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Reading Notes Chapter 1,2

by: Corinne Caro

Reading Notes Chapter 1,2 HCS212-Human Anatomy Diego Deleon

Corinne Caro
GPA 3.0
Human Anatomy
Diego Deleon

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Reading Notes from the Book Chapters 1 and 2. :) goodluck!
Human Anatomy
Diego Deleon
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Corinne Caro on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HCS212-Human Anatomy Diego Deleon at University of Miami taught by Diego Deleon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 365 views.

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Date Created: 02/18/15
Reading Notes 02162015 We are all anatomists A simple hand lens show details that barely escape the naked eye while the electron microscope demonstrates structural details that are less than onemillionth as large Microscopic anatomy can be subdivided into specialties that consider features within a characteristic range of sizes Cells Composed of complex chemicals in various combinations and our lives depend on the chemical processes occurring in the trillions of cells that form our body Smallest living unit of body Contains organelles made up of complex chemicals Chemical interactions produce complex proteins within a muscle cell in the heart Muscle cells are unusual because they can contract powerfully shortening along their longitudinal axis Tissues There are 4 basic tissue types In combination they form organs heart kidney liver and brain Organs Anatomical units that have multiple functions Most can be examined easily without microscope 3 types of anatomy surface refers to the study of general form or morphology and per cial anatomical markings regional considers all super cial and internal features in speci c area of the body such as head neck or trunk Advanced courses stress the regional approach because it emphasizes spatial relationships among structures Systemic considers the structure of major organ systems such as skeletal and muscular 11 organ systems in human body developmentalexamines changes in form that occur during the period between conception and physical maturity uses both microscopic and gross anatomy Most extensive structural changes occur during rst 2 months of development Comparative considers anatomical organization of different types of animals observes evolutionary relationships uses techniques of gross microscopic and developmental anatomy Clinical focuses on anatomical features that may undergo recognizable pathological changes during illness Surgical studies anatomical landmarks important for surgical procedures All vertebrates share a basic pattern of anatomical organization that differs from that of other animals The similarities between vertebrates are most apparent when comparing embryos at comparable stages of development The similarities are less obvious when comparing adult vertebrates Al diagnostic procedures presuppose an understanding of the normal structure and function of the human body Radiographic anatomy involves the study of anatomical structures as they are visualized by xray ultrasound scans or other specialized procedures performed on intact body Crosssectional has emerged as a new subspecialty of gross anatomy as new advances in radiographic anatomy such as CT and spiral scans Chemical molecular level of organization 0 Human body contains more than a dozen different elements 0 Hydrogen oxygen carbon and nitrogen account for more than 99 of total number of atoms 0 At chemical level atoms interact to form 3D compounds with distinctive properties Each level of organization is totally dependent on the others Something that affects the system will ultimately affect all of its components Every system must be working properly and in harmony with every other system or survival will be impossible pages 813 overview of the different systems Anatomical features are measured in inches and centimeters Anatomical structures can be Latin Greek or named after scientist or rst victim Anatomical position person stands with legs together and feet at on the oor hands are at sides and palms forward standard by which is the language of anatomy Page 15 know for the general overview of anatomical regions Four quadrants of abdominopelvic this allows doctors to decide different causes for pain Page 16 and 17 Memorize charts 9 abdominopelvic regions 3 sectional planes 0 frontal o transverse sagittal Because they project partly or completely into the ventral body cavity there can be signi cant changes in the size or shape of these organs without distorting surrounding tissues or disrupting activities of adjacent organs internal organs grow and change their relative positions Each pleural cavity contains a lung cavity is lined by shiny slippery serous membrane which reduces friction as the lung expands and recoils during respiration viscera pleura covers the outer surface of lung and parietal plura covers the opposing medistinal surface and inner body wall during each beat the heart changes in size and shape Page 21 explanation of ventral body cavity Robert Hooke rst described cells around 1665 used early light microscope to examine dry cork thousands of empty chambers named cells Cell theory concept that cells are the fundamental units of all living things this theory has been expanded to incorporate several basic concepts relevant to our discussion of the human body 1 cells are structural building block of life 2 cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells 3 cells are the smallest structural units that perform all vital functions Human body contains trillions of cells 2 types somaticinclude all other cells in the body sexare either sperm of males or oocytes of females 2 most common ways to study cells are light microscopy and electron microscopy historically most information has been found by light microscopy light microscopy beam of light is passed through object to be viewed magnify cellular structures about 1000 times and show details as ne 025 micrometers can identify cell types and large intracellular structures Cells have a variety of shape and size Need to work with large number of cells Light can pass through the section only if the slices are thinner than the individual cells Cells of body have many different sizes and shapes and variety of special functions Any single section can show you only a part of cell or tissue Steps to view a cell 0 1 die unnatural death 0 2 been dehydrated 3 been impregnated with wax or plastic o 4 been sliced into thin sections 0 5 been rehydrated dehydrated and stained with various chemicals 0 6 been viewed with limitations of equipment Electron microscope Uses focus beam of electrons Transmission electron microscope electrons penetrate an ultrathin section of tissue to strike a photographic plate 0 Scanning electron microscopeelectrons bouncing off exposed surfaces that have been coated with goldcarbon lm create a scanning electron micrograph provides less magni cation than transmission electron microscopy it provides 3D perspective on cell structure Page 30 has cell structure of labeling for test Our representative cells oat in a watery medium known as extracellular uid Plasmalemma separates the cell contents from the extracellular uid 2 types of membrane proteins 0 1 peripheral protensattached to either the inner or outer membrane 0 2 integral proteins embedded in the membrane 0 some form channels that water molecules ions and small watersoluble compounds into or out of the cell some channels are quotgatedquot because they can open or close to regulate passage of materials General functions of plasmalemma 1 physical isolation lipid bilayer of plasmalemma forms physical barrier that separates the inside of the cell from surrounding extracellular uid 2 regulation of exchange with the environment controls entry of ions and nutrients elimination of waste and release secretory vesicles 3 sensitivity rst part of cell affected by changes in the extracellular uid also contains a variety of receptors that allow the cell to recognize and respond to speci c molecules in environment and communicate with other cells any alteration affects all cellular activities 4 structural support specialized connections between two adjacent plasmalemmae or between membranes and extracellular materials give tissues a stable structure Membrane structure is uid cholesterol helps stabilize the membrane and maintain uidity Integral proteins can move within membrane and composition can change over time The difference in permeability may be basis of size electrical charge molecular shape solubility or combination Diffusion occurs until concentration gradient is removed when eliminated an equilibrium exists no longer net movement in any direction Diffusion is important in body uids because it tends to eliminate local concentration gradients The size of the ion or molecule and any electrical charge it might carry determine its ability to pass through membrane channels to cross the lipid portion of membrane it needs to be lipid soluble All living cells show active transport of sodium potassium calcium and magnesium specialized cells can transport iodide and iron known as iron pumps 0 Move a speci c cation or anion in one direction either into or out of the cell if the movement of one ion in one direction is coupled to movement of another in the opposite direction the carrier is called exchange pump Endocytosis involves relatively large volumes of extracellular material sometimes called bulk transport 3 types all require ATP 0 1 phagocytosis 2pinocytosis 3receptor mediated endocytosis 0 all forms produce small membranebound compartments called endosomes once gone through process will enter cytosol only if they can pass through the vesicle wall Capillaries are most delicate blood vessels use pinocytosis to transfer uid and solutes from bloodstream to surrounding tissue Most cells use pinocytosis but phagocytosis is performed only by special cells of immune system The target substances called ligands are bound to receptors on the membrane surface Many important substances including cholesterol and iron ions are distributed through the body attached to special transport proteins proteins are too large to pass through membrane pores but can enter through receptormediated endocytosis vesicle eventually returns to cell surface and fuses with plasmalemma Page 35 gives detail of receptor mediated endocytosis and summary of mechanisms Interactions between micro laments and cytoskeleton can produce a waving or bending action their movements help circulate uid around the microvilli bringing dissolved nutrients into contact with receptors on the membrane surface Cytoplasm has 2 main divisions o 1 cytosolintracellular uid contains dissolved nutrients ions soluble and insoluble proteins and waste products plasmmalemma separates cytosol from surrounding extracelluar uid 0 2 organelles are intracellular structures that perform speci c funcions 3 differences 0 1 high concentration of potassium ions 0 2 contains a relatively high concentration of dissolved and suspended proteins give cytosol consistency that varies between maple syrup and almost set gelatin 0 3 contains relatively small quantities of carbohydrates and large reserves of amino acids and lipids Cytosol of cells contain masses of insoluble materials known as inclusions the most common are stored nutrients glycogen granules in liver or skeletal muscle cell and lipid droplets in fat cells Organelles are found in all body cells although types and numbers of organelles differ among various cell types each one performs speci c functions that are essential to normal cell structure maintenance and or metabolism Organelles have two different categories 0 1 nonmembranous always in contact with cytosol cytoskeleton centrioles cilia agella and ribosomes o Cytoskeleton 4 major components Micro laments scattered throughout cytosol and form dense network 2 major functions a 1 anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins of the plasmalemma stabilizes the position of membrane proteins provides additional mechanical strength to cell and rmly attaches plasmalemma to underlying cytoplasm n 2 actin micro laments can interact with micro laments or larger structures composed of the protein myosin interaction produce active movement of a portion of cell or change in shape of entire cell intermediate laments n 1 provide strength a 2 stabilize the positions of organelles n 3 transport materials within the cytoplasm thick laments n abundant in muscle cells where they interact with actin laments to produce powerful contractions microtubules a testing for new drugs to treat various forms of cancer Page 38 has function list for microtubule n 9 groups of microtubules and each group is a triplet o Ribosomes 2 types 1 free scattered throughout the cytoplasm the protein they manufacture enter cytosol 2 xed attached to endoplasmic reticulum enter lumen of endoplasmic reticulum where they are modi ed and packaged for export 2 membranous surrounded by membranes that isolate their contents from the cytosol allows organelle to manufacture or store secretions enzymes or toxins mitochondria nucleus endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus lysosomes and peroxisomes o Mitochondriaactivity produces 95 of the energy needed to keep cell alive produces ATP through breakdown of organic molecules in series of reaction that consume oxygen and generate carbon dioxide various shapes and forms control own maintenance and growth and reproduction red blood cells lack mitochondria Muscles have high numbers of mitochondria o Nucleus control center single one stores all information needed to control 100000 different proteins determines structural and functional characteristics of cell by controlling what proteins are synthesized and in what amounts Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus Most cells contain a single nucleus but there are exceptions Cell without a nucleus will only survive 34 months Chromosomes of diving cells are very tightly coiled together and be seen clearly as separate structures chromosomes that are not dividing they are loosely coiled forming a tangle of ne laments known as chromatin o Endoplasmic reticulum 4 major functions 1 synthesis manufacture carbohydrates steroids lipids 2 storage hold sythenized molecules or substances absorbed from cytosol without affecting other cellular operations 3 transportsubstances can travel from place to place within the cell inside the endoplasmic reticulum 4 detoxi cationcellular toxins can be absorbed by the ER and neutralize by enzymes found on membrane 2 distinct ER a rough contains xed ribosomes a smooth has no ribosomes o 1 synthesis of lipids steroids and carbohydrates 0 2 storage of calcium ions 0 3 removal and inactivation of toxins n The amount of endoplasmic reticulum and proportion of RER to SER very depending on the type of cell and its ongoing activities 0 Golgi apparatus 3 major functions 1 synthesis and packaging of secretions such as mucins or enzymes 2 packaging of special enzymes for use in the cytosol 3 renewal of modi cation of the plasmelemma Golgi membranes may undergo a complete turnover every 40 minutes 0 Lysosomes May function against diseases using endocytosis Perform essential cleanup and recycling function inside the cell quotsuicide packetsquot Page 44 talks more about process of lysosomes o 2 Major cell junctions 1 communicating 2 adhering n 1 prevent passage of material from the apical region to the basolateral region of the cell via the intercellular space between the two cells n 2 prevent passage of watersoluble material between cells a focal adhesions are responsible for connecting intracellular micro laments to protein bers of the basal lamina n hemidemosomes are found in epithelial tissue that are subjected to a signi cant amount of abrasion and shearing forces and require a strong attachment to the underlying basal lamina found in tissues as corner of eye skin and vagina oral cavity and esophagus Pages 4649 reread to go over cell life cycle F


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