Human Sexuality Study Guide Midterm #2
Human Sexuality Study Guide Midterm #2
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Date Created: 04/13/14
Midterm 2 Study Guide Down syndrome caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Usually includes mild or moderate intellectual disability and a characteristic facial appearance Fetal alcohol syndrome A collection of physical and behavioral symptoms in a child who was exposed to high levels of alcohol as a fetus Are small characteristic face cognitive and behavioral problems Venereal diseases Obselete term for sexually transmitted diseases Obsessive relational intrusion Obsessive pursuit of a person by a rejected lover Batteredwoman syndrome A version of post traumatic stress disorder affecting women who are victims of intimate partner violence Intimate partner violence Violence between sex partners ketamine K An anesthetic and recreational drug that has been used to facilitate rape Gamma Hydroxybutyrate GBH A central nervous system depressant that has been used to facilitate rape Rophypnol A tranquilizer that has been used to facilitate rape Naegee s rule A traditional rule for the calculation of a pregnant woman39s due date 9 calendar months plus one week after the onset of the last menstrual period Rubella German measles a viral infection that can cause developmental defects in fetuses whose mothers contract the disease during pregnancy Can cause damage to ears eyes heart Chronic villus sampling The sampling of tissue from the placenta for purposes of prenatal diagnoses A catheter is passed through the cervix and a sample of tissue is take from the placenta Premature birth Birth that occurs more than 3 weeks before a woman39s due date Also called preterm birth Prolactin A protein hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes breast development among other effects Colostrum The milk produced during the first few days after birth it is relatively low in fat but rich in immunoglobins RH factor An antigen on the surface of red blood cells that when present in a fetus but not in its mother may trigger an immune response by the mother resulting in life threatening anemia of the fetus or newborn Spina bifida A congenital malformation caused by incomplete closure of the neural tube Incomplete development of the spine and spinal cord Amniocentesis The sampling of amniotic fluid for purposes of prenatal diagnosis Passes thin needle through the front wall of abdomen into amniotic sac in which fetus is floating avoiding touching the fetus itself Jaundice Yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes caused by liver diseases Personality The collection of mental and behavioral traits especially those related to emotions and attitudes which characterizes an individual Mahus A class of male to female transgenders in Polynesia One mahu per village Dressed in female attire engaged in women39s activities and had sex with conventional men He performed sacred dances Traditionally accorded high status Families encouraged or even trained sons to become mahus Hijras M F transgenders in northern India and Pakistan Cut off their genitals and work as religious dancers or as prostitutes serving men Twospirit malefemale person In several native cultures of North America rituals conducted at or before puberty gave a boy the option to choose between the status of a conventional male and that of a two spirit person Wore special clothes fashioned from male and female attire practices mostly female occupations and engaged in sexual relationships with conventional men They were often shamans chanters dancers or mediators Kathoey Thailand has an especially large and visible community of m to f transgenders Some have undergone sex reassignment Are well accepted in the entertainment field and in some jobs typically held by women but they face discrimination in male occupations Ultrasound scan At 56 weeks can obtain definitive clinical evidence of pregnancy An imaging procedure that depends on the reflection of ultrasonic waves from density boundaries within the body Also called ultrasonographic scan Can determine whether one or more embryos are present and by 23 weeks later can detect fetal heartbeat Artificial insemination An assisted reproduction technique that involves the placement of semen in the vagina or uterus with the aid of a syringe or small tube Metoidioplasty Surgical construction of a small penis from a clitoris Sex and Gender Differences Be able to define and explain the difference between gender gender identity transgender and gender role Gender The collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females Gender identity A person39s subjective sense of being male or female Transgender Having a gender identity that is discordant with one s own anatomical sex Gender role The expression of gender identity in social behavior Be able to give examples of cognitive and personality traits men and women differ on pg 104107 THeir interests as children Boys are ore active Boys show greater throwing accuracy and girls show finer control of hand musculature at young age By elementary girls are slightly better at calculating than boys and boys are better at mental visuospatial tasks cuch as mental rotation see notes below Be able to explain attitude differences between male and female sexuality including attitudes towards casual sex jealousy and masturbation Men have greater interest in casual sex which can be explained in terms of evolutionary processes by a man being able to have more offspring by impregnating more women in evolution Women however have to invest so much time and resources into pregnancy and infant care that they are very limited in total number of offspring they are able to have Therefore one can argue that genes evolved that promoted mens interest in casual sex and women39s choosiness in who she mated with Men also have jealousy because they could never be certain which children were his Men39s sexual jealousy served to reduce the likelihood of rearing somone ese s child women39s emotional jealousy served to reduce the likelihood that their male partners would abandon them and leave them without resources to rear their children Men are more likely to experience sexual jealous and women emotional jealousy Males masturbate more than females beginning at puberty More necessary More sef peasure When do gender differences begin to arise When can children categorize their own sex When does gender consistency occur Children can recognize their own sex around age 2 or 3 Gender consistency a child39s understanding that sex is a fixed attribute occurs by about age 34 Gender differences begin to arise even before birth male fetuses are more active than females and this difference in activity level persists throughout ch dhood True or False Girls play is governed by appeal to social conventions while boys play refers to principles ofjustice TRUE Gender is molded by socialization What is the primary social influence on children How are children influenced by this social influence What other types of social influence are there The primary social influence is family They may do this by the way they dress them decorate toys they give activities they encourage them to participate in etc Parents and children also act as role models Children also learn by observation and award and punishment when child shows desired behaviors or punishment when undesired behavior Differences also may arise by imitation which can occur by direct contact with peers and family but also through the media television books movies etc Be able to answer questions like how do influence how we learn gender roles Gender constancy Effects gender roles by theory that the realization that male and female are fixed attributes becomes an organizing principle that motivates the child to develop stereotypical ideas about the characteristics of males and females such as that males are strong but cruel and females fearful but affectionate and to make his or her own behavior correspond to those stereotypes According to this behavioral traits such as aggressiveness in boys may result from the boys desire to demonstrate his gender attributes Gender schemas Is a collection of ideas about gender that influences perception and judgement Under the influence of socialization most children develop highly polarized schemas of masculinity and femininity so that perception becomes categorical either masculine or feminine but nothing in between Theory that gender schemas influence perceptions and memories Such as studies about story boy crying and girl sawing wood Sexual scripts Cultural guidelines that prescribe sexual roles Effect how we learn gender roles by theory that people place particular reliance on sexual scripts when interacting with prospective partners that they don39t know very well First dates or organized according to gendered scrips Scripts can change over time under influence of culture Scripts influence psychosexual development Post puberta boys masturbate a great deal more than girls while girls early sexual experiences tend to be with partners As a consequence the scripts theory suggests that the meaning of sex for males becomes embedded in notion of males own sexual pleasure whereas for females it becomes embedded in the notion of relationships True or False Gender typical behavior is molded by imitations of individuals seen as authoritative or protective Gender typical behavior doesn39t result from simple direct rewards and punishments FALSE it is both How did 19605 feminism influence child socialization Feminists in the 60s placed a great deal of emphasis on social learning theories of gender Idea that traditional gender differences could be modified if parents and others would change the way they treated children In consequence the effect of the new style of child rearing is showing itself such as greater participation of girls and young women in sports What are sexual scripts and when are they used Sexual scripts Cultural guidelines that prescribe sexual roles Effect how we learn gender roles by theory that people place particular reliance on sexual scripts when interacting with prospective partners that they don39t know very well First dates or organized according to gendered scrips Scripts can change over time under influence of culture Scripts influence psychosexual development Post puberta boys masturbate a great deal more than girls while girls early sexual experiences tend to be with partners As a consequence the scripts theory suggests that the meaning of sex for males becomes embedded in notion of males own sexual pleasure whereas for females it becomes embedded in the notion of relationships True or False Gender development involves only nature False Be able to explain the life stories of transmen and transwomen Transmen Even as very young girls they say they are boys or insist they want to become boys and try to express their masculine identity in their clothing hairstyles friendships activities and career plans As they enter puberty they resent the developing signs of woman hood and may seek to hide them In adulthood they seem quite masculine in many respects and are usually sexually attracted to women Thus they are homosexua with respect to their birth sex but do not identify as lesbian Rather they identify as a heterosexual man a man trapped in a women39s body Transwomen Two different types 1 Classical Pretty much the opposite ofjust described As young boys they say they are girls or insist they want to become girls try to dress as girls and play with girls Dislike the mans body that puberty gives them and may try to pass as women Feminine mannerisms gait and conversational style seem to come naturally to them Usually sexually attracted to men Women trapped in mens body Tend to seek sex reassignment in their teen years or young adulthood 2 Other kind is less well known During childhood boys are mildly gender nonconformist but not all Sexually attracted to women so are heterosexual with respect to their birth However their interest in women takes an unusual course being colored with fetishistic elements such as transvestism Eventually may get to point where they are aroused by idea of not merely being in women39s clothes but of being in a woman39s body and possessing female genitalia Feminine mannerisms gait and conversational style do not necessarily come naturally Tend to seek sex reassignment later in life often after they have been heterosexually married and fathered children Autogynephiliaz Sexual arousal at thought of becoming a women Be able to explain the process of transitioning Transitioning is the process by which transexuals change sex One way a transsexual person can transition is with the aid of a gender identity clinic The sex stage process ha several stages First client is evaluated psychologically and physically may include psychotherapy Second stage real life experience client lives in the community for 12 years as a member of the other sex to ensure the client can function in desired gender role In third stage client is given hormones to begin the process of bodily change Estrogen for male to female and androgens for female to male Hormones effects are not permanent so treatment usually continues for life Esrogen changes body fat distribution decrease in erections breasts may enlarge but estrogen do not abolish facial hair or reverse baldness Androgens causes development of beard and deepens voice and body fat distribution However do not remodel skeleton Fourth stage is sex reassignment surgery Removal of penis and testicles and construction of vagina labia and clitoris breast augmentation Maybe vocal cords For female removal of breasts ovaries oviducts uterus and vagina Scrotum and penis may be constructed Construction of penis can be made to have an erection but is very costly Fifth stage is surgical endocrinological and psychological follow up which may last several years What are some of the reasons for not going through transitioning What are other routes transsexuals can go through sexreassignment surgery The expense Surgery can cost easily 30000 and up to 150000 or more Governments and insurance companies provide little or no assistance For a few some raise money through prostitution Some transgenders do not want surgery The idea is that transexuals have a problem that needs to be treated in order for them to be well and not all accept this See society as having the problem and needs to be treated May be put off by less than ideal results of surgery or may be satisfied with cross dressing and passing as the opposite sex Some do not wish to change sex through the official route May learn about sex reassignment through peer networks obtain hormones on the black market and go straight to a private surgeon Ch 15 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Stages Symptoms Primary Syphilis Marked by occurrence of chancres at sight of infection starts as red bump becomes sore or ulcer Secondary Syphilis Painless rash may appear on palms and soles of feet Fever swollen lymph nodes Muscle pain sore throat Tertiary Syphilis Large ulcers may appear on skin or internal organs organ damage Appears in about 15 of cases Herpes Types Symptoms Treatments HSV 1 Oral Herpes Fever blisters cold sores HSV 2 Genital Herpes Outbreak of sores at site on infection May have slight itching Reddish slightly elevated spot or cluster of spots Turin into blisters which break leaving sores or ulcers May be painless or mildly itchy Fever swollen lymph nodes can increase risk of cervical cancer Not curable Treatment may reduce outbreaks Treated by oral antibiotics Valtrex Know the different ways to reduce the likelihood of STD transmission Abstinence prevents STDs Can reduce risk of STDs by choice of parters Reduce total number of people with whom they have sexual contact and to select partners who are at low risk of having STD Some sexual behaviors are riskier than others for STD transmission Coitus anal sex and mouth to anus contact are high risk with anal sex being the riskiest Oral sex is a moderate risk behavior Kissing fondling hand genital contact ad general body contact are low risk behaviors Condoms is key to STD preventionNatura tissue condoms do not provide adequate protection and anal sex places greater demands on a condom than vaginal sex
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