazing for a frat was worth being in the frat InducedForced Compliance subtly compelling individuals to behave in a manner that is inconsistent with ones beliefs attitudes or values in order to elicit dissonance and therefore a change in their original attitudes or values participants perform very dull task asked to lie to incoming participant and say that it was very interesting IV one dollar dissonance or 20 dollars for no dissonance reward for lying or control group no reward no lying DV reported enjoyment of task Result participants in control group and 20 dollar group rated the task as boring Participants paid 1 who had insufficient justification for lying thought the task was somewhat enjoyable Being paid one dollar wasn t enough justification for them lying so they had to convince themselves it was a fun task Forbidden Toy Paradigm Experiment Works with kids too when told not to play with toy with less punishment kids rated greater dislike for the toy later on because they had to justify listening to the person Inconsistency produces dissonances when we have free choice insufficient justification negative consequences and forseeability Self Affirmation bolstering out identity and self esteem by taking note of important elements of our identity and important values Steele Study choose between two objects Science and Business majors would focus on good parts of chosen one and bad parts of unchosen but when they put on a lab coat only the science majors ignored the dissonance and felt totally confident Post decision dissonance may be universal but conditions that prompt it are different Westerners concern about ones ability to make right choice Easterners concern about making choices approved by others Self Perception Theory people come to know their own attitudes by looking at their behavior and the context in which it occurred and inferring what their attitude must be I never buy or order orange juice so I must not really like it Arousal is involved Overjustification Effect tendency to devalue activities that we perform in order to get something else System Justification Theory people are motivated to see the existing political and social status quo as desirable fair and legitimate believing that the world is or should be fair mixed with the evidence of inequality creates dissonance Women often believe they DO deserve lower pay than men It s easier to stick with the status quo than to protest Terror Management Theory people deal with the potentially paralyzing anxiety that comes with the knowledge of the inevitability of death by striving for symbolic immortality through the preservation of a valued worldview and the conviction that they have lived up to its values and prescriptions second common coping form after the denial of death this indirect immortality is often thought of through being a parent Common manipulation answer two questions Describe the emotions that the thought of your own death arises in you Jot down specifically what you think will happen to you physically as you die other manipulation is to have people fill out a survey either in front of a funeral home or no where near somewhere associated with death E9quot Last manipulation is when people are shown pics of fatal car crashes or pics not connected to death All the manipulations are shown to make people more hostile towards those who criticize their country more committed to their intergroups and to uphold their values Voters favor current president after going through a mortality manipulation If we believe there is life after death we are not as concerned with living on symbolically so need for self esteem is reduced Chapter Eight Identifiable Victim Effect the tendency to be more moved to the plight of a single vivid individual than by a more abstract number of individuals Example White Care Act by Ryan White 13 year old who died of HIV funds largest set of services for people living with AIDS one boys story more effective than any statistics Fear Tactics smokers shown either graphic film of effects pamphlet or both Group who saw film reduced smoking more than pamphlet readers but most in uenced group was the ones who sawdid both Culture and Messages American ads emphasize the individual Korean ads focus on benefits to the collective Experiments support that these types of ads are indeed more in uential to each Receiver Characteristics characteristics of the person who receives the message including age mood personality and motivation to attend to the message Need for Cognition degree to which people like to think deeply about things people with high need tend to high quality arguments and those with low need focus on peripheral cues Mood people exposed to persuasive message while eating or listening to nice music were more likely to change their attitudes usually through peripheral route but also works through central route when mood of messenger matches mood of receiver Age younger people are more easily persuaded especially in peripheral route Media and Persuasion Third Person Effect assuming that other people are more prone to being in uenced by persuasive messages such as those in the media campaigns than they themselves are aggression is correlated with video games and violence in media Ineffectiveness in the Media Consumer Advertising weak correlation between money spent on ads and their market share they do however increase product loyalty awareness and excited feelings about product Political Advertising no correlation between money spent on ads and election success but correlation between spending on ads and votes obtained only in early stages Candidates previous success is more effective predictor of being elected Ads critiquing other candidate may actually decrease voting rates Public Service Announcements little impact on knowledge of what they are trying to spread DARE program ineffective but STD rates go down when kids taught how to saw no Media and Social Control Agenda control efforts of the media to select certain events and topics to emphasize thereby shaping which issues and events people think are important when people are shown news on foreign energy sources they rate this as a primary concern in the country versus those who did not see the news casts who did not list this as one The more you watch tv the more racial prejudice attitudes you may have Women exposed to thin woman in media are more dissatisfied with their bodies and have eating problems Resistance To Persuasion Attentional Biases and Resistance people are inclined to attend selectively to information that confirms their original attitudes Students either pro or anti legalizing weed had to listen to 7 strong arguments for legalizing it and 7 dumb ones there was a buzz playing the whole time and they could press a button to eliminate the buzz for 5 seconds Students eliminated the buzz for arguments that would support their pre existing attitudes pro legalizing wanted to hear the goo arguments and vice versa People are also inclined to selectively evaluate the information we take in by favoring the supporting info and being critical on contradicting info High caffeine using females are more likely to think a study is not credible when it lists negative effects of caffeine When patients are told they are unhealthy they may downplay it and not believe it TAA Deficiency Test told that if paper turned certain color they had the condition those who thought they had it took much longer to be convinced that test was over because they were critiquing the color and experiment Previous Commitments and Resistance their may be a genetic basis of attitudes more likely to favor candidates our parents favor When people make public commitments to their attitudes campaigners they are more resistant to counterattitudinal messages than others Thought Polarization Hypothesis more extended thought about a particular issues tends to produce more extreme entrenched attitudesreason for public commitments unchanging attitudes Legalizing Prostitution Study Tesser He measured peoples attitudes towards it and then asked a second time and they gave stronger ratings Knowledge and Resistance people with more knowledge on topic are more resistant to persuasion Environmental Study pro environmentalists in 2 groups very knowledgable or slightly and then shown video against environmental preservation Those who were knowledgable only shifted their attitudes slightly but less knowledgable shifted their views towards anti preservation Attitude Inoculation small attacks on peoples beliefs that engage their attitudes prior commitments and knowledge structures enabling them to counteract a subsequent larger attack and be resistant to persuasion Study shows that when they have to refute a small attack on their beliefs and then are asked to refute a HUGE attack on their beliefs later the ones with a previous small attack were more prepared to defend their argument and more resistant to an attitude change Changes in Attitude Certainty if people feel they did a bad job in resisting a persuasive message attitude certainty will decrease even if direction and extremity of attitude did not change TEST 3 Social In uence the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others conformity compliance obedience social norms rules for expected or acceptable behavior scripts rituals customs and traditions coordinated behavior often vary by culture gt may vary by subculture what s appropriate to wear at Umass vs Harvard video ostracism fear of deviant sticking out satisfying relations is the key to happiness when ostracized people feel out of control and takes away a persons feeling of purpose 3 people in a room 2 confederates stop throwing the ball to the subject who shows distress another study subject is left out of conversation 3rd experiment virtual ball is passed one person stops receiving the ball shows stress response way to revoke ostracism violence aggression left out people bullied will strike out in violence jigsaw classrooms students must cooperate not compete to complete assignments Conformity video candid camera Face the Rear one person in elevator faces the right way in the elevator everyone else facing wrong way all turn around after trying to withstand group pressure normative in uence comprehensive definition behavior or belief that moves toward a group consensus as a result of real or imagined group pressure simpler definition yielding to group pressure informational in uence conforming to others because we think they know more than we do others are more knowledgeable judgment is ambiguous M group consensus norm formation ambiguous judgment autokinetic effect laser point on power point it will appear to move selfmoving no visual references will move difference degrees to different people estimates were given in separate rooms when they were said out loud they all were closer together converging normative in uence conforming to avoid the negative social consequences of appearing deviant going along to get along to gain rewards approval avoid punishments ostracism Asch unambiguous judgment video Preatkanis confederates give wrong answers to see if subject would go along with them agreed to an obviously wrong answer at least once at first they resist and defiant but after various trails they begin to conform Asch procedure results about 13 of the time the average participant conformed to the group about of participants conformed at least once some subjects conformed considerably more some none Parametric studies making changes in the design of the experiment to test the extent of the effect size of majority unanimity if one other person is deviant you will be deviant also anonymity if people are giving their answer privately individual differences not everyone conformed and different people conformed to different degrees individual difference variables correlate with conformity age achievement motivation need for approval authoritarianism culture gender Co m pl i a n c e video candid camera sign says please walk only on black squares changing behavior in response to direct social pressure how might you get me to offer you an extracredit opportunity direct request for you to change you behavior Dossible compliance techniques ask present info provoke personal benefits invollte relationship bargain invollte norm make moral appeal use attery criticize deceive use threats or force Cialdini Compliance basic principles likingfriendship Consistency Reciprocity Scarcity Compliance Tactics ingratiation invokes liking Lowball invokes consistency Thats not all principle invokes reciprocity Playing Hard To Get invokes scarcity Fast Approaching Deadline invokes scarcity Foot in the Door invokes consistency Door in the Face invokes norm of reciprocityreciprocal concessions Not so free Sample Obedience changing behavior in response to commands from an authority Milgram Experiment Cover story effects of punishment on learning Procedure pairedassociate task shock machine modern replication Victim pounds on wall then becomes silent Remote feedback basic scenario 65 Victim heard protesting Voice feedback 50 Victim in same room Proximity 40 Teacher has to put victim39s hand on shock plate Touchproximity 30 Less prestigious location Study done in Bridgeport CT 48 Remote experimenter Telephone condition 30 Less authoritative experimenter Younger RA in street clothes has to substitute 20 Dissenting research assistants 10 Second experimenter Con icting instructions 0 Teacher does not deliver shock himself 93 Teacher told to select the level of shock control experimenter legitimizes all levels 3 ethical issues Power of situation Replications of Milgram Study Hofling et al 1966 Unknown doctor called nurses and asked them to administer 20 milligrams of the drug quotAstrotenquot to a patient on the ward nearly all were about to administer the drug before being stopped and debriefed by one of the researchers Attitudes Toward Social Groups Cognitive stereotype A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to Virtuallyall members of the group regardless of actual variation among the members Affective Prejudice A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people based solely on their membership in that group Behavioral Discrimination An unjustifiable negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group Cognitive Factors Categorization Principle of Least Effort the tendency to rely on over simplified generalizations and the resist information that complicates out categorical distinctions Illusionary Correlation the tendency to see relationships or correlations between events that are actually unrelated Ingroup Bias positive feelings towards those in the ingroup negative feelings towards those in outgroups Minimal Group Paraidgm dividing people into groups based on pointless characteristics Outgroup Homogenity Effect the perception that individuals in the outgroup are more similar to each other than they really are as well as more similar than members of the ingroup are Ultimate Attribution Error self serving bias at the group level with our ingroups the favorable traits that we ascribe to our ingoup we see this as inherit and whatever we are bad at we see as situational Motivational Factors Social Identity Theory people favor ingroups over outgroups in order the enhance their self esteem 2 Hypothesis threats to ones self esteem lead to more ingroup favoritism Expressing ingroup favoritism enhances ones self esteem Fein and Spencer Study Ivl people received either negative feedback on a test of their intellectual skills self esteem threatened or not Iv2 the job applicant to be evaluated was either Jewish or not Jewish DV how people evaluated the job applicant Results people who received negative feedback evaluated the Jewish applicant more negatively people who received negative feedback and evaluated the jewish applicant negatively showed the largest increase in self esteem Social Factors Realistic Con ict Theory intergroup con icts develop from the competition for limited resources Robbers Cave Study 11 year old boys white well adjusted middle class two groups Rattlers vs Eagles 3 Phases Creating the ingroups Intergroup Competition bitter intergroup con ict resulted Intergroup Cooperation creating common superordinate goals and mutual interdependence brought the groups together tried many ways to get the groups to get along but nothing worked besides creating a shared goal a camp truck broke down and they had to work together to pull it up a steep hill Modern Racism contrasted to old fashioned racism Subtle forms Concealed publicly expressed when safe Difficult to measure Study Televised Confrontation Study IV video of argument in which a white man shoved a black man or a black man shoved white man DV ratings of both mens behaviors violent playing around overly dramatic Results percentage defining behavior as violent 13 when white aggressor and 72 when black aggressor More likely to define white aggressors behavior as playing around or being overly dramatic Rogers and Prentice Dunn Study biofeedback experiment delivering electric shocks Ivl Confederate was a white or black person Iv2 confederate was insulting or friendly DV strength and duration of shocks Result black confederate received less intense shocks when friendly over compensating effect but more intense shocks when insulting provocation provided the justification to release racial biasprobably non consciously Modern Racism Video black shoppers asked for more identification not allowed to open cases must count clothes to bring into dressing room and whites had to do none of this Taxi usually passes blacks and goes right to whites black asked to go to harlem they say they don t go there and then a white man asks and he drives him Prejudice Reduction Contact Hypothesis direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions 1 Equal status 2 Personal informal contact 3 Contact with multiple group members to break down stereotypes 4 Mutual dependence 5 Common goals 6 Existing norms must favor groups equally Suppression requires motivation effort awareness Breaks down when tired stressed time pressures Rebound Effect suppressing stereotype can subsequently lead to rebound Social Learning prejudiced households teach prejudice tolerant ones teach tolerance Social Norms inducing belief that ingroup members are less prejudiced than you are reduces prejudice Recategorization common ingroup identity model Seeing them as us Working together cooperatively Jigsaw classroom Collective Guilt reframing consequences of inequality as advantage to majority group rather than disadvantage to minority group Induces guilt for receiving privilege at other s expense Steele Experiment students taking a test and some were told that the math test is particularly hard for women and they do worse but when told that on the test there is no gender difference performance they do better and dont fall into the stereotype Victim Response when you become aware that a stereotype pertaining to you exists Groups not just a collection of people interaction mutual in uence sense of belonging importance of group shared goals members are similar in certain ways Features of Groups Roles differentiation of functions may be linked to self concept and internalized Status hierarchy of importance linked to individual outcomes and to power Norms rules for behavior Cohesiveness factors that bind members to the group Social Facilitation Allport performance enhanced in the presence of others Zajonc s drive theory of social facilitation Arousal facilitates dominant responses Presence of others produces arousal Dominant responses most likely to be correct on easy or well learned tasks but incorrect on challenging or novel tasks Social INhibition when put in front of an audience some people do worse if it s a hard task or if it is not a well learned task Alternative Explainations Evaluation apprehension concern over what others think Social facilitation often requires that the audience be paying attention Distraction mere presence sometimes just presence of others produces the effect Other forms of distraction light bursts produce the effect Distraction produces cognitive overload which narrows attentional focus Social Loafing reduced motivation and effort when working with a group as compared to working alone Additive tasks individual efforts combine to form collective output tug of war Robust effect except collectivist cultures Reducing Social Loafing holding individuals accountable Increasing commitment to task pushing to work hard Increasing importance of task Increasing apparent uniqueness of individual contributions Deindividuation a reduction in self awareness and social identity brought on by anonymity loss of sense of individuality becoming part of a crowd Disinhibition of objectionable behavior Lack of personal accountability Adherence to emerging group norms Crowd creates it s own reality social contagion Loss of social identity less connection to norms of other social groups Groupthink a group tasked with making a decision emphasizes agreement over accuracy high cohesiveness fear of deviance Directive leader makes it clear what his preferred decision is Stress pressure to make a quick and decisive decision Other factors feelings of invulnerability downplaying dissenting information self censorship isolation from external in uence mind guards Confirmation bias on a group level Motivated to avoid confrontation and seek harmony Group Polarization groups initial leaning becomes more pronounced after discussion both informational and normative in uence play roles Book Notes Chapter Nine Social In uence the many ways that people affect one another including changes in attitudes beliefs feelings and behavior that result from the comments actions or even the presence of others unconscious social in uence smiling at someone we like TVDes of Social In uence 1 Conformity most familiar changing one s behavior or beliefs in response to explicit or implicit pressure whether real or imagined from others Implicit Conformity throw out loose jeans in exchange for tight ones because everyone else is Explicit Confo rmity being encouraged by a peer group to smoke cigarettes leads to compliance 2 Compl ia nce responding favorably to an explicit request by another person 3 Obedience in an unequal power relationship submitting to the demands of the more powerful person Conformity much less seen and less favorable in Western society Benefits self because we do not have to consider every possible action Benefits others eliminates potential con ict and makes interaction smoother Automatic M i micry tendency to re exively mimic the posture mannerisms facial expressions and other actions of those around us in one study undergrads took part in two 10 minute sessions with another participant and they had to describe photos from popular magazines The other participant was a confederate and the first confederate in first session kept rubbing face and the second one in second session kept shaking their feet Results participants tended to mimic confederates behavior Studies have shown that mimicking is more common in people with empathetic orientation toward others or who have a need to affiliate with others or when the others are well liked Why do we Mimic l Ideomotor Action William James merely thinking about a behavior actually makes the performance more likely Because the brain region for perception overlaps the region for action 1 Prepare for Interaction when told to think about the elderly people acted more like the elderly by walking slow Those with positive attitudes toward the elderly would walk slower than those with negative views People tend to like those more who mimic them than those who do not People who have been mimicked tend to engage in prosocial behavior right after donating Cultural Differences in Mimicking hispanic interviewees did better in the interview when the interviewer mirrored their behavior Anglo American interviewees it made no difference Sherif s Conformitv Experiment how groups in uence the behavior of individuals by shaping how reality is perceived Put people in a dark room with a single light and asked them how far the light had moved some people said very little 2 inches and others said higher 8 inches although the light was not moving but it seemed it was because in the dark there was no reference to location He put them all in a room together and had them call out their answers Results those who had said very little raised their answers and those who said higher movement lowered their answers Informational Social In uence the in uence of other people that results from taking their comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct proper or effective cause of results of his experiment We are more likely to conform in a foreign country than our own and when we have vague ideas Asch s Conformitv Experiment he said when there is a clear con ict between judgement of self and judgement advanced by the group there will be less conformity Asked six confederates and one real participant which line matched the target line and there was a clear answer When other six confederates said the obviously incorrect one so did the participant to avoid disapproval of the group but only at the third trial of noticing his was different from the rest Normative Social In uence the in uence of other people that comes from the individual s desire to avoid disapproval harsh judgements and other social sanctions ex bulimia Factors Affecting Conformitv Pressure 1 Group Size bigger groups creates more conformity but only to group of 34 after it levels off 2 Group Unanimity presence of one other person not conforming decreases conformity even if its not their answer but just a different one from the majority 3 Expertise and Status of the group that wan you to conform Expertise more affects informational social in uence and status more affects normative social in uence Study gave members of a navy bombing crew some reasoning problems and the groups had to report one answer for the whole group If pilot had come up with solution they usually used this as their answer because he is of higher status but they would use the lower ranking job peoples answers less 4 Culture Norwegians Interdependent conform more than French Independent 5 Tight Versus Loose Cultures tight cultures have strong norms regarding how people should behave and do not tolerate departure and loos cultures have not so strong norms and their members tolerate more deviance 6 Gender women tent to only slightly conform more than men 7 Difficulty of the Task in difficult tasks informational social in uence is eliminated we rely on others for help 8 Anonymity eliminates normative social in uence when they can write answer on paper instead of saying out loud conformity drops Internalization private acceptance of a proposition orientation or ideology in uenced by informational social in uences the while normative social in uence affects public compliance 9 Interpretive Context of Dissagreement knowing why our opinions are different lessens both in uences In uence of Minority Opinion on Majority if minority consistently stick with their opinion more conformity will occur of the majority informational social in uence Obedience to the AuthoritV Milgram Experiment participant shocks confederate every time they get an answer wrong when person is in clear pain participant wants to stop but experimenter says they must continue and usually they do to the highest voltage same results today Obedience diminished the closer they were to the shocked victim touch proximity version Chilling the more removed we are from others the easier it is to hurt them Less obedient when experimenter not watching and in room Compliance Norm of Reciprocity people should provide benefits to those who benefit them Study two participants asked to rate paintings during the break the confedeate can back with a coke for self and the participant or came back empty handed At end of experiment cofederate asked participant to buy raf e tickets from him Those who had received a coke from him earlier bought twice as many tickets as those who got nothing Door In The Face Technique reciprocal concessions asking someone for a very large favor that they will refuse and then following that request with a smaller one which the person will feel compelled to honor Study confederates asked students if they would take juveniles to the zoo for the day and 83 said no The next group was first asked if they would counsel juveniles for 2 hours a week for two years and all of them refused but then they were asked if they would accompany them at the zoo and now 50 said yes The pressure to respond to what was perceived as a concession is responsible for this increase in compliance If asked by two different people it does not work Thats Not All TechniqUe adding something to the original offer thus creating some pressure to reciprocate Study half of the people who approached a bake sale were told I cupcake and 2 cookies were 75 cents and other half was just told that a cupcake is 75 cents but before they responded they were then told this included two cookies 73 of people in the thats not all condition purchased the snacks and only 40 in the all at once condition bought the snacks This adding offer creates a feeling that it is a gift and you should accept The Foot In The Door Technique a person makes an initial small request with which nearly everyone complies followed by a larger request involving the real behavior of interest Study investigators knocked on doors and asked homeowners if they would be willing to have a large billboard sign saying drive carefully on their lawn for a week and they were shown the large unattractive sign only 17 said yes Another group was asked first to display a 3 inch square sign in their window saying be a safe driver and all agreed to do so Two weeks later this group was asked to display the billboard and 76 said yes Even when small request and large request are unrelated this worked with half the people Seen in Milgram s Experiment Even a Penny Technique saying even a penny helps makes more people give but the amount given is not lower it increases charity giving Emotion Based Approaches Positive Mood it is better to ask for a favor when someone is in a good mood Study participants received a call and the person said they spent the last of their money on this misdialed call and asked participant if they would call number and relay the message In one condition participants had been given a free set of stationary to put them in a good mood 20 minutes before Only 10 of those not given stationary complied most complied when asked for the favor only a few minutes after given stationary and compliance would decrease as delay between gift and the request increased Why because mood colors how we interpret events Because of mood maintenance doing something for someone makes you feel good denying a favor or request makes you feel negative and self discriminate Study getting a cookie before being asked to either help or hinder the true participant and the cookie helped to increase compliance in the helping version but not the hindering because we don t want to fool or hurt someone Negative Mood can decrease or increase compliance If you call your boyfriend out on irting with someone and then ask him for something your more likely to get it because of his negative and guilty mood Catholics were asked to donate to something either on way in or out to go to confession and those going in for confession were rehearsing their sins and feeling guilty so they gave more than people leaving confession who no longer felt guilty Study participants asked to monitor a voltage meter on a rat when the meter became consistent most participants turned and started watching the rat and the experimenter would then shock the rat making the meter go up and experimenter would pretend to be angry and end the experiment and send participant away to get payment At office they were asked to donate to charity and they felt guilty for messing up the experiment those who went through the bad experience gave three times as much money as those who went through experiment with nothing going wrong Another group the rat was shocked at a random time not when participant looked away and experimenter said it wasn t his fault at all so he did not feel guilty but these people gave just as much witnessing harm is enough to enhance impulse to do good Negative State Relief Hypothesis people engage in certain actions such as agreeing to a request to relieve their negative feelings and feel better about themselves Norm Based Approaches Effective Norm Based Appeals people given their household energy consumption and neighborhoods average those who were above average decreased their use and those who were under average use increased theirs To fix this they put happy or sad face stickers or approval or disapproval on their windows and this made people below average stick with their usual use When given a card saying most guests in this hotel reuse their towels most people did so and even more did so when the card said most people who have stayed in this room Telling people about social norms is most effective when the norm is misunderstood Two Kinds of Norms Descriptive Norms peoples perceptions of how most people behave in a given context what is Most students get less than 8 or 9 hours of sleep Prescri ptive Inj unctive Norms peoples perceptions of what behaviors are generally approved of or frowned on by others what ought to be Most students should get 8 or 9 hours of sleep More people will do as told when sign says that most people do it At famous wood park a sign was there that said most people take pieces of wood as souvenirs which changes our park and another time the sign said most people leave the wood here preserving our park this sign made more people leave the wood and not steal it Resisting Social In uence Rea cta nce Theory people reassert their prerogatives in response to the unpleasant state of arousal they experience when they believe their freedoms have been threatened you will want to dye your hair even more when your parents tell you that you cant Chapter Eleven Stereotypes beliefs that certain attributes are characteristic of members of certain groups Prejudice a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and its individual members Discrimination unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group Modern Racism prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside rejection of explicitly racist beliefs Study participants in a position to aid a black and white person who needs help If they thought they were the only ones who could help they helped the black person a bit more often than the white person but when other people were present and their inaction could be justified they helped the black victim way less than the white This is because the discrimination is masked and the person remains unaware of being racist Study white people evaluated blacks and white applicants to a college and when they applicants were equally excelled in everything blacks and whites were rated equal but when black applicants excelled at something and were bad at something they were rated lower because the participants could have an excuse and say they were bad when audience is very disapproving the opposite will occur and bias will be directed at the ingroup Study when white participants were told that admission procedures have been biased and to reevaluate their admissions criteria blacks were rated way more favorably than whites Prejudice and StereotVDing Tests Implicit Association Test a technique for revealing nonconscious prejudices toward groups even among those who advocate universal equality Wordspictures presented on a computer screen and person presses left button if it conforms to one rule and presses right button if it conforms to another tap left button if word is female or weak word People should be faster at this than if it was female paired with strong word because of the stereotype All people favor young over old 23 of whites prefer whites and 12 blacks prefer whites Responses correlate with heightened neural activity in the amygdalaemotional learning and evaluation in response to black faces They were not correlated with this neural activity in a standard prejudice test that tests conscious racism Priming and Implicit Prejudice Priming increases the accessibility of a concept or schema comparing a persons average time to positive ad negative words preceded by faces Realistic Group Con ict Theory group con ict prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited sources Robbers Cave Experiment in lecture notes Superordinate Goals goals that transcend the interests of any one group and that can be achieved more readily by two or more groups working together Motivational Perspective Minimal Group Paradigm an experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these minimal groups are inclined to behave toward one another participants first perform a task and are divided based on their responses they are told they are either in underestimator or overestimator group but they dont know who else is in their group so being in a group doesnt mean much Then they are asked to assign points redeemable for money to someone but they only know the persons code number and group Usually gains are usually given to ingroup Social Identity Theory a persons self concept and self esteem derive not only from personal identity and accomplishments but also from the status and accomplishments of the various groups to which the person belongs Basking in Re ected Glory the tendency for people to take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom they are in some way associated as when fans identify with a winning team Using ingroup identity to bolster self esteem or derogating outgroups to bolster our esteem Sinclair and Kunda Study non black participants were criticized or praised by a white or black doctor They predicted that participants would be motivated to hold onto the praise but challenge the criticism and they would use the race of their evaluator to do so After they were shown words related to blacks and words related to doctors and the participants would react faster to doctor words if the black doctor had praised them because they would see him as a doctor and not as a black man Frustration Aggression Theory elaborates the idea that frustration leads to aggression Sears and Hovland Study examined relationship between price of cotton and number of lynchings of blacks the higher the price the better the times were so their was less frustration so their were less lynches on blacks Same thing with whites but a weaker correlation Umass womans centeropportunities Aggression intentional behavior aimed at causing unwanted physical or psychological harm In uences on Aggression Biological Factors Instinct Neurology amygdala activation Chemical Factors testosterone increase leads to more violent actions alcohol Drive Theories push factors aggression stems from an externally induced drive to harm others Freud Frustration Aggression Hypothesis Dollard frustration always produced aggression Aggression always results from frustration Frustration triggers a drive to do harm usually to the source of frustration Aggression is therefore cathartic Cognitive Neoassociationist Model Berkowitz external sources produces negative affect which in turn activates either a fight or ight response tendency leaving or attacking Aggressive cues make a fight response more likely sometimes aggression is instrumental planned and not hostile Weapons Affect if there is a weapon in the vicinity or view and then a slight aggressive event is set up the participant will be more angry because it s activating more aggressive thoughts Social Learning Perspective Pull Factors people learn to be aggressive from aggressive models Ways of doing harm Which people or groups to aggress against What actions warrant an aggressive response In what situations aggression is warranted or even desirable Bandura observational learning of aggression Role of reinforcement and punishment direct or observed Bobo Doll Research IV exposure to aggressive model DV play behavior afterwards Results children exposed to an aggressive model are much more likely to behave aggressively Indirect filmed models or cartoon viewing Media and Aggresison TV movies video games Modeling of aggressive behaviors aggressive scripts rewards Desensitization habituation Increased physiological arousal and aggressive cognitions Priming Activation of hostile attributions increased aggressive affect and behavior Aggressive play with objects and peers Physical fights arguments delinquency criminality decrease in helping behavior Effects of violent media on aggression are high than relationships between passive smoking and lung cancer Lead exposure and IQ scores in kids Calcium intake and bone mass Small Effects big consequences multiplied over millions of people Effects may be cumulative over time and may be progressive Effects become insidious Effects likely to be chronically activated Repeated exposure strengthens aggressive knowledge structures Schemas scripts beliefs and attitudes related to aggression WHY violent video games may have even stronger effects that passive media movies Identification with an aggressor increases imitation Active participation increases learning Practicing entire behavioral sequence Violence is continuous Repetition increases learning Rewards increases learning Parents as Aggression Models Physical Punishment models aggressive behaviors Teaches aggression as social control Teaches instrumental aggression Parent may become conditioned aversive stimulus Parent may become discriminative stimulus Can become abusive Role of Heightened Arousal Excitation Tra nsfe r arousal produced in one situation transfers over to another unrelated situation for example an event that would normally just be a minor annoyance being cut off in traf c might instead be met with rage if you were already upset about something else being late for work the arousal from being late for work transfers to being cut off Arousal dissipates slowly over time widening the opportunity to transfer Intensification of emotional reaction to second situation Depends on cognitive appraisal Person variables related to aggression Negative affectivity Hostile Attribution Bias tendency to perceive hostile motives in the others ambiguous actions Narcissism Excessive Self Regard Tend to be ego defensive Tend to react with extreme anger and aggression Ten to be rejection sensitive Sensation Seekers attracted to aggression eliciting situations Prone to boredom and frustration More quick to anger Focus more on immediate rather than long term consequences of behavior Risk takers General Aggression Model ties together multiple factors and multiple possible outcomes Two major types of input variables Situational Factors frustration Provocation Aggressive models Sources of negative affect Person Factors negative affectivity Proaggressive values and beliefs Hostile attribution bias Aggression related skills Situational and personal factors feed into three basic processes Arousal Affect Cognitions Appraisal of current situation and restraining factors such as remembering that the target is your boss or noticing the police officer nearby Impulsive action without thought usually aggressive Reasoned Action thought involved may still decide to be aggressive Reducing Aggression Punishment for aggressing punishment must be immediate strong and consistent to be effective Punishment threats not very effective when person is very angry May provoke more anger and aggression Models further aggression Inducing Compatible Responses inducing humor empathy and other responses that are incompatible with aggression have been shown to reduce aggressive responses to provocation Baron Aggression Study 1976 confederate was driving a car on college campus and he frustrated male drivers by pulling up to red light in front of male driver and hesitates for fifteen seconds when light turns gree DV how long does it take for person to honk Control group 90 honked Distractor Condition person crosses street 89 honked Empathy Condition person crosses on crutches 57 honked Humor person crosses wearing clown mask 50 honked Sexual Arousal Condition women in revealing outfit crosses 47 honked Social Modeling modeling nonaggressive responses Intemalize Antiaggression Values having kids generate reasons why it is bad to imitate violence Social Skills Training some people aggress because they do not have skills for alternative responses Forgiveness reduces anger and aggression Prosocial Behavior and action that helps others usually without direct benefit to self Different kinds Dimensionsplanning severity directness McGuire s Typology casuallending a pen substantialhelping someone move into a new house emotional helping a friend with a break up emergency helping at a car accident scene Emeroencv Helpino five steps Noticing Interpreting Assuming responsibility Deciding Rendering Noticing the emergency Time Pressures quotGood Samaritanquot Study Darley and Batson Participants were young men studying to become priests first finished questioners and then went to give talk somewhere else IV nature of the talk job opportunities or being a good samaritan IV urgency you have plenty of time or you re late On way there a confederate man was slumped in doorway groaning and coughing DV would they stop to help man Results in non rushed condition 63 helped in hurried condition 10 helped Results nature of the talk did not matter Bystander Effect as the number of bystander increases emergency helping tends to decrease Interpreting Event as Emergency Is correct schema activated James Bulger 2 year old at mall with parents and two 10 year old boys grabbed him kicking and screaming for two and a half miles passed at least 61 bystanders where they tortured and murdered the little boy did not fit their schema for a kidnapping believed it was a family dispute PI ura i stic Ignora nce believing that no one else is feeling the way you are reduced when people know each other Contributes to bystander effect Taking Responsibility Diffusion of responsibility the responsibility for taking action gets divided among bystanders Seizure Study Darley and Latane participants are talking over an intercom with either 13 or 6 other people One of the other people sounds very sick and claims to be having a seizure choking and dying When the participants believe he or she is the only one listening he or she runs to immediately help But as number of other listeners goes up the participants likelihood of running to help drops More likely to Help If someone is assigned a leader role then they are more likely to go help and it overcomes the diffusion of responsibility Being someone who is used to helping police officer or nurse overcomes the diffusion of responsibility and they are more likely to help More Likelv to get Help identify a speci c person Specify how you need help call the police Deciding how to Help do I have necessary skills knowing how to give CPR Direct giving CPR more likely when person feels competent knows CPR Indirect call ambulance more likely if person feels unqualified or perceives cost to outweigh benefits trying to stop an armed robber Rendering to Help bystander may still make conscious decision not to help Emotions and Helping Guilt people are more likely to help when they feel guilty Negative mood adults in negative mood are more likely to help may reduce negative feelings Positive Mood people who have just had their spirits lifted as by getting a free gift are more likely to help Study calling and send message study when given free notepad more likely to pass message Focus on Self or Other peopler who are focused on the other person s feelings rather than own are more likely to help Interpersonal attraction Internal determinants need for affiliation inbom motivation to seek interpersonal contact individual difference variable can be situationally sensitive Schacter 1959 Threat of painful shocks role of affect direct and indirect External determinants propinquity proximity macro and micro levels physical and functional proximity segal 1974 Police academy friendships mere exposure effect Moreland and Beach 1992 RAs come to class physical attractiveness physically attractive people are better liked Dion 1972 misbehaving child Hatfield et al 1966 computer dance Why does attractiveness increase liking aesthetic appeal what is beautiful is good stereotype halo effect may evoke selfful lling prophecy Synder Tanke and Berscheid 1977 intercom study attractive people do tend to have better social skills social pro t physical attractiveness objective standard high consensus even cross culturally certain features reliably considered more attractive symmetry infants preferences subjective standard different cultural practices and standards standards change over time perceptions of individual attractiveness change with familiarity Interactive determinants do opposites attract similarity repulsion hypothesis newcome 1961 male transfer students in boarding house Griffitt amp Veitch 1974 male volunteers living in fallout shelter Sprecher amp Duck 1994 students on blind dates repirocal liking selfdisclosure Davis 1985 friendship elements enj oyment acceptance trust repect confiding understanding spontaneity love elements passion fascination exclusiveness sexual desire caring giving the utmost being a champion advocate Stembergs triarchic theory of love commitment intimacy passion combinations produce different kinds of love nonlove liking I infatuation p empty love c romantic love I amp p fatuous love P amp C companionate love I ampC consummate love IP amp C Passion arousal and attribution excitation transfer Dutton amp Aron 1974 dangerous bridge study Hostile Agg ressi on behavior intended to harm another either physically or psychologically and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility Instru mental Agg ression behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives other than pure hostility to attract attention to acquire wealth to advance political and ideological causes Situational Determinants of Aggression nature and nurture Heat weather Craig Anderson evidence higher crime rates in hotter regions other variable controlled More violent in hot months like July and August Reifman MLB pitchers more likely to hit batters as weather gets hotter Media Violence long term and short term copycat violence imitation of specific violent acts depicted in the media Hinckley shooting Reegan suicide is copycat violence to the self More aggressive when you see a movie where the person can identify with the perpetrator of the violent act in the movie More aggressive when watching something that portrays justified violence violence against bad people less aggressive when they are led to direct their attention away from the aggressive parts Long Term Huessman and Eron study assessed tv habits of 211 boys in NY from childhood to adulthood Would mothers report on their prefference for violent tv at age eight predict criminal activity by age 30 It did Violent Video Games columbine shootings Social Rejection and Aggression columbine shootings People who feel rejected report higher levels of chronic phsyical pain physical ailments and even greater pain during childbirth Ball Tossing paraidgm one participant plays a ball tossing game with two confederates at a predetermined time the two confederates stop throwing the ball to the participant and only throw it to each other for 5 minutes This triggers distress shame self doubt and submissive slouched posture Neuroimaging study computer animated version of the game and when they experienced the rejection fmri images reveled that the anterior cingulate processes physically painful stimuli lit up De Wall acetsminophen main ingredient in tylenol diminishes social pain as Well as physical Income Inequality regional inequality corresponds with orevalence o f different o f violence Wilkinson and Pickket works at state level Access to females and competition for economic resources v Green neighborhoodsmore peaceful people Frustration the internal state that accompanies the thwarting of an attempt to achieVe some goal Frustration gressfiion Hyp othes i 5 Miller and Dollard frustration is the determinant of aggression Aggression increases in direct proportion to 1 The amount of satisfaction the person anticipates receiving from meeting the goal before blocked HOW completely the person is prevented from reaching the goal How frequently the person is blocked from achieving goal and 394 How close the individual believes they are to achieving the goal gt Study confederate cut in front of people waiting in line to see a movie in one condition target was 12th in line and in other condition target was in line about to purchase ticket Closer to 392 hours of anticipated pleaSure As predicted by hypothesis target 2nd in line was more aggressive in 39response to cutting the 1 2th person was 39 39 Critiques aggreSSiOH can follow stimuli that do net block goal directed behavior frustration does not necessarily lead to aggression it can lead to other responses v s Learned H el plessness passive and depressed responses that individuals shew when their goals are blocked and they feel they have no control over their outcomes NeoeAsso cilat isonliistic Account of Aggros S ison aggression occurs following aversive events that make people angry Weapons and Violence Culture and Aggression certain values make members of one culture more aggressive than others CU It u r e of Hon or a culture that is de ned by its members strong concerns about their own and others reputations leading to sensitivity to slights and insults and a Willingness to use violence to avenge any perceived wrong or insult US South Ra peas Prone Cultures cultures in Which rape tends to be used as act o f war39 against enemy Women as a ritual act and as a threat against women so that they will remain subservient to men Violence in Stepfamilies step relations seem more prone to violence v s Inclusive Fitness the evolutionary tendency to 100k out for ourselves our offSpring and our close relatives together their offSpring so that our genes will survive and be passed on for generations Gender and Aggression males more in physical aggression maybe because of competition for mates Cultural theorists say its because We expect it of men Reilat39ilo nal aggression more women gossiping alliances excluding others Con ict and Peacemaking Mispercepti on Dehju ma nfiizatgi on 2 the tendency to attribute nonhuman Characteristics to groups other than one own for example to them as rats5 dogs pigs or vermin from intergroup con ict they may also consider their strife as a ght between good and evil Reactive Deva ut a ion the tendency to attach less value to offer in a negotiation once the opposing group makes it Comunication and Reconciliation v s face to face communication is good Way to reduce conflict Reduces misperceptions of opponents Restorative Justice BetWecn Perpett ators and Victims offender takes responsibility for crime the offender tries to undo crime by apology and offender and victim are encouraged to engage in respectful convo These are highly effective the Victims report much less feelings of revenge Cha ptieir Fourteen Altruism unselfish behavior that benefits others without regard to consequences for self Motivation F501 Altruism Batson social rewards motive selfish bene ts like praise positive attention tangible rewards honors and gratitude that may be gained from helping others grOup members will give greater seeial status and pewer39 to other members who act altruistically v e Personal distress motive sel sh a metive for helping those in distress that may from a need to reduce our own distress 1 day old the most in response to another 1 day old cry cur pain regions of the brain are activated when We See others in pain Empathetic concern sel essother oriented identifying with another person feeling and understanding what that person is eXpe riencing accompanied by the intention to help the person in need Study on selfish motive allowing participants to leave experiment otherpart icipants were doing a and received a shock after each mistake In easy escape condition participant was required to watch confederate receive 2 of ten shocks and then was allowed to leave while confederate nished study v If participant was guided by egoristic motive to reduce personal distress there should be little helping behavior could leave v e In dif cult to escape conditidn participant had to watch all ten shocks After two trials confederate looked pale asked feri39water mentioned discomfort the mentioned feelings of distress related emotions UpSet or worried and Some reported empathetic concern Sympathetic compassionate Batson used these self reports to divide participants Faipveriimenter then asked they were willing to sit in fer the confederate taking some of the shocks participants who had reported empathetic concern volunteered to take more shocks Anonymous Study asked them to form an impression based on some infOrmation the person wrote while seated in another cubicle the communicator confederate called herself amold wrote two notes to the participant with supposed honest info about herself In low empathy condition participant was told to be onjective when reading notes and focus on facts v e In high empathy condition participant was told to imagine how ether person felt In first note janet said she felt our of plaice at her new home and university In Second note she said she needed a friend and asked participant to hang out After reading this note was told janet finished and left study participant asked by eXperimenter if they wanted to spend time with her In low social evalut aion condition janets envelopes were delivered sealed and experimenter did not read them and the participant also answered in a sealed envelope In high social evaluation conidition experimenter and participant read janets notes and janet and eXperimenter knew how much time said they would spend with her V Participants in high empathy condition voluntereed to spend more time with her even when no one would know their answers Physiological Indicators of Empathy Study participants watched tape of and mom recovering in hospital from car crash facial expressions and heart rates recorded expressionsheart rate decrease or distressed rate acceleration Sympathy group more likely to help Vol untee ri Sim nonmonetgary assistance individual regularly provides to another person or group with no espectation or compensation good for health Increases longevity in marriages Hel In Ambiuous Situations Sth on pluralistic ignorance in bystander intervention participants llout questionnaire in a lab they it three conditions alone in a room with 2 passive oonfeds with a calm demeanor intending to produce the ignorance or with two other real le to enter under the door and fill the lab 39 When they were alone 75 of them left reported smoke in other two conditions pluralistic ignorance occurred Three real participants only 38 left to report smoke with calm confeds only 10 left and reported smoke Participants contrued the smoke differently in eaeh condition those not reporting it said it was not dangerous and those reporting said it was at of immediate danger Culture and people in rural settings more likely help than those in urban People from lower class abckgrounds are more empathetie than those from upper class backgrounds and are more liker to give resources to strangers and assist people in need Exposure to religious concepts increases levels of altruism Evolution and v n Selection the tendency for natural selection to favor behaviOrs that increase the chances of survival of genetic relatives mockingbirds and squirrels Rerci pro Cal altruism the tendency to help Others with the eXpeotation that they are likely to help us in return the future vampire bats and Cooperation evident almost all societies prisoner dilemmas game make cooperative choice and you both get same amount or make competitive choice and you get more and partner gets nothing or less Reputation the beliefs evaluations and impressions people hold about individual within a social network knowing a persons reputation as cooperative or competitive affects levels of cooperation greatly Tit for tat strategy a strategy in which the individuals rst move is cooperative and thereafter the individual mimics the other persons behavior whether cooperative or competitive use v 1 It is cooperative It not envious 3 It is not ieXploitable It fOrgiVes It is easy to read
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