REL101 Test 1-4 Study Guides Plus Notes
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Indigenous Religion 11132014 Aztec Empire peaked between 13th and 16th century 0 upon arrival of Europeans into Americas Substantial empire and was conquered within themselves 0 Aztlan mythological place from which we all emerge Capital of Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan located in what is now Mexico city 0 capital of empire becomes capital of Mexico Aztecs describes at Nahuatl people 0 text was through hierogrphylics and oral tradition but didn t have a heavy written tradition Hernan Cortes vs Montezuma II in 1521 Cortes great conqueror of Aztecs when he defeated Montezuma Montezuma mass killing genocide extreme blood shed o Montezuma saw conquering of Aztecs as spreading Christianity doing god s work 0 Debates of whether Aztecs were even human Aztec religious absorption Catholicism worked with Aztec religion Gods had many gods and they considered the Catholic God was just another manifestation of their religion 0 Spanish reaction to Aztecs 0 were very strategic spiritually conquering Aztecs Spanish destroyed Aztec shrines and build churches on top of them 1492 Spanish reconquering Spain and Portugal from the Muslims so very active in both regions Spreading of global Catholicism Aztec Gods Dualistic gods Miclam region of dead 0 can act on the heavens the earth and in the region of the dead Gods created us to worship them they want or worship and veneration Reciprocal relationship with the Gods l we worship them but expect to gain favors from them in return uid notions of god 0 gods aren t always the same gods grew and reacted and responded in relationship with Aztecs o gods personalities developed Ometotl mother and father God 0 Aztec life and ritual it was guided by season and time time is cyclical 5 ages each marked by creation destruction and restoration 0 don t fear death because always followed by recreation Human sacri ce 0 when Aztecs learned about communion they though this was very similar to their sacri ce catholics eat Jesus esh and blood 0 also preformed animal sacri ce Teomicqueh tonally destiny and death 0 destiny is determined and therefore so is death 0 no hell but can be less pleasant Mayan Empire Geographic span is large from Mexico El Salvador Belize to Guatemala and Honduras Language groups over 25 different languages Peak was between 250900 BCE but may be as old as 1800 BCE Collapse of Mayan civilization is still mystery 0 some people theorize it was deforestation and destroying their ecosystem so couldn t sustain themselves Mayans are still alive to today The Popul Vuh o mayan bible 0 emerges in western Guatemala Mayan Cosmology cyclical understanding of time o the shaman mediator between the spiritual world and human world can be possessed by gods and spirits priesthood was strongly development Cosmology o creator god created out of nothing Numerology extremely important 0 4th incarnation of humans gods didn t like rst 3 Practiced occasional animal sacri ce but not nearly as much as Aztecs very limited 2012 0 people though world would end on December 21 2012 Mayan long count calendar ended on this date but world didn t end 0 calendar resets at zero after 2012 Stereotypes team mascots redskins and braves o mascots are offensive Casino Indians Sweat lodges Hisotircal background Marshal trilogy all lands occupied by Indians belongs to US government Indians labeled as domestic nations l any disputes over land labeled as domestic disputes 1934 Indian reorganization act 0 US encouragedforced tribes to adopt constitutions and de ne relationship with US forced US model onto Indians 0 resulted in establishment of bureau of Indian affairs 1950 tribal relocation acts 0 moved tribes into less desirable acts BUT many of these acts failed 0 19705 American Indian Movement AIM focused on pride and self determination 0 Religion 0 Land based religion l when separated from land community religious life is devastated Resistance against colonialism 0 practicing their native beliefs is a form of resistance 0 practices are a way of maintaining their identity language and culture nationhood o hundreds of native nations in the US 0 A lot of diversity within religious practices Pueblo Tradition o centered around rain respecting rain rituals focused on rain ritual dress includes rain symbolism o Hopis are another tribe who focus on rain 0 Agricultural tribes whose life depends on rain 0 Tradition and the Modern World 0 3 dominant traditional religious expressions 0 traditional religion tradition is a way of empowering their community 0 peyote religion consumption of peyote a hallucinogenic drug in religious rituals is protected by the rst amendment even though peyote is illegal has to be consumed on native reservations in ritual 0 Christianity natives who have converted to Christianity Controversial because to be a Christian is to quotsell outquot because Christianity has played speci c role in the conquest of native roles US government funded Christian missionary schools for indigenous children but if your child attended this school they couldn t speak their indigenous language wear their tribal clothes and must convert to Christianity US called itself the New lsrael conquering native people and spreading Christianity Shamanism known as medicine man or women mediator between spiritual and human world Shamins are known to fall into trances and even possession when talking to spiritual world and some even spirit travel and leave their bodies 0 Characteristics Reverence toward natural world sacred is present in the natural world time is cyclical no end point oral tradition animism Ancestor veneration 0 death is not the end of relationship with ancestors are to be revered Emphasize rights of passage 0 there are religious markers to your growth 0 purity laws 0 practice libation 0 poor alcohol on ground as offering to natural world before you drink 0 Practice of divination o certain people have the gift to determine your life path Wicca belief in witches is part of the history of the US a myth that wiccans worship the devil and communicate with spirits or preform spell Wiccans DO claim to practice magic At the core of the religion is worshiping preChristian deities 0 see their practices as connecting to religion even more ancient than Christianity Associated with the persecution of women Neopaganism Humans and nature 0 relationship and interconnectedness between humanity and the natural world 0 reciprocity desire to revive preChristian religion ritual creates identity and community 0 looks at preChristian Europe and trying to revive Gerald E Gardner key gure in Wicca o lived from 18841964 0 driving force between modern wiccan movement o wrote a book called witchcraft today and is seen as a revival of the practices of Wicca Studied folklore and esoteric thought 0 worked with Maragret Murray and tried to argue that witches in 18th and 19th century were connected to ancient fertility religion 0 believed always had been underground wiccan movement but much of this research as been discredited o argument was very appealing and people 39bought it Wicca the religious cult of modern witchcraft especially an initiatory tradition found in England in themed 20th century and claiming its origins in preChristian pagan religions some shy away from using word witchcraft others embrace this considering beliefs sacred is immanent dwells within nature 0 divine magic exists in humans and natural worlds believe in gods and goddesses o draw from the transformative power of nature in their rituals also draw from Yourban traditional African religion and Egyptian religion and their accounts of the goddesses Wiccan Rede has an ethical code among modern witches that you can t harm others 0 quotan it harm none do what you willquot 0 you can only use magic for positive purposes 0 a sense of karma in this lifetime exists l if you use magic to harm others it will come back to you Rituals associates with the change of the season and phases of moon Esbat o happens once a month during full moon associated with goddess of the moon Sababt o ritual associated with goddess of the sun Rituals following rhythm of the natural world where the sacred lives 0 festivals during equinoxes and solstices dancing mediation eating all are types of rituals Structure of Wicca 0 very decentralized no institutions or initiation process organized by covens which are small groups of practioners who gather together for rituals There are individual practices are well can be self taught 0 self taught are less part of community so somewhat on the margin of Wiccan religion Malleus Male carum o quothammer of witchesquot guidebook during Inquisition and read by protestants 0 was a guide on how to identify prosecute and kill witches o witch hunter handbook rst published in Germany in the 17th century 0 Led to persecution of women 0 estimates that thousands of women killed cemented the belief that witches are both real and are a threat to the Christian world blamed eve for women being deceitful in nature and lustful O Rastafarianism name in itself is a point of contention have been around for less than 100 years 0 one of the youngest religions an AfroJamaican religious movement 0 religion implies institutions believe it is more of a movement rather than a religion minority religion in Jamaica and worldwide Three elemenets that cement beliefs Garveyism Christianity 0 Ethiopianism Garveyism Marcus Garvey 18871940 not a Rastafari just in uential o In uential in back to Africa movement 0 argued that because peoples of African decent had been brought to Americas by force movements of return to native countnes 0 most public gure in movement very charismatic so had impact across the America 0 Recovery of black identity as African and Ethiopian Black king as black Messiah o Garvey prophesized that a black king would arise in America and would be a black Messiah to liberate all black people from oppression Hallie Selassie o crowned emperor of Ethioppia in 1930 and went by the name of Ras Tafari Makonnen where rastafari get their name 0 his coronation was seen as ful llment of Garvey s prophecy seen as Jah incarnate God s incarnation o claimed to be a descendent of King Soloman and the Queen of Sheba o Pslam 68 Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands onto god notion that Ethiopia is blessed nation and Hallie Selassie is leader 0 Basic Beliefs Hallie Selassie is the balck messiah Belived in mystical return to Africa Must live your life with spiritual connection to the African homeland o vision towards Africa don t fall into European lifestyle Christian beliefs incorporated because of colonization and Hallie was also Exodus story very important 0 reveals god that liberates that punishes slave holder 0 god takes the side of the oppressed and marginalized Ethiopiancentered interpretation of the bible Phases of Development phase one rom 193219505 0 religion only popular among 4 blackJamaicans o notion that god is black 0 phase 2 from 196019705 0 emphasis on economic class critique of European legacy of colonialism o Rastafari arguing ja is on the side of oppressed and poor 0 Reggae artists starting to gain some recognition 0 rejection of British English and notion of one way to speak I rastafari develop own language to describe certain realities 0 phase 3 new openness 0 prior to this unheard of for a White person to be a rastafari 0 now open to all races Rasta critiques initially critical of white culture rejection of white culture because they thought it was better 0 later begin critiquing colonialism and neocolonialism ultimately rejection ofjamaican government 0 Promote spiritual return to Africa and believe they are living in Babalonian exile o jamaicaBabylon Core of Rasta life Reasonings o gatherings where you smoke marijuana and have theological discussion 0 Not an institutionalized or organized religion 0 but rise of Houses or beginnings of organization of belief o Belief in Avatars o prophets that come Visions drums and dreams part of ceremonies Is a patriarchal religion 0 believes women are lesser 0 women must veil wear skirts ankle length Rasta Lifesytle dreadlocks o ital living Rasta colors red blood of those ln struggle from freedom black skin 0 green ehiopia Jamaica ganja gold faith and hope red balck and green are the colors of the Ethiopian ag MOVIE Vodou Voodoo word used by the French to describe African religious practices in Haiti Voodoo is a false construction really they aren t a quotvoodooistquot but say they quotserve the spiritsquot French described voodoo dances as taking the form of a serpent serpent is an important symbol Ritual dance is at the heart of Voodoo through the movements the human and spiritual come together important for spirit possession Slave Religion associated as a form of empowerment and seen as fueling slave revolts and embodying the spirit of resistance was a way of rejecting Catholicism of the French Fueled the Haitian revolution 17911804 0 Mythology assumes that there was a ritual caed Boiscayman in which slave leaders evoked the spirits in order to empower them to revolt o spirits empowered slaves to overthrow the French Haiti had a plantation system so Voodoo began as a very rural religion 0 changes in the 20th century when people stat moving to cities role of Voodoo has changed since Earthquake Pat Robertson quotHaiti made a pact with the devil and was being punished by the earthquakequot Controversial but saying what many Haitians believe now narrative that God is punishing us because we evoked the spirits of Voodoo to be free move towards Pentecostalism and more conservative branches of Christianity Vodou and Catholicism Vatican breaks ties with newly independent Haiti from 18051860 Catholic church didn t recognize Haiti so removed many priests from Haiti Slaves were previously forced to convert to Catholicism o justi ed slavery by claiming they were saving people Voodo is an African based religion with a mixture of African religions due to the diverse slave population in Haiti Roman Catholic elements in Vodou o Slaves were prohibited from practicing their African beliefs so they did it in secret by hiding their beliefs and rituals behind Catholic imagery o Pretsavann a Vodou priest that specializes in Roman Catholic elements of the religion 0 most voodoo rituals begin with a catholic prayer and they have the same calendars Catholicism has been incorporated within it so becomes a new religion Vodou and Duvalier l contributed to the marginalization of voodoo Francois Duvalier Papa Doc 0 President from 19571971 0 manipulated voodoo during presidencies to scare the population jeanClaude Duvalier Baby Doc 0 voodoo begins to be associated with witchcraft Voodoo is a decentralized religion no central authority 0 makes it difficult to study because a lot of diversity Slaves were able to maintain their ritual practices in front of the French through ritual dance French didn t realize they were practicing religion Mixture of African origins so diverse origins Voodoo is a monotheistic religion 0 one name of god is Gran Met Good God 0 One god but this god is inaccessible to humans because we are too awed to have a relationship with god emphasis as a practitioner is not god wangas and gardes ritual objects that can be protective and healing believes that objects have sacred power and that the supernatural can be present in objects Lwa Loa spirits supernatural beings who mediate our relationship with god 0 ln voodoo you are the servant to the Lwa two types of Lwa Rada and petwo o Rada are more sweet tempered o petwo are bitter feisty Lwa are not perfect because they aren t god can get angry frustrated happy ect l is a reciprocal relationship Konesans ritual knowledge in voodoo various levels of initiation in the religion so you build up your konesans o hierarchy of initiation from beginner to priest in the religion Ounfo voodoo temple increasingly in peoples homes 0 must have a pole because spirits descend from ceiling to the ground down the pole Ason sacred rattle received upon initiation into the religion 0 Spirit possession letting a spirit possess you is the most important thing you can do to serve to Lwa Mounting l spirit mounts you and possess you and can happen to anyone but overwhelmingly happens to practitioners Head washing is important because your body is a medium for the sacred 0 physical rituals that are spiritual Memory and possession when they are possessed they don t remember anything that happened Initiation into the religion entering the priesthood becoming a religious leader which can take years to achieve Danbala most powerful Lwa and oldest associated with snakes When hiding worship to Danbala slaves chose St Patrick because he drove the snakes out of Ireland so he became mask for Danbala Saints are considered mediators to relationship with God in Catholicism very similar to Lwa so structure of Catholocism mimicked their voodoo beliefs Danbala likes eggs and his color is white only eat white food put on white clothing Danbala is married to Ezili who is represented by the Virgin Mary Voodoo rituals Calendar corresponds to Catholic calendar Ritual to celebrate anniversary of initiation can have a ritual to ask for a particular need from money to romance Rituals include alcohol food drumming and animal sacri ce 0 blood of sacri ced animals connects the supernatural and natural world Alters in the home is a way to practice voodoo in everyday life Lwa depend on humans and rituals for their survival LukumiYoruba Religion Santeria Afrocuban religion popularly known as Santeria literally means quotway of the saintsquot but practitioners feel like this term is too Catholic In terms of practitioners it s a Yoruba religion 0 Santeria is a Yoruban based religion which are in present day Nigeria who were overwhelmingly brought over as slaves in the 19th century Cubans speaking Spanish begin calling them Lukumi Official name of Santeria is Regla de Ocha Rule of the Orishas Emerges from the encounter of the religion of the Yoruba with Catholicism l religion with African core but has Catholic elements Slavery in Cuba massive genocide of Indigenous people with the arrival of slaves o from 100000 to 200000 killed with arrival of Spanish 0 indigenous people were localized in Cuba not divided in empires 0 Cuba was a stop on the way to Mexico not a large population of slaves on the island but this changed in 1804 when Haitian revolution ended 0 Haiti was the lead producer of sugar for Europe but after independence Haiti is no longer traded with so Cuba becomes location of sugar industry 0 Spain cuts Cuba up into sugar plantations and with this an escalation of the slave trade 0 Cuba is the last Spanish colony to abolish slavery in 1886 lasted longer than anywhere else in the Caribbean Cabildos religious brotherhoods organized by tribal nation 0 Spanish allowed slaves to organize into mutual aid societies or religious brotherhoods called cabildos 0 place for slaves to gather smaller tribal units that spanish allowed to exist on the island Baile ritual dance that is very important to Cabildos o Santeria is in uential on Cuban music Allowed to do processions on feast days 0 most important is Los Reyes Magos public manifestation of the Cabildos Slaves built alters to certain saints as a disguise to Santeria spirits La Regla de Ocha Major Beliefs Core is Yoruba religion with a layer of Catholicism and a layer of Espiritismo Spiritism once we die spirits interact and engage with the human world 0 certain people have the gift to see and communicate with spirits and are mediums to connect 0 there are good spirits and bad spirits Monotheistic religion many names for god 0 Olodumare is the creator 0 can t have relationship with the god so no representations of Olodumare 0 He is present in Ashe which is the sacred presence in this world 0 Religious freedom and US history 0 US is not a Christian nation although the majority religion is Christianity 0 There was not majority church of Protestantism Authors of the constitution some were Christians an Catholics some where diests some where atheists but were united in separation of church and state Constitution 0 article 6 no discrimination of gov leaders based on religious background 0 quotno religious test can legitimize office BUT religion does play a role in politics There has only been one nonprotestant president Kennedy was catholic First amendment quotno law against the establishment and free excerices of religionquot 0 means there is no official US religion 0 gov can t interfere with a person s religion 0 Renold vs US 1878 0 set precedent for how US treats religion 0 Renyold was fundamentalist Mormon and practiced polygamy even though current Mormons don t practice polygamy o courts stated that the free exercise clause applies to beliefs but not all practices l you have the freedom to believe whatever you want but not the freedom to do whatever you want in the name of religion 14th ammendement states that religion is in realm of rederal government states can t interfere or set their own laws Religious freedom restoration act 1993 0 religious groups in the US felt they weren t being treated fairly so Act was passed to protect these religious groups 0 Supreme court invalidated the act in 1997 because said federal gov is responsible for all religious groups Religious Liberty Protection Act Political structure dems black protestants Jews some catholics Repubs Mainline protestants conservative catholics evangelicals o catholics tend to vote very differently in each election they are the swing vote Civil religion quotreligion like elements connected with the American political systemquot by Robert Bellah 0 religion plays a role in civil and political life 0 ex declaration of independence constitution holiday presidential speeches all centered around religion 0 Clinton cited religion most in inauguration speech Church of Lukumi babalu Aye vs the City of Hialeah Santeria church opened in 19805 and Santeria priest Ernesto Pichato wanted the church to be a public placeeducational center 0 When church is open Hialeah city council passed ordinances banning animal sacri ce Ernesto Pichardo is at the center of this debate because infrastructure starts to disappear no more electricity garbage pickup protests that satanic church is in neighborhood 0 Churches not catholic began to protest them along with the Human Society and Animal rights jumped in o On June 9 city council accused religion of being a cult in order to make 1st amendment invalid 3 ordinances O O O prohibit possession of animal for slaughter or sacri ce unless zones investigation of animal cruelty complaints prohibited slaughter of animals outside appropriate zones church outside of zone 0 Church les lawsuit against city on September 24 saying religious rights violated O O O accused city of harassment and went after the ordinances district court and court of appeals claimed city ordinances did not go against state laws US Supreme Court accepted it for review in 1992 and June 11 1993 court ruled the ordinances unconstitutional 0 MEANS that O O O O practitioners are allowed to perform animal sacri ce able to have a public religious space religion recognized as a religion not a cult voodoo and sanitaria no long have to hide Church today no longer exists physically just online gt wasn t successful because practitioners wanted to continue practicing in their home BUT Ernesto Pirchardo signed an agreement to start a new public church soon 0 Cult v religion 0 O O O cult has a gurehead or charismatic leader cults are extremely secretive in terms of practices and beliefs cults isolate their members for non members cults don t have historical depth of religions Why Religion Matters religion is one of the most powerful forces in our world today fuels politics war peace economics humanitarian work Religion unites and divides us insideroutsider dynamic Globally religion is increasingly important in contemporary life 0 9295 of world claim to be religioushave religious identity religion is a basic element of US politics society and culture as listed in rst amendment 0 religion matters so much that is has to be controlled and limited Growth of religions has exceeded population growth 0 a great proportion of the world s population adheres to religion 0 people are more religious now than ever First amendment privileges religion 0 religion is set apart as a particular sphere it is very individual and set aside from everyday life 0 religion is fundamental component of US life and a marker of identity 0 religion is a matter of choice and freedom US is most religious country and religiously diverse in developed world De nition of religion 0 religion is a human construction 0 human beings create religious institutions and hierarchies 0 problem with studying religion is that we live in a world that we can only study what we observe and you can t observe god 0 all you can observe is someone s response to god and their expenence 0 Religion is quotan institution consisting of culturally patterned interaction with culturally postulated superhuman beingsquot Melford Spiro o Superhuman beings exist someohow more powerful than us as humans all religions believe in a cosmic order there is something greater than life living right now we are not de ned by our earthly existence alone and this cosmic order is true and normative de nes who we are religions assume that we are out of synch with cosmic order and we will remain this way unless we have relations with superhuman beings 0 culture shapes religion and how we understand the sacred 0 humans interact with these superhuman beings from offerings to pilgrimage to prayer 0 Religion is public institutions Religion is comprehensive touches every aspect of our lives including cosmology why are we here eschatology end of time o ethic sexuality morality appearance and food 0 the afterlife Religion is nonempirical no way to prove Religion is de nitive de nes peoples lives in every way religion is absolute and based on factors that are immaterial and invisible religions think they can de ne the superhuman that they have the answers Those who are religious are more altruistic self sacri ce kindness to others 0 religion says there is a reward causes people to do great things Religion is a system of beliefsinstitutions a network of relationships is communal dynamic diverse transformative people are positively and negatively changed by religion features beauty oppression and natural 0 religion is where we are the most beautiful and ugliness when we act in the name of religion Shelaism l Bella thinks the US was moving more towards this 0 being spiritual but not religions the quotnonesquot l spiritual but not part of religious institution REL101 Test 3 Muslim one who surrenders lslam self surrender 20 Muslims are Arab and another 20 are north African and 60 Asian Muhammad isn t founder of religion was a religious reformer After the Jewish and Christian teachings were distorted no longer true religion God sent angel Gabriel one last time as the nal revelation o Muhammad seal of the prophets last prophet Qur an divine message of Allah as it was recited by Muhammad during his missions in Mecca and Medina 0 God is the only author of the Qur an is gods communication with humankind and God communicates directly through text Qur an is God s literal word and was written in Arabic so translations are only approximations not exact Sunni 85 of Muslims and believe that the true successors to Muhammad don t have to be immediate blood descendants o Sunnatradition Shia 1015 of Muslims believe that the true successors to Muhammad descend directly from Muhammad s family 0 Shia faction 0 Large population in Iran Hadith tradition based on reports of the sayings and actions of Muhammad and his companions lmams religious leaders who know the true meaning of the Qunan 5 pillars of Islam 0 Faith Creed There is no god but Allah Muhammad is the prophet of God Allah God Allah is NOT God s name highlights monotheism Muhammad not worshiped o Ritual Prayer Gives structure to Muslim s daily life and maintains holiness in daily life 5 times a day total submission to god prayer preformed facing Mecca birthplace of Muhammad o Ramadan 9th month of the lunar calendar helps unite Muslims worldwide as they refrain from food drink and sex from sunrise to sunset 0 Almsgiving Muslims give 25 of their net worth to charity and serves to level the economic wealth of community 0 Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca Make hajj at least once in life Pilgrims wear nothing that will set them apart all equal lslam has about 12 billion followers around world 7 million in the US Muhammad is the nal prophet o born in Mecca in 570 into society that valued the tribe tension between tribal values and culture and being a new urban center 0 Was an orphan so strongly identi ed with the poor 0 Mecca was polytheistic city 0 Married Kadija a 40 year old wealthy widow Muhammad had transforming experience praying in cave Mr Hira in 611 when was woken by divine presence telling him to recite and receives divine word 0 Islam is born but Muhammad not eager to take up quotgod given dutyquot 0 Muhammad shaken by experience on Mountain of Light and job was to recite the words of one true God 0 Muhammad couldn t read or write but seen as legitimate Muhammad s message brought a warning against their materialistic message 0 Elite relied on revenue from polytheistic society and therefore threat to powerful elite because elite would have less opportunity to make money and was a threat to business Muhammad s message was rst spread to poor and downtrodden Night ascension o Muhammad woken by Gabriel who mounted him on horse and they ew from Mecca to Jerusalem where he ascended through heaven where he meets prophets and enters into God s divine throne o Muhammad able to describe Jerusalem in detail but Meccans didn t believe him and decided to try to assassinate him Muhammad heard about plan to assassinate him and he found refuge in Yathrib where many of his followers were 0 Muhammad s arrival marks new chapter in Islam because Yathrib medina becomes ruled by Islamic law for rst time Islam as a political entity Migration to Medina is crucial and Islamic calendar begins with this 0 Expansion of slam and empire becomes largest in human history Oneness of God got is transcendent and immanent so everywhere 0 Creation occurs in 6 days and comes through divine word 0 God doesn t take a day of rest but instead sits on throne regulating world 0 Not created in God s image but are god s special creation 0 humans are unjust and ignorant we have turned our back on the true nature eve though we have a responsibility to God 0 No original sin Jihad struggle to overcome sin and unbelief o lesser jihad is the struggle against nonbelievers to prevent the killing of Muslims and disruption so Islam within a territory so its self defense 0 greaterjihad struggle against evil and bad inclinations within oneself and the struggle for elimination of corruption and decadence within Muslim society Hadith accounts of Muhammad based on memorized accounts rst relayed by those who knew Muhammad o Veiling o wearing veil isn t oppressive only if forced to wear it 0 Two interpretations for Quran asserting male authority Islam is an egalitarian religion which is misinterpreted OR Islam supports subordination of women Sufism mystical branch of Islam that appeared around 9th century 0 All great religions share essential truths of Sufism Christianity Middle Ages 105015005 0 development of intellectualacademics o 1054 rst split in Christianity between eastern and western Nicene creed was reason for split debate over lioque meaning son and if holy spirit came from only God the creator or from the Creator and the son as the West was arguing West trying to connect holy spirit and Jesus debate about role ofJesus and structure of trinity Crusades 10951291 restoring holy land from Muslims Fourth Lateran Council 1215 0 establishes belief in transubstantiation bread and wine literally blood and esh sacrament of confession and the worship of relics remains of martyrs Medieval theoloov Theology and philosophy go hand in hand during this time Scholasticism is the form of medieval theology Focuses on rational justi cation and theological re ection demonstrating that faith is rational and can be explained theology faith seeking understanding 0 Medieval universities established 0 beginning of academic study of religion and creation of academic texts Key figure Thomas Aquinas who wrote Summa Theologica o focused on relationship between faith and intellect and outlines beliefs of Christians Monastic Study centers combined religious observance with intellectual and artistic pursuits as expression of faith Protestant Reformation 15001750 0 Western European movement to return Christianity to its roots 0 Church had turned away from true Christianity and was too focused on rituals tradition relics saints ect Sola scriptura scripture alone 0 emphasis on the scripture and studying and reading the bible is fundamental o emphasized both faith AND acts Reformation encouraged interior life of faith so relationship with god is key as is the centrality ofJesus Confession not discussed in bible so Reformers dint believe it should be used and they were critical of power of priests Lutheran Reformation Began in Germany but Luther a monk o reformers were from within the Catholic church Luther s 95 Thesis 0 95 points that were critical of Catholicism including critique of indulgences or 39buying salvation Luther was condemned as a heretic in 1521 and his trial is called the Diet of Worms ending in Luther being kicked out of church Calvinist Reformation Calvin believed church focused too much on idolatry and was critical of the accessibility of the literature 0 lead to creation of reformed churches or Presbyterian Catholic Reformation Council of Trent creates Catholic reformation as protestants had adopted emphasis on the individual so church needed reform but reaffirmed counterreformation to the protestants oimportance of tradition o scripture and tradition weighted equally o holy spirit guides traditions of church and god is present in tradition so just as important hierarchy of church veneration of Mary and Saints 0 saints have close relationship with god and therefore pray to saints so they can ray for you Church authority interpreting texts Seven sacraments o baptism confession eucharist communion con rmation matrimony holy orders anointing of the sick blessinglast confession o holy orders ordaining of a priest and once a priest you are always a priest Protestantism 18th and 19th century 1st great awakening in 17005 second in 18005 o included revivals where believers reaffirms and energized their faith Great awakenings were public displays of religious faith and effected in uence of protestant Christianity Emphasized interior faith following doctrine and choosing to be saved through accepting Jesus Protestantism 20th century 0 Divide between liberal and conservative protestants o liberals want ecumenism which means reuniting all protestant churches national council of churches in 1949 is effort to create dialogue between churches o Decline in mainline protestant churches Lutheran Presbyterian Methodist since the 19605 and increase in political presence of conservative Christianity 0 Christian coalition largest grassroots political organization in the US and use issues of homosexuality and abortion 0 Rise of mega churches l over 2000 members in church high energy Pentecostalism developed by William Joseph Seymour 0 baptized by the sprit and began to hold revivals in 1906 on Azuza St in LA 0 known as storefront church Distinguishing features of Pentecostalism o pastors are from local community someone just like you 0 anyone can start Pentecostal church 0 prayers deal with daily matters and concerns healing spiritual health 0 importance of testimonies Roman Catholicism Arrives in US with Spanish in 14905 but rst wave of Catholicism wasn t until 19th century European immigration o Immigration was made up of Irish and German who were persecuted and not well received Second wave of catholic immigrants came from Latin America with the annexation of Mexico in 1848 Catholic church has made its mark by parish outreach helping immigrants transition ethnic parishes churches that include ethnicity and parochial schools oDorothy Day was catholic journalist turned activist on behalf of poor where she started hospitality houses and created self sustainable work famers so that poor people could be self sustainable Catholic worker movement 0 social justice within 21st century 0 Dorothy was lay person and people other than priests can take action 0 Vatican II occurred from 19621965 0 was church s attempt to modernize and reform o reforms included lay people now having permission to read bible mass now in languages other than Latin and changed liturgyalters Misquoting jesus in the Bible YouTube 0 Bible most broadly misunderstood book in history 0 Reading translations from Greek language something always lost in translation Not even reading translations of originals because we don t have the original copies of these 0 Hard to know what new testament means if we don t know what the words really were 0 Books of new testament written in 1st century by Greek speaking Christians 0 Only way to get copy of book was by copying it by hand mark writes book and others want a copy so have to hand write it o 90 of population at this time were illiterate so not many options of people to copy this 0 Highly possible mistakes were made 0 Copy of copies means mistakes continually passed on and new mistakes introduced We don t have copy of mark until 250 years after Mark s gospel was written New testament written in Greek and have 5700 copies in original language but many are fragmented but also copies in Latin and CopUc Biggest mistake is in Luke where Luke traces genealogy back to Adam and eve Scribes have pure accidental mistakes but also intentional mistakes where it seems scribes are trying to change text Bible says that no one knows when end will come but book stating that in 1988 Jesus would return End of Marc women go to tomb and Jesus tomb is empty and has been raised from dead Go tell disciples but women don t say anything because they re afraid and marc ends there o 12 more verses added on because didn t want it to end like this Verses taken out based on scribes opinions and is reason ppl believe Jews are responsible for death ofJesus and therefore they may take out lines supporting Jews RELlOl 08262014 0 Office Hours 912 on Wednesdays in Ashe 509 Theology vs Religious Studies 0 Religious Studies emerged in the 19605 Historically theology was confessional meaning it was believers instructing other believers what to believe 0 There was no question that what these people were teaching was true 0 We are going to make sense of how humanity experiences the sacred 0 Theology is insider perspective writing from within whereas religious studies represents an outsider perspective Theology Theology means quotGodTalk Classic de nition is faith seeking understanding or trying to understand peoples beliefs 0 Theologians believe belief is not irrational but rather each believers worldview is rational Studying religion reaches us ore about humanity than it does teach about the sacred and God 0 Religion is the human response to God 0 Why is theology important 0 Religious authority controls the sacred and most believers are uneducated about their own religion 0 Religious authorities often only provide the dominant story whereas the academic study of religion provides the quotwhole picturequot 0 Theology is communal it s an experience of a community that has a history with often a lot of political power 0 Distinction between popular vs institutional faith Institutional faith includes common religious practices and sacred texts Most practitioners follow popular faith meaning followers are going to act how they please despite their religious beliefs Ex 85 of Catholics will use birth control despite their faith forbidding this this is popular faith Catholics making their religion their own and still de ning themselves as Catholic Scholar of Religion 0 Role as a storyteller revealing religion as a story Scholars of religion often categorize religion in ways that practitioners of the religion may not this is done to make sense of the big picture but also look for trends Scholars of religion are half in and half out of belief meaning they may not believe in the religion but they respect the religion and message enough to study it o The point of studying religion is not to quotliberate folks from their delusionsquot or to view religion as a joke 0 Study of Religion 0 Study of religion emerged during European colonialism of Asia and Latin America by Christians 0 Through colonialism Europeans discover nonAbrahamic religions such as Buddhism Mayanism and traditional African religions The study of religion is political and has become very politically charged 0 Religion is a scienti c study and requires scholars to be objective 0 Difficult to be objective about something you can t actually see such as the comfort of Gods or the way people pray 0 Religion in the US Religion is a signi cant aspect of US life and is part of our constitution and religion is de nitive of our nation 0 Separation of church and state Taught that religion is a subjective belief and individual preference but religion is generally part of a cultural identity where religion is passed through the family 0 In the US we view religion as a choice 0 Religion is the subject of what we study but not how we study it 0 Religion provides a better understanding of self and others religion is part of being an educated person and also helps explain on history and current events Religion also provides answers to life s big questions 0 Over 90 of humanity is religious and globally religion is growing Religion Literacy Quiz 1 Name the Four Gospels a Matthew Marc Luke and John 2 Name the sacred text of Hinduism a Bahgavad Gita 3 Name the holy book of Islam a Quran 4 Where according to the Bible was Jesus Born a Was born in Bethlehem but grew up in Nazareth 5 George Bush spoke in his st inaugural of the Jericho road What Bible story was he invoking a The Parable of the Good Samaritan 6 What are the rst ve books of the Hebrew Bible a Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy 7 What is the Golden Rule a Do onto others as you would have them do onto you 8 quotGod helps those who helps themselvesquot ls this in the bible a NO 9 quotBlessed are the poor in spirit for theirs is the Kingdom of Godquot Does this appear in the Bible If so where a Yes on the Sermon on the Mount as part of the Beattitudes 10 What are the Ten commandments a I am the lord your god you should not have any other gods before me b Keep holy the Sabbath Honor thy mother and father Thall shall not kill No Adultery No stealing Don t bear false witness No coveting 11 Name the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism a Life is suffering b The origin of suffering is desire c Suffering can be overcome if desire is eliminated d To end suffering you must follow the 8fod path 12 Seven holy sacraments of Catholicism a Communion con rmation baptism confession marriageholy order anointing of the sin 13 First amendment refers to two clauses about religion what are these 0 The free exercise clause and the establishment clause 14 What is Ramadan It is a month long period of fasting and prayer in order to reverse the normal rhythm of your life and is part of Islam 15 Match the two terms 0 Adam and Eve Garden of Eden 0 Paul Road to Damascus Moses l Parting of the Red Sea 3amp0 Therm 0 Jesus Garden of Gethsemane Abraham Binding of Isaac Serpent Garden of Eden Theories of Religion 0 What is Religion 0 Religion comes from the word Religiare meaning to bind together 0 19th century Western de nition of religion The belief in god or gods to be worshiped and obeyed as creators and rulers of the universe This de nition implies that the sacred god or gods demand obedience and demand submission BUT the problem is that some religions such as Buddhism and Jainism have no God or gods or any kind of supernatural beings so how can we classify religion 0 Paul Tillich describes religion as those matters that are of our ultimate concern 0 Religion deals with quotWhy are we herequot quotIs there a purpose of us being herequot quotHow do you explain human suffering 8 Elements of Religion 1 Religions contain a belief system Re ects how we should act towards each other how we should act towards each others 0 This belief system is important because its historical and also generally very comprehensive 2 Religion is communal 3 Religions have central myth 0 Myths are stories that reveal truth However they may not have historically happened 4 All religions have rituals 5 Common trend in religion of Ethics 0 How do we understand what is just 6 Every religion incorporates some sort of Emotional Experience People have such strong believe that they sacri ce their lives for this Even prayer can be an emotional experience 7 The Material Expressions are a part of religion 0 This includes alters clothing statues or physical expressions of religious beliefs 8 Religions have a sense of sacredness This includes a sense of the cosmos beyond this human life god and godly beings 0 Working definition Religion consists of the answers that people give to the ultimate questions of life through their belief in a transcendent power Three Orientations of Religion Sacramental 0 Very ritual based Prophetic 0 Focus on proper beliefs and actions 0 Ex Islam Protestant Christians Buddhism Mystical 0 Union with a greater reality or someone greater than oneself 0 Ex Suf Islam Kaballah All religions include all 3 aspects but just have varying focuses on these aspects Approaches to Religion 0 Psychology the impact of religion on people s lives Mythology 0 Philosophy philosophy of religion who look at the big questions that religion asks Theology 0 Arts and literature 0 Anthropology Archaeology Linguists and Textual Studies looking at the language of sacred texts Oral vs Written tradition 0 Written traditions are considered authoritative and are written down the gospels the Vedas the Torah Oral tradition relies on stories that have been passed down through generations Are religions that have historically been passed on through word of mouth Religion is social in nature and is a social phenomena 0 There is no founder of religion but rather religion is formed by a group of followers and believers Structuralism is the belief that all religions are similar in structure 0 This was traditionally the dominant belief but now post structuralism has emerged Can we really believe there are grand structures Or is each religion and tradition radically different Key terms Monotheism Belief in one God Pantheism Sees the sacred in the natural world the natural world is a manifestation of God Polytheism The belief in many coexisting Gods Atheism Denial of the existence of God believes strongly that there is not god Agnosticism Believes God s existence can t be proven Doesn t necessarily rule the existence of God out but believes there is not a way to prove God Western vs Eastern Religion 0 Western 0 Believe there is a personal God or a god that communicates to and his a relationship with humanity God is selfrevealing meaning God reveals himself to us through anything from prophets to a burning bush 0 God is just and holy We need God to save us meaning that we would quotbe a messquot without God 0 Easter Religions Confusionism Buddhism Daosim We can save ourselves no need for a higher power to save us 0 The problem is ignorance not that we are corrupt beings who need God to save us 0 We need knowledge and if we have the right teaching and message and the cessation of suffering we can save ourselves 3rd largest world religion after Christianity and Islam 0 Emerges from ancient Indian religion 0 Hinduism is a religion that seems like a religion of contradictions o Divergent practices and beliefs because there is a lot of diversity within the religion 0 Contradictory views Ahimsa vs animal sacri ce For many being a Hindu means to practice Ahimsa not injuring living beings the sacredness of all living beings as preached by Ghandi BUT others believe sacredness is achieved through animal sacri ce which is the opposite of Ahimsa 0 Modern Hinduism developed under British colonial rule Hinduism is a very decentralized religion and there is not one set code of beliefs that all Hindus are told to accept There is no central gure or founder such as Jesus or Mohammed Hinduism is different and unique compared to other religions o Origins of the name Many believe Hinduism was a creation of the British Hindu is a Persian word that means river and refers historically to a people of the Indus valley India was a British colony for almost 200 years from 17571948 0 During this time the British sought to nd a way categorize nonChristians 0 Most of the sources we have about Indian religion are from Colonial British sources 0 The colonizersconquerors describing Indian religion may be skewed because their agenda was to maintain India as a colony Through a census the British categorized Indians by religion rather than by race 0 All who weren t Christian were called Hindus under this census 0 Those who practiced traditional religions didn t think of themselves as being part of a religion called Hinduism BUT the British clumped everyone together who was nonChristian and put them into one category called Hinduism Eventually Indians themselves adopted Hinduism as a name for their practices over time 0 Why so much diversity British categorizing a large group People are different from one another and have different needsgoals there should be more than one approach or path to the sacred in Hinduism 0 There are many different paths to the sacred in Hinduism Caste system 0 People are born into a different level or societal grouping and you are expected to stay in this grouping o Hierarchy to the groups 0 The key to understanding why you were born into the group you were born into is karma every action has a moral consequence the current life you are living is all a result of behaviors in the past Vedic Tradition Vedic period is from 2000500 BCE Vedas are a collection ritual hymns that discuss things such as the origin of the universe personalities of the gods and proper human behavior toward the gods Vedas literally means knowledge or sacred lore Vedas are the basis for all other Hindu thought and began to be accepted as sacred scripture by 1000 BCE 0 Not all people study the Vedas because it is not part of their path but still a foundation Upanishads Builds on the Vedas ls made up of Philosophical speculation on Vedas in the form of masterpupil dialogues Accepted as a sacred scripture The main concern Is there a single reality that is the source and essence of everything 0 This question is the foundation of the beliefdebate about Hinduism as a polytheistic religion or a monotheistic religion 0 Yes there are many gods but underlying all the gods is one sacred reality Many paths in Hinduism Ascetic Tradition 0 Root of ascetic tradition is life in the world hindering us from realizing our spiritual destiny 0 Focuses on our connection to material things which makes us spiritually de cient o Believes that renunciation of society and material goods is necessary to realize one s spiritual essence 0 Must lead a path of an austere life in order to 39purify ourselves from worldly attachment 0 The ultimate goal of this path is complete liberation from the wheel of rebirth called samsara Devotional Tradition Public face of Hinduism most popular in the US Devotion to gods or goddesses with different temples devoted to these gods and goddesses 0 Temple worship is a large part of being a devotional tradition Serving these gods will impact your karma Connected to popular Hinduism such as astrology and following a certain diet quotMaterial expression of Hinduismquot including statues 4 popularly gods 0 Vishnu The great creator Created the world and at times even returns to this world in different forms and incarnations in order to maintain worldly stability 0 Shiva the destroyer Time in Hinduism is cyclical and if you are constantly being reborn In order to be reincarnated we have to in a sense be destroyed o Ganesha the remover of obstacles The elephant headed god Can remove obstacles from the lives of his devotees o Kali Is said to haunt the grounds of cemeteries Is associated at times with death 0 Shrines and devotion to these gods A statue is not just a piece of art but rather it points to and participates in the sacred MOVIE The Long Search What is god Brahaman supreme A clay image doesn t actually contain god but it s a symbol of god Hinduism is not a strict rigid religion but rather a way of life lndian religion is no quotone thingquot with one bible one god or one religion Ganges River is considered pure because no microbe can stay alive in it Ganges water kept in a water never goes bad the Ganges water is healing and therefore the river is a goddess of healing that cleanses everyone Rituals try to breathe life in the godgoddess by making offerings and chanting ritual prayers lnviting goddess to come take her seat Not idolatry but rather looking beyond the piece of clay because it is just a symbol 0 Piece of clay is something more than just clay People don t believe the clay IS the goddess because new clay images are bought every year quotDisposable clay disposable iron stonequot but what they represent is not disposable and you can t grasp or touch what they represent Hindus have 330 million gods but are these 330 million gods just different representations of the same universal god 0 People see the universal god re ected in all living things Best known gods Brahman creator Vishnu preserver and Shiva destroyer Creation is a cycle that goes on all the time but there may come a time where Shiva destroys the whole world and Brahman recreates it Sanyasi one who renounces 0 Has renounced his name his past and he owns only a few books and his clothes 0 A man should leave society to be closer to god in order to have peace of mind this can not be achieved while a man is immersed in society Devotees of one god sing about other gods very interconnected REL101 terms vedas four collections of ancient prayers and rituals Brahman spiritual essence of the universe Atman spirtual essence of all indivudal human beings Karma moral law of cause and effect that determines the direction of rebirth Samsara everyday world of change and suffering leading to rebirth wheel of life Moksha liberation from personal limitation egotism and rebirth escaping the cycle BhagavadGita a religious literary work about Krishna Caste a division of society into social classes that are created by birth or occuanon Brahmin member of the priestly caste Sannyasin a wandering holy many ashram a spiritual community Jnana yoga spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight Monism the belief that God and the universe are the same that the universe is divine karma yoga spiritual discipline of sel ess action bhakti yoga a spiritual devotion to a diety or guru ahimsa principle of noharm or nonviolence dhyana meditation samadhi a stae of complete inner peace resulting from meditation mantra a short sacred phrase often chanted or used in meditation yoga method for perfecting one39s union with the divine hatha yoga the spiritual discipline of postures and bodily exercises the tradition American idea of yoga kundalini yoga a form of raja yoga that envisions the individual39s energy as a force that is capable of being raised from the center of the body to the head producing a state ofjoy Bhakti devotion to a diety or guru Puja offerings and ritual in honor of a deity Trimurti 3 forms of the divine the three gods Brhama Vishnu and Shiva Brahma god of creation Rama a god and mythical king a form of vishnu Krishna god associated with divide playfulness Shiva a god association with destruction and rebirth Devi goddess Durga a mother goddess a form of Devi upadishads written meditations on the spiritual essence of the universe and the self maya what keeps us from seeing reality correctly the world viewed inadequately avatar an earthly embodiment of a diety Vishnu a god associated with preservation and love raja yoga royal discipline of meditation guru a spiritual teacher Kai a goddess associated with destruction and rebirth castes priest brahmin preforms Vedic rituals and acts as a counselor o warrior noble kshatriya has the role of protecting society traditional caste of aristocracy Merchant vaishya landowners moneylenders sometimes artisans peasant shudra does manual labor and is expected to serve the higher castes untouchable dalit traditionally does the dirtiest work cleaning toilets sweeping streets collecting animal carcasses and tanning animal hides Brahma creative force that made the universe seen in India as grandfatherly distant and less powerful than vishnu or Shiva o Shiva linked with destruction not in negative terms but as a kind of necessary recylcying because death is part of the divine process associated with recreation and new life associated with fertility o Vishnu preservation of the universe the most important object of devotion in India associated with lovingkindness and appears in various physical forms avatars to help humans 0 Karma is the moral law of cause and effect 0 moral actions have implications not only in this ife but other lives as well 0 Implications o Commits believer to entire personal responsibility because you are in charge of your destiny 0 eliminates chancefateluck because you are the author of your own destiny 0 Karma exists within Samsara the circle of life which refers to the reincarnation of souls the transmigration of souls When you die you come back in another form depending on your acUons o the way you are reborn indicates how far along your soul is Moksha liberation from the cycle of death birth and rebirth because of this the Hindu answer to suffering is clear because of past actions and because of karma 0 Brahman o Is the formless ultimate divine reality that is at the heart of all things 0 Brahman is at the heart of everything so therefore all things are holy 0 Challenges if Hinduism is monotheistic or polytheistic 0 Terms Atman deepest sense of who we are 0 Maya illusion Monism the belief that all reality is one we are all interconnected dharma the principle that orders the universe dharma is our duty 0 Achieving Liberation 0 Path of action 0 Living a morally just life 0 Looks at intentions and motivation behind action path of devotion o Dominated by service to the gods 0 Includes temple worship supporting religious communities path of knowledge 0 Focuses on self realization 0 Highest path and most privilege path 0 Includes knowledge of yourself and a deep sense of who you are 0 3 important gods 0 Brahma Vishnu Shiva Budh Vishnu has 10 major incarnations and the most well known is KHshna Sectarian Hinduism belief in personal gods arose 200400 BCE Represented by Bhagvad Gita Is a type of temple based Hinduism Goals in Hinduism To achieve moksha liberation which is necessary in order to reach nirvana Biggest obstacle is the path of desire which is dominated by pleasure wordy success wealth fame power Path of renunciation o Duty dharma o What we really want being knowledge happiness 0 you are what you seek Hindu practices 0 devotion to at least one deity o meditation 0 belief that human is Brahman your truest sense of who you are is Brahman within you to wake up to know 0 Knowledge is how we liberate ourselves Arose in India in the 5th century BCE Buddhism is not theistic there is no god but there is reference to an outside world Buddha the enlightened one the awakened one 0 Not divine human like anyone else 0 First to be enlightened Siddhartha Guatama of the Shakys Buddha s real name Mythology surrounding his birth 0 His mother was kissed by a white element and became pregnant with him 0 Born from his mothers side and she experienced no pain 0 Was born with special marks on his body o It was prophesized he would be a great king but if he were to witness suffering h would become a spiritual leader 0 His father wants him to become a political leaderking and tries to change his destiny 0 His father tries to shield him from suffering and is never aloud to leave the castle so that he doesn t know any experience of suffering pain or ugliness Curiosity is awoken in Sidartha and he de es his father and leaves the palace 0 He witness the four passing sites 1 Old Man U Everything is impermanent realizes we will all grow old and decay 2 Diseased Person n lllness exists in the world and that health is not the status quo 3 Corpse a Death is inevitable life is impermanent and nothing is forever 4Monk n Monk is at peace 0 Returns to the palace and says he can t live in the palace knowing there is suffering so he abandons the palace lcalled the Great Going Forth 0 Leaves his entire life behind including his wife and child 0 Great Going Forth 0 First he experiences Asceticism extreme deprivation but realizes this extreme is just as bad as the other extreme of living a lavish life in the palace 0 Middle Way is the answer Path of moderation Give your body and self what you need but not excess Just what you need to survive When he has this realization its his Bodhi or awakening and enlightenment o Aftermath of his Awakening 0 His followers feel betrayed because he has given up and isn t dedicated to the ascetic life His companions abandon him 0 His teaching were not recorded until hundreds of years after his death 0 Dharma the sum of all Buddhist teaching Different than in Hinduism where it means duty 0 Develops a Sangha or a community of monks and they will eventually become his followers o 3 marks of reality 0 Change 0 Reality is marked by change the world is constantly changing 0 change is reality Impermanence 0 Everything around us is impermanent 0 Our body our relationships and our place on earth is not permanent Suffering o Emotional and physical suffering 4 Noble Truths core of Buddhism Life is dukkha Life is suffering The cause of dukkha is tanha the cause of suffering is desire The cure for dukkha lies in overcoming tanha the cure for suffering is overcoming our desire must realize that the things are eeting The way to overcome tanha desire is through the Noble EightFold Path Life is suffering suffering is caused by desire the cure for suffering is overcoming our desire and overcoming desire is done through the eightfold path 0 Eightfold path 0 Right knowledge understanding impermanence of life 0 Right aspiration motivations in life are pure 0 Right Speech 0 Right Behavior 0 5 Precepts do not kill steal lie be unchaste or drink intoxicants 0 quotEthical codequot 0 Right livelihood How you earn your living must be just 0 Right effort Moderation neither excess nor denying needs 0 Right mindfulness to be completely invested in what you re doing in that moment living in the moment 0 Right contemplation nding a sense of inner peace 0 Teaching of Buddhism 0 Ahimsa principle of not wronging your fellow human being 0 Can also mean not harming any living being 0 Respect for all forms of life but is interpreted by various schools of Buddhism 0 Soul and karma 0 ln Buddhism there is no soul 0 To avoid suffering give up the notion of the individual Buddhism is challenging our sense of who we are and our attachment to who we are 0 Ultimate goal is nirvana or existence beyond limitation no longer trapped by our worldly desires and attachments no longer are distracted Samsara referring to the everyday changes in the world and ultimate impermanence of the world Hinduism liberation is achieved when we amass good karma 0 Buddhism liberation is achieved when we get rid of all attachments even attachments to oneself o Anatman notion of quotno selfquot o What is the best part of who we are Mind head or heart 0 Branches of Buddhism 0 Theravada Branch 0 O O O 0 Way of the elders Head experience because focuses on knowledge and wisdom which can lead to our detachment of this world Bodhi wisdom Emphasis on monastic life monks living in a community but living alone Arhat the people who have achieved nirvana in this world who serve as spiritual leaders The Buddha is praised for his wisdom and is thought of as a supreme wise man Focus on meditation which is an individual practice Considered a conservative branch of Buddhism on social issues more traditional Mahayana branch 0 O O 0 Known as the quotbig vehiclequot Focuses on the in nite power within us and the world around us connecting to the cosmos and eachother Anyone can achieve nirvana if they focus their practice Bodhisattva an enlightened being that embodies compassion focus on the heart Karuna having compassion as the principle that dominated your life interconnected hard to describe yourself without describing others Buddhas is a wise man who has taught us a wise path Buddha has saved the world and humanity by teaching us this path of compassion o Praying to the Buddha is a common practice not as a god but for compassion o Liberalprogressive branch of Buddhism 0 Zen is a branch of Mahayana focuses more on meditation Vayrayana Branch Smaller branch of Buddhism called the vehicle of the diamond or lightening bolt Mostly Tibetan Buddhism Includes a form of shamanism talks about the Lama as a spiritual leader 0 Uses the chanting of mantras mandalas and prayer wheels as part of their spiritual practice Mandalas pieces of art made with sand look like paintings but destroyed when its done a Even beauty is impermanent cant be attached to this art work Chinese religions are based on the presence of something that can be described as sacred veneration for ancestors and there is a spiritual realm OOOO Confusicionsim Dao force that is present within the human word and is all around us 0 manifested in right relationships or the ay we connect with fellow human beings Very structured in terms of interactions so appears in harmonious society 0 There is a right and wrong way for society to be structured Dao is the way which we should order our lives Humanity we automatically are not what we should be there is something off about us We as human beings must train our virtues This is an effort on our parts not a higher power we can train our virtue to model a just society and follow right relationship we can manifest Dao Confucius 551497 who later became known as Master Kong Of noble descent but not supernatural Father died and was raised by his mother After the death of his mom he became a public gure Thoughts were not always well received Two central ideas 0 to produce excellent individual who are social leaders 0 to create harmony in society Humanity and society Positive message of we are all capable of being good and even great individuals But this takes work and we cannot achieve this in isolation or alone 0 You can t be a great person alone but rather how you express yourself in society We become a full person through others and ful lling our obligations to them l obligations is not negative 0 In ful lling social obligations we realize who we are Social interaction is needed to pursue excellence How you treat others is a re ection of your good nature Excellence is not something that comes easy excellence results from the cultivation of our virtues education and knowledge is essential Cultivation of the ascetic self artistic is also important care for the young and old because they have greater needs What would a perfect society look like We are all cared for and protected we feel self con dent Youth are cultivated as the future of the world we are living in and elders are seen as a resource of the past No one should feel abandoned or alone that their social resources are limited Society should be based on social relationships we are our relationships 0 how we treat our fellow human beings is who we are Five great relationship father son parentchild 0 Because of ancestor veneration this relationship does not end at death Elder brother younger brother Husband wife hierarchical with husband and dominance over wife Elderyounger mentor Rulersubject modeled after the family and is patriarchal o All of these relationships are hierarchical which is a reason Confucianism is critiqued 0 Certain people are submissive Living out our roles good manners respect etiquette o giftgiving Confucian Virtues o Ren jen to think of the other 0 Li doing what is appropriate Shu reciprocity Xiaco Hsiao devotion to family Wen culture Literature 0 ve classics and the four books 0 Includes preConfucius writing his sayings and sayings of Mencius a teacher 0 pg 237 l annalects collection of sayings and followers 0 Speaking to the importance of education 0 gentleman doesn t want to be ignorant wants an education rather than simply just doing what pays Development initially challenged by rival philosophies rose to prominence against other worldviews and Chinese world views Assumed religious characteristic in response to Buddhism in the 1st century 0 Religious characteristics included ancestor veneration establishment of Confusion temples statues and ceremonies and scholarship and philosophy Followers and authority gures shape religions but so to do the other religions that exist around it Hinduism soul is permanent whereas in Buddhism there is anatman or idea of no soul 0 while there is no individual soul the elements that make up an individual can be passed from life to life World of everyday change is called samsara o liberation is obtained in nirvana in Buddhism 0 Hindu liberation is achieved through Moksha PP1 Christianity Jesus historical 0 There is a very famous gospel in Christian scriptures that says quotwho do you say that I amquot 0 From the beginning we have multiple accounts ofJesus message and life There are different accounts and conclusions from a lot of people about what Jesus would say when in fact he spoke very little about issues that impact us today We know given different historical leaders in gospels and political power we can conclude he was born around 4 BCE His birth is miraculous a Christians continue to believe that his mother Mary a Jewish woman was chosen by God to give birth to Jesus Jesus has no earthly father the holy spirit descended upon her and impregnated her We know very little about Jesus 0 We know that he emerged in his late 20 s as a grass roots Jewish religious leader with a following in rural areas What we know about him is depicted from the lens of his followers The gospels are the accounts of his life and teachings by his followers In the gospels he is depicted as extremely independent ultimately this is in part what gets him killed Jesus was killed by the Romans At the time of his life the Holy Land was part of the Roman empire and cruci ction was the punishment for a capital offense in the Roman empire Jesus was killed for the crime of Sedition which is political insurrection Romans saw him as trying to instigate revolt in Jewish community against roman empire Jesus Christ a Not his full name should really be quotJesus the Christquot Christ is reference to him being a savior 0 Jesus of Nazareth a his family is from Nazareth Emphasis on universal love a he is here to spread the message of God s universal love for humans alhumans This is very different from interpretations ofJesus message being interpreted by some groups about exclusivity Huge emphasis on solidarity with the marginalized quotTax collectors and prostitutes will enter the kingdom beforequot Individuals on the social margins are in God39s favor Jesus called his followers to be in solidarity with the marginalized Sum of his teachings a You will love God with all of your heart and you will love your neighbor as you want to be loved or as you would love yourself What is very important is that these teachings go hand in hand a this means that how you treat your fellow human being is a re ection of your relationship with God You cannot have one without the other Scholars tend to use quotChristian scripturesquot because New implies some hierarchy Four divisions 0 Gospels a Matthew Mark Luke John accounts of Jesus39s life and teachings 0 Gospel literally translates into quotthe Good Newsquot 0 Date 3540 years after Jesus death 0 History a o Acts of the Apostles considered the earliest Christian history gives account ofJesus39s followers immediately after his death and for believers his resurrection 0 Letters a Paul are the earliest documents in Christian scriptures date to 50 CE Not all are written by him some are written by his followers in his name This is a common practice of the time To write a letter and sign it quotPaulquot was to say that you stood in the tradition of Paul 0 Paul39s letters are key documents for Protestants particularly 0 Apocalypse a Book of Revelation is not a book that predicts the end of the world it is a very symbolic account of Christian prosecution Book of Revelation trying to give message of hope to Christians that their prosecution will end 0 Gospels a Christian scholars have slowly examined an unpacked the Gospels in ways that are troubling for some believers because ndings challenge several commonly held beliefs 0 The names have been applied centuries after they were written 0 We have no idea who wrote these documents We can assume they were men given context These four are not the only gospels that give us a very different depiction ofJesus One of the outlying talks about Jesus as a child that has powers Gospel of Mary exists and of Thomas Thomas gospel there is an allusion to power struggle among early Christians In this Gospel Mary Magdalene is supposed to continue the church because quotJesus loved her bestquot You can read this gospel in Dead Sea Scrolls Historically scholars have taught that these Gospels were written for speci c communities We don t have any proof of this We don t know who or what they were written for Matthew 5 was written for a Jewish community audience We know this because Matthew relies heavily on the Hebrew scriptures He also really depicts Jesus as a teacher Mark 5 the earliest gospel emphasizes Jesus39s suffering Scholars assume that Mark was written for a community of suffering Christians under prosecution to help them Luke a same time period as Matthew we know that Luke was writing to Gentile Christians non Jewish Christians We know this because author de nes any Jewish concept in the writings He was explaining Judaism You wouldn t need to do this if you were speaking to Jews Good Samaritan and Prodigal Son in this Gospel The above three gospels are called the quotSynoptic Gospelsquot because we know that when Matthew and Luke wrote their gospels they had a copy of Mark 0 We know this because they follow the same narrative structure and cite Mark Matthew and Luke build on Mark 0 Matthew and Luke have accounts and narratives that are in common but do not appear in Mark which leads scholars to assume that there is another Gospel source quotQquot that we lost This is where Matthew and Luke got the extra material not from Mark John a Most recent gospel written to a mixed audience The narrative structure is very different from the synoptic gospels The emphasis is on Jesus39s miracles 0 Famous episodes for Christians that only appear in John like wedding at Cana He turns water into wine considered Jesus s rst public miracle Many scholars not all assume this did not happen because it only appears in John Also story of washing of the feet priest of pastor will pick 12 people to represent 12 apostles to wash their feet Because it is said in an act of humility and washes their feet Problem here is that Matthew Mark Luke have the same story Jesus does not wash their feet What do we do with the disagreements o How do we reconcile the differences among the gospels 0 Need to examine all of the sources 0 When Jesus was born in Bethlehem a messiah will come from line of David and will be born in Bethlehem Joseph Mary s husband was descendant of David And in order to connectJesus to the line of Abraham he needed to be born in Bethlehem 0 AfterJesus was resurrected and ascended into heaven his followers thought he would be back during their life time So why do people need to write anything down Because they didn t need to ifJesus was coming back 0 Oral traditiona is dominant form of transmission of Jesus39s message People who directly new Jesus begin to die which means things need to be written down because direct sources are dying 0 Written documents a people begin writing oral tradition down Important to know that no one who wrote a gospel knew Jesus personally What to do with all of these documents and the community of followers who are becoming a distinct group 0 Eventually these followers begin to canonize works These followers begin to pick and chose which writings will be considered legitimate o 365 CE is nal 0 First followers of Jesus were considered an off shoot of Judaism They drew heavily from Jewish temple worship especially regarding ritual and sacri ce o Apocalyptic sect a the rst followers were waiting for the end of time forJesus to come back Christians are still waiting This carries on into the religion 0 First followers practiced house religion domestic worship They were marginalized by dominant Jewish community for following Jesus teachings so they practiced in homes where they could be hidden 0 Initially Jerusalem was center of the community however changed after destruction of the temple 0 Paul very successful missionary Has been called the apostle to the gentiles Paul has vision ofJesus and became a follower PP2 0 He was so successful at spreading the message that Gentiles non Jews began following the Jesus What do you do with the gentiles Do they have to be circumcised andorJewish Eventually it is decided that nonJews can be followers ofJesus o This is the rst step in creation of a distinct religion 0 Outcomes a Baptism not circumcision becomes initiation and second that by the end of rst century overwhelmingly most followers ofJesus are Gentiles Persecution a by the Romans Christians did not honor the Emperor cult etc Christianity was seen as a cult One thing we know early Christians did was enact the last supper Jesus says the bread is his esh the wine is his blood Asks his followers to consume both From the outside this seems odd For the Romans and even today the idea of consuming esh and blood seemed cultish There was a lot of persecution Persecution changes when Emperor Constantine has a conversion and passes edict of toleration in 313 CE Makes Christianity the of cial religion of the empire Rapidly changes from mass extermination of Christians to acceptance and dominance Council of Nicea a Christian churches that had once been hidden now gather in Nicea They hammer out basic beliefs of Christianity In this council Christians agree and declare that Jesus is God 0 Prior to this there was disagreement amongst followers Some felt he was human with exceptional relationship with God others felt he was God At this council it is declared that not only was Jesus fully Human he was Fully divine Annunciation a Angel of the Lord tells Mary she will bare a child even though she is a virgin and the child will be the son of God Announcement of Jesus39s birth I 0 important to understand that while in varying degrees Christians believe that Mary was immaculately conceived conceived without sin And thereforJesus was born without sin She did not carry original sin 0 Mary sings the Magni cat after she hears the annunciation This is somewhat of a poem that speaks about the poor being uplifted and other good things that will be done after her son is born 0 Jesus runs away to the temple Mary and Joseph nd him in the Temple preaching about the Hebrew scriptures When they question why he ran away he says quotI am in my father s housequot Jesus baptism a links to the trinity because when Jesus is baptized God39s voice is heard saying quotthis is my sonquot and holy spirit appears as a dove Jesus temptation a The devil tempts Jesus The Devil39s role is to challenge us to af rm our faith The idea of the devil as a goblin with a pitchfork came from the middle ages When he preaches in home town he is rejected by the community quotA prophet is never welcome in his hometownquot He was a wandering preacher with a group of men and at times women became very well known for healings Either from demonic possession of physical ailments These miracles are part of the testimony that Christians cite to show Jesus was God Beatitudes blessed be the poor for they shall inherit the kingdom of God woe to the rich for they shall suffer in eternity 0 These are the foundation for Christian teachings 0 Teach us that forJesus a central message was to ip the social order The last will be rst 0 Also its not woe to the rich because they39re evil but because they love money more than God and their fellow human being Love of enemies a turn the other cheek This is a difficult message for people to hear Jesus taught in parables Some people loved this because they re open to interpretation Some hate them for the same reason because there is room for guessing at what Jesus really said Also how Jesus taught about God and how he critiqued the social structure and society of his time Parable Good Samaritan who is my neighbor The Samaritan is from a marginalized group that Jews did not associate with However only the Samaritan helps the man Miracles emphasis in the later ministry on miracles The Gospel ofJohn is big on miracles These miracles are told to account for Jesus s relationship with God Jesus s rst followers did not believe he was God incarnate They knew he was different but they were not functioning believing Jesus was also God Discipleship Jesus emphasizes that following him will be dif cult Following him means taking on your own burden Bonhoffer Lutheran pastor in Germany during Nazi regime o Refused to support Nazi government He said trying to kill Hitler was the Christian thing to do 0 Notion of quotCheap Gracequot because many Christians today are not challenged Grace according to him should be costly Trans guration Jesus changes and becomes illuminated and his followers see him differently Great Commandment Love of God and love of Neighborhood The core of christian teachings Cruci ztion and the Cross 0 the fact thatJesus suffered so horribly is a central moment for Christians 0 This is a complicated issue a Suffering saves becauseJesus suffered to save This can be very powerful for the marginalized communities because they connect with God because God suffered through Jesus Christ This is also a message that has been used to manipulate people Trying to make people believe that they should be ok with suffering Judas and Peter Judas the great betrayer part of the plot to get Jesus in the hands of Roman authorities Peter is lead apostle considered the foundation of Christianity Peter betrays Jesus Jesus predicts that Peter will betray him P eterdenies knowing Jesus once Jesus is arrested Pilate the Roman authority who ordered Jesus39s cruci xtion o The Gospels let him off the hook by making it seem that he didn t have a lot to do with the cruci xtion 0 We know this is not true based on historical documents 0 Pilate is documented as being a tyrant quick to punish concerned about controlling Jewish population Second remember that Christians were persecuted for the rst 300 years 0 The Gospels were public documents If you are living under Roman rule you cannot risk offending government Christians wrote the narrative without criminalizing Pilate as a way to protect the Christian community Women at the cross when Jesus was cruci ed when he was dying on the cross not a single apostle was present The only people at the cross as he died were the women followers not men This is every gospel PP3 Women at the tomb women are preparing Jesus body and he reveals himself to them rst The women go tell the men and the men do not believe them Road to Emmaus jesus is walking and is not recognized by two men The signi cance here is to show that Jesus is somehow transformed he looks different Appearance in Jerusalem some Gospels say he ate sh with his followers after his resurrection This is important to show he was not a ghost because he ate Final instruction go and spread the message The Ascension he ascends to heaven Mary Ascends after her death This is the basis of Christian belief in bodily resurrection That when the end comes all of the dead will be resurrected with their bodies From 30100 are the formative years of Christianity Christianity is nding its place in Roman society 100451 Patristic era 0 era of the Chruch fathers 0 Signi cant voices emerge that shape main ideas in Christianity 3 Important regions 0 Alexandria o Antioch 0 North Africa 0 Interesting here to note that today we talk about Western religions but it it is the above region that is the birthplace of Christianity 0 Not until the 1300 that Europe becomes central C and J Christianity is now solidi ed as a separate religion Because Paul was such a successful missionary Christianity spread quickly Apologetics Christian authors are defending Christianity Christianity on the defense Legal Becomes of cial religion of the Roman empire This was dif cult for Christianity to handle New structure needs to be made Bishops and Priests rst address Jesus 0 who is he Debate incurs 0 Some Christians believed thatJesus was God and he only looked human He had no human aws o Other Christians said he was just human and was not God Just that he was a gifted prophet Nicene Creed Church leaders compromise and say Jesus was fully human and fully divine He was a human being in every sense of the word but he was also God in the esh It was decided that one does not in uence the other Jesus was not a superhuman because he was God Apostle s Creed binding statement of faith 0 Mystery of faith 0 Now you have this belief in a monotheistic God but now you have an affirmation that Jesus is God What does that mean That God eft heaven when Jesus was on Earth Does it mean that God was cruci ed Answer is mystery of faith Christians believe that God is a trinity one God but three equal persons within the God Head 0 It is not tritheism however Christians believe that there is God the creator from the scriptures God the saviorredeemerthe son Jesus Godness of Jesus is eternal Also God the sustainer or the holy spirit 0 While there was a human Jesus Jesus as God the Savior has been alongside God along Third is God the sustainer The Holy Spirit typically symbolized as a dove The holy spirit accompanies humans every day The Creator The Son The Spirit All three of these are eternal and all three are One God and they coexist o Augustine of Hippo 0 He is probably the most signi cant Christian thinker in the history of Christianity 0 Was a convert who converted as an adult Of Algerian descent 0 354430 0 Confessions Considered the rst autobiography Is the story of his conversion If you read him iteray he was a sex addict prior to conversion He felt that the sexual desire impeded his relationship with God Most Christian teachings about sex are from him The belief that sex makes us less spiritual that sex is bad and that sex impedes our relationships with god At the root of his ideas about sex come from his concupiscence To him our lives are dominated by overwhelming uncontrollable desire o Augustine and his friends steal pears from neighbors tree The pears were rotten and they didn t eat them they threw them away 0 He says they did it for the thrill of stealing 0 To him the pleasure and thrill of doing things is our downfall Our desires fuel our downfall o Insatiable desire causes us to want the wrong things things that will never satisfy us He says the only thing that will satisfy us is our relationship with god 0 quotMy heart was restless until it rested in theequot The things we desire are not evil desire is evil and wrong The object of desire cannot be evil If a man desires a woman the woman is not bad because God created people and creation is good Augustine authored the doctrine of original sin 0 Recall Jesus came to save all of humanity according to Christians Not all have accepted Jesus but nonetheless he came to save all of us He therefore has to have something to save everyone from We all need something in common to be saved from According to Augustine we are all born sinful because of Adam and Eve He taught that because Adam and Eve ate the fruit when they were transformed they fell from grace and sin entered into them Sin entered into their DNA As our rst parents we all have sin in our DNA 0 Technically there is no such thing as an innocent baby because the baby had original sin The need for original sin is to explain the origin of evil and the need for salvation o Christians believe that God gave us free will as a gift Instead of creating Adam and Eve as obedient they had the choice to love and follow God Yes some could say the desire to disobey was rst exercise of free will and when they took the bite is when sin entered the world Even today many Christian churches were not historical figures they still take the story of adam and eve to be symbolic to mean that we are not as God meant for us to be o If left to our own devices we would be awful people and it is only with God s grace and following teachings we can be better Sin is a result of human freedom Genesis 2 and 3 is not a story about sin Christians do interpret sin 0 Jews don t agree with this interpretation Augustine taught that evil is the absence of the good 0 Evil is not a force that seduces us Technically we don t choose to do good or evil we choose to do good or not good But evil is not this force in and of itself It is easier to think that evil exists because it lets us off the hook But really Christianity puts it on the people Why doesn t evil exist God created everything in this world You cannot have evil as a force in this world if God is Good and everything God creates is Good Some Christians say that humans have created evil Islam 10212014 0 14 and 16 billion Muslims in the world 0 Myths 0 Islam is a violent extremist religion blame media for why its portrayed this way Islam means self surrender Muslim means one who surrenders Muslim has contributed greatly to modern civilization including in philosophy an science we use Arabic numbers 0 All Muslims are Arabs o arose within Arabic peninsula 0 only 20 of muslims are arabs 20 north African 60 Asian with Indonesia having largest population Nigeria has more Muslims than any Arab country 0 Islam is a young world religion and Muhammad is its founder o Muhammad didn t start his own religion Instead he came as a religious reformer 0 They believe Muhammad was calling people back to true religion to true monotheism 0 quotTrue religion is foundation of all true religion 0 Teachings of Islam are directly connected to Judaism and Christianity While Muslims aren t Jewish Abraham is considered an ancestor to Muslims OOOO According to Quran Abraham lived before there was ChristianityJudaism and he practiced the 39true religion 0 Although god revealed his will to Moses the Hebrew prophets they believe JewishChristian scriptures were corrupted and distorted and that their true message was altered o worship ofjesus is considered idolatry 0 they belive that afterjewish and Christian teachings were distorted god sent the angel Gabriel one last time and this is the nal revelation Muhammad is known as the seal of the prophets closing of the prophets because is the last one Qur an o divine message of Allah as it was recited by Muhammed during his missions in Mecca and Medina 0 has 114 chapters known as surahs o Qur an is not a record of Muhammed s thoughts or teachings Muhammad is not the author of Qur an 0 Instead Qur an is gods communication with humankind and God is only author of qur an o No human intermediatroy god communicates directly to humankind thorugh this text divine nature of Qur an Gods word literally in a text 0 language of Qur an is very important written in Arabic and cannot translate it because is divine speech revealed to Muhammed o Translations of Quran are only approximations so ritually only read in arabic Divisions in Islam Sunni o Sunna comes from the word tradition o division is question of succesorship o 85 of Islam 0 true successors to Muhammad don t have to be immediate blood descendants Hadith tradition based on reports of the sayings and actions of Muhammed and his companions O Shiite o o o O O O o O O O O O O O Derived from the term Shia meaning faction represents about 1015 of Muslims believes the true successors to Muhammad descend directly from Muhammad s family imam religious leader who knows the true meaning of the Qunan imams serve as guides for Shiite leaders Stronghold of Shiites is found in Iran 5 pillars of Islam 1 Faith or Creed quotThere is no God but Allah Muhammad is the Prophet of Godquot Allah is not God s name Allah means God Creed establishes someone as part of the community of faith the creed underscores monotheism and established Muhammad as a messenger or the prophet of God Muhammad is NOT god 2 Ritual prayer connect to presence of Allah 5 times daily when they pray Prayers take place at speci c times during day sunrise noon midafternoon sunset and nightfall Prayer requirements give distinct structure to Muslim s daily life and maintains sense of holiness day to day Mosque is preferred place to pray but any place is appropriate for worshipping Allah Prayer preformed facing Mecca because is birthplace of Muhammad and scene of rst revelations of Qur an Structures you in terms of space so orienting you o Kneeling standing bowing prostrating before allah and demonstrates total submission to God 0 3 Ramadan o refrain from food drink and sex from sunrise to sunset 0 takes place in the 9th month of the lunar calendar 0 helps unite Muslims worldwide and practice self control and emphasize with the hungry 0 end of Ramadan is a celebration o 4 Almsgiving 0 expected to give 25 of their net worth for the sake of others 0 Muslims must share their wealth with the poor and needy 0 charity serves to level the economic wealth of the community 0 binds Muslims together 0 5 Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca 0 expected to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once 0 All Muslims are equal in Mecca all are one 0 When pilgrims approach Mecca they wear nothing that will set them apart from other pilgrims only 2 pieces of seamless white cloth Movie Muhammad Legacy of a Prophet Muhammad brought peace and new hope to Arabia lslam now claims 12 billion followers around the world 0 There are an estimated 7 million Muslims in America Muhammad is the best example of behavior is a guide for how to act and implement justice 911 has put the Muslim community in the spotlight but people also want to learn to understand the religion Muhammad the nal prophet Life of Muhammad is better known than other religious gures because his followers recorded many of their memories and interactions with him Muhammad was born in Mecca now Saudi Arabia in 570 into a brutal word de ned by hunger and tribal warfare individual had no chance of survival so tribe was most sacred value Muhammad was an orphan father died and he strongly identi ed with the poor Kabbah place where idos were worshiped and Muhammad traveled around Arabia where he learned the differences between tribes different religions values cultures Muhammad married wealthy widow Kadija 40 years old 0 had 4 daughters and 2 sons 610 Muhammad has a transforming experience when he went to relax on the mountain and prayed in the cave Muhammad was woken from his sleep by a divine presence and tells him to recite Muhammad received divine word and the holy scriptures and Islam is born Muhammad was shaken by this experience on the Mountain of Light 0 His job was to recite the words of the one true God Went to Christian and was told he was the prophet and realized the messages he was receiving t a pattern that there are people who receive messages fro the divine Divine message that he brought to Meccans brought a warning against the materialistic society 0 was bringing a moral and ethical message and we all are in the same boat before god Revelation on the mountain of light was the rst of many he would receive for the rest of his life 0 message comes from God as events unfold Muhammad couldn t read or write but his words were seen as legitimate recitation by Muhammad was recorded by memorizers and writers Qur an represented complete message that Muhammad recited when he said quotthis is the word of godquot Muhammad discouraged creation of images of himself or other prophets to avoid idolatry so calligraphy became art form Muhammad s message was rst spread to the poor the downtrodden o Muhammad gave legal rights to women and he did a lot for women who were considered second class citizens in Arabia Muhammad s wife Khadija was wealthy and powerful l she was a working woman and many messages for the modern woman can be found from Khadija After 13 years in Mecca Muhammad has been very successful in sharing his message Night ascension Muhammad was sleeping and was woken by Gabriel who mounted him on a magical horse and they ew from Mecca to Jerusalem Muhammad began an ascent up through heaven where he meets previous prophets and eventually enters into Gods divine throne 3 holy cities Mecca Medina Jerusalem Muhammad is able to describe Jerusalem in exact detail and this story therefore made Meccans angry as they didn t believe him Clans in Mecca decide time to assassinate Muhammad Muhammad heard about plan and had escaped into the desert and the assassins chased him to Yathrib where many of his followers has sought refuge The people of Yathrib decided to protect the Muslims Muhammads arrival marked new chapter in Islam and he became leader of Yathrib becomes Medina which is ruled by Islamic law hijab is a sign of modesty and piety All of what we know about Muhammad is through the eyes of his followers rst biography of his life was written 100 years after his death Life of Muhammad o lived from 570632 born in city of Mecca Was orphaned by age 6 when his parents died and was taken under his care of his uncle Became Khadija s business owner and he was 25 and he was 40 when they married Tension between traditional tribal values and cultures and the transition into being a new urban center 0 divided between loyalties and tradition on the one hand but urban center and its economic implications on the other hand Mecca was a polytheistic city worship of many gods Muhammad became a successful member of Meccan society 0 Was a spiritual seeker 0 often retreated to a cave on Mt Hira and sought meaning and insight o retreating from urban center to think about broader questions in life 0 In 611 during Ramadan Muhammad had a powerful experience in the cave of Hira o a voice called to him telling him to recite three times 0 At rst answered that he had nothing to recite but then has sensation that something is huggingsqueezing him physical expedence 0 Words came to him quotRecite in the name of the lord who created who created humankind from a clot of blood recit for your lord is most generous ho taught by the pen taught humankind what it did not knowquot 0 With this revelation new prophet is born Muhammad was not eager to take up his Godgiven duty timid o didn t want to rock the boat because a few eliteswealthy families controlled the city 0 Muhammad begins to share his message which was particularly important to the poormarginalized condemned the socioeconomic inequities of Meccan society which threatened the powerful elite o The elite relied on the revenues from pilgrimages and festivals in the polytheistic society 0 wealthy elite controlled this and the more gods there was the more pilgrimages there are and opportunities to make money 0 Muhammad s message of one god was a threat to business Creation of the Islamic community has invitation to go from Mecca to Medina in 620 Has about 200 followers and they migrate turning point in Muslim history key moment because for the rst time lslam becomes a political entity Muhammad is able to establish an Islamic communitystate in Medina 0 different than Christianity where they were persecuted without political power for the rst 300 years Centrality of the hijra migration is signi ed by the fact that the Islamic calendar begins with that year 0 Migration is when the Islamic calendar begins in 620 not in 610 when he receives rst revelation 0 begins when they establish a community Medina Muhammad sets up a constitution for entire comm8nity that guarantees the rights of all citizens and the relationship of the Muslim community to other communities 0 plays a political role In a tribal culture Muhammad offers an alternative message we should not be divided by tribe but rather united in our religious beliefs Therefore the community as much as the individual was the vehicle for realizing God s will By the time Muhammad dies in 632 all of Arabia is under the ideas of Islam 0 Expansion of Islam Within a decade of Muhammad s death Arab forced conquered lraq Syria Palestine Persia and Egypt and becomes largest empire in human history Empire was later extended to Morocco and Spain and across Central Asia and India in the East Muslim armies did not conquer and destroy but rather they created in terms of architecture and local communities had the right to follow their own religious practices under Muslim rule Allah 0 Muslim belief centers on the oneness of God 0 Muslim s have no reluctance in pronouncing Allah s name Allah is not the name of God but means God Allah s name is evoked when something good happens when discussing something yet to happen in all to prayer quotpraise be to Allahquot God is both transcendent and immanent everywhere God creates world in 6 days but there are some differences with how lslam understands the world Creation comes through the divine word God commands for things to be and therefore things are On the 6th day God does NOT take a break or rest Instead God sits on a throne regulating the world 0 If god is all powerful God doesn t need a day off No Sabbath in Islam Friday is the communal day of prayer but it is not considered the day of rest from work Humanity We are gods special creation god s representative on work 0 not creating in God s image though We have a responsibility as special representatives of God but we are unjust and ignorant and therefore unaware of the responsibility God has given us in caring for the earth Humans turn our backs on our true nature we rebel against God ignore the teachings of the prophets and worship things not God There is no such thing as original sin 0 Sin is not essential or part of our human nature We are able to live in submission to God s law 0 In order to be a perfect Muslim God does not ask of us anything that we can t do 0 God doesn t not save us and we should strive for perfection by ful lling God s will 0 Real jihad is the struggle to overcome sin and unbelief Jihad 0 means exertion of striving for a praisworhty goal Lesser jihad o struggle against nonbelievers to prevent the killing of Muslims and the disruption of Islam within the territory of Islam self defense 0 Struggle against oppression and persecution of Muslims outside the territory of Islam protection 0 Retaliation for a breach of honor by an enemy Greaterjihad within the individual 0 the struggle against the evil and bad inclinations within oneself and against the enticements and temptations of pleasure o The struggle for the elimination of corruption and decadence within Muslim society 0 The struggle for the realization ofjustice and equality among all people Sharia Law 0 Hadith The saying of the Hadith accounts of Muhammad and his time are based on memorized accounts rst related by those who were with Muhammad transmitted by a carefully authenticated chain of trustworthy people 0 Women in Islam 0 Many ways to approach women in Islam 0 Women and veiling have become a symbol for Islam as oppressive which is incorrect Qur an does not assert male authority over women in the Quran Hadith or Sharia but there are differing opinions 0 Within early Islam women were given a more privileged status than in other religions 0 Two interpretations 0 Islam is an egalitarian religion which is misinterpreted 0 Islam supports the subordination of women 0 Veiling o wearing the veil is not oppressive for many women it is empowering to veil o BUT being forced to veil is oppressive 0 Su sm o the mystical branch of Islam Su sm appeared around the 9th century CE Su s believe the essential truths of Su sm exist in all religions The great religions share these values The Middle Ages and the Protestant Reformation 0 Bart Erman youtube video 0 can t trust the bible The middle Ages 105015005 0 development of intellectual and academic arm of Christianity 0 1054 rst split in Christianity 0 Break between the Eastern and Western Churches catholic 0 Split was over Nicene Creed 0 debate was over term ioque which means from the quotsonquot O O creed says holy spirit come from God the creator but churches in the West started saying that the Holy Spirit came from the Creator AND the Son West wanted to link Holy Spirit to Jesus so that Jesus 39left his holy spirit to empower christians Eastern religion believe that the Father is the source of divinity not the son debate about role ofJesus and authority of creator and ultimately structure of trinity 1000 years afterJesus life Christians still don t have it gured out still no consensus Crusades 10951291 restore holy land from Muslim Hands 0 Fourth Lateran Council 1215 Establishes belief in transubstantiation 0 when priest says prayer holy spirit descends onto the alter and transforms the bread and wine literally into Jesus esh and blood Sacrament of Confession O belief in Catholicism that for your sins to be forgiven they must be confessed to a priest Worship of Relics O Relics the remains of martyrs o alters have relics on them and relics are extremely sacred 0 1492 Columbus discovers the New World 0 Medieval theology Scholasticism medieval theology era where theology and philosophy go hand in hand Major Christian thinkers are also philosophers Scholasticism focused on the rational justi cation and systematization of theological re ection o tried to demonstrate that faith is rational and can be rationally explained and argued theology faith seeking understanding 0 showing that faith is not in contradiction with reason 0 shows that faith completes reason 0 Medieval Universities established 0 Founding of the university of Paries founded in 1200 0 beginning of academic study of religion 0 establishment of academic texts Key gures peter Abelard albert the great Bonaventure Jildgard of Bingen Thomas Aquinas wrote the Summa Theologica a considered his most famous work a focused on relationship between faith and intellect n is most systemic document written by one person outlying beliefs of Christianity Monastic Study Centers 0 religious societies that combined strict religious observance with intellectual and artistic pursuits 0 activities included OOOOO copying and writing books studying architecture engineering math medicine and thosophy painting frescos and illuminating manuscripts a sold and money supported monastic community a works of arts these activities were expressions of faith The Protestant reformation Western European movement from 15001750 that sought to return Christianity to its biblical roots reformers thought church had become too focused on Mary relics rituals and on the saints also felt that Catholic church had turned Christianity into a religion about rituals and tradition and not the teachings of the bible Sola Scriptura scripture alone was the mantra emphasis on studying and reading of the bible becoming fundamental o belief that if its not in the bible Christians shouldn t do it emphasize importance of faith not just acts Catholicism emphasized what you did and that faith was re ected in actions judged by your actions 0 Reformers want to emphasize the interior life of faith Relationship with God is key centrality ofjesus Direct and individual relationship with God 0 no justi cation for confession in the scriptures 0 critical of the power that has been given to priests Lutheran reformation began in Germany 0 Martin Luther was a catholic monk reformers came from within the Church became critical of Catholicism of his day Luther s 95 Thesis 0 95 points critiquing Catholicism of his day 0 Most often cited critique is indulgences o indulgences are when you make a monetary donation to the church so that they will pray for the soul of a departed loved one o Luther believes this is 39buying salvation Catholic church still practices indulgences Condemned as a heretic in 1521 trial is called Diet of Worms 0 kicked out of church and starts new church Calvinist Reformation John Calvin has swiss origins though born in France leads to creation of reformed churches Presbyterian critical of the accessibility of the literature believed church focused too much on idolatry Catholic Reformation comes out of Council of Trent believes that faith is important but see their faith through good works and actions In response to protestant emphasis on the individual church still believes that church authority still guides biblical interpretation hear from priest Catholics should go to church authority to interpret texts everyday catholic cant interpret bible alone Importance of tradition 0 Jesus still important and based on bible but tradition of church and religion are just as important as the bible because god is present in traditions o stricpture and tradition weighted equally heavily o holy spirit guides traditions of chruch hierarchy of church 0 need for strong hierarchy to guide faith veneration of Mary and the saints 0 part of who Catholics are 0 pray to saintsMary who have close relationship with god and are advocates to god so pray to them so that the saintsMary can pray foryou Seven sacraments o baptism confession eurcharist holy communion con rmation becoming adult matrimony god is present in all sacraments 0 because god is present in marriage Catholics don t allow for divorce because believes humans can t undo gods grace o Annulment ritual within catholic church to annu marriage very limited reasons church give annulment Ordaining as a priest OOOO 0 once you are a priestyou are always a priest o anointing of the sick 0 blessing and last confession Protestants only recognize a few of these sacraments Baptism Protestantism 18th and 19th centuries Great awakening 0 1st great awakening was in the mid 18th century and 2nOI at the turn on the 19th century revivals believers gather together reaffirm and reenergize their faith 0 primarily protestants US is not a Christian nation although it is dominant religion in US 0 founders of our country were not all Christian and many rejected organized Christianity 0 Public display of Christian faith that marked the in uence of protestant Christianity on the US 0 Focus 0 emphasized interior faith 0 following doctrine strictly 0 Choosing to be saved by accepting Jesus Protestansism 20th century divide between conservative protestant Christianity that emerged from great awakenings and also liberal Christianity 0 at odds with each other in 20th century Liberal pushing for ecumenism which is trying to reunite protestant churches and breakdown barriers 0 National council of churches founded in 1949 which tries to dialogue with each other and overcome obstacles that divide Christians Decline in mainline protestant churches since 19605 or Lutheran Methodist Presbyterian that emerged from Reformation Increase in the political presence of conservative Christianity in the US Rise of right wing Christian movements and religious right 0 largest is Christian Coalition 0 largest grassroots political organization in the US 0 issue of abortion and homosexuality are largest issues rise of megachurches over 2000 members in church weekly 0 high energy not boring Pentecostalism Developed in Topeka Kansas 0 William Joseph Seymour baptized by the spirit and began to hold a series of revivals in 1906 on Azuza Street in LA 0 from these revivals emerges Pentecostal churches 0 rst Pentecostals were African American then spread to Latinos then to the US and globally o 39the storefront church Distinguishing features 0 draw from local community for pastors priests are only in Catholicism and episcopal church leadership are from local community someone who looks like you and speaks your language 0 Anyone can start a Pentecostal church God doesn t require a degree all you need is gifts of holy spirit freedom to start own church so if ppl are unhappy abH ytoleave o Prayers deal with daily matters and concerns emphasis on healing and spiritual health 0 testimonies are very important speaking in tongues o changing the face of Christianity taking root all over the world Roman Catholicism Historical Background St Augustine is oldest church in the US Catholicism arrived in US with the Spanish 0 has been present in the US since the 14905 First wave of Catholicism was during 19th century European immigration 0 Irish German and were not well received racism and persecution of Catholics Second wave of immigrants came in 20th century from Latin America 0 Annexation of Mexico in 1848 Catholic church has made its mark in 3 ways 0 Parish outreach 0 local churches have helped immigrants transition 0 Ethnic parishes 0 church is based on ethnicity prayer in uenced by culture parochial schools 0 Dorothy Day Catholicism has taken a social justice stance on issues such as poverty economics and immigration reform Dorothy Day is one of most sign ciant gures who is a journalist turned activist on behalf of the poor With Peter Maurin founded Catholic Worke Movement in 1933 Started hospitality house in NY and then farms for poor to live and work communally were self sustainable informed by catholic vision Catholic Worker Movement 0 very left in terms of economics still exists today 0 some are anarchists 0 example of social justice within 21st century Catholicism Dorothy was a lay person and proves that people other than priests can take action 0 Vatican II 19621965 meeting of bishops from around the world called by jon Xlll Catholic church s attempt to modernize and reform Most dramatic reforms 0 gave lay people permission to read the bible 0 Catholic mass formerly only in Latin but now mass changed to languages people could understand 0 changed liturgy and alters priests now facing the front 12152014 Aztec empire 1316th century large empires capital Tenochtitlan now Mexico city AZTLAN mythological place were we all emerge Cortes great conqueror defeated Montezuma Montezuma saw conquering as spreading Christianity mass killing Aztec religious absorption saw catholic god as another manifestation of their religion because many gods Spain destroyed Aztec shrines and built churches spread global Catholicism o spiritually conquered Aztecs o invaded Morocco and Portugal as well Aztec gods are dualistic and created humans to worship them reciproca relations with god we worship them if we want favors Gods have personalities and there is a uid notion of god who develops and reacts to situations Micam region of the dead and gods can act here as well as in the heavens and earth Ritual guided by season and time time is cyclical 0 there have been 5 ages but death always followed by recreation 0 Human sacri ce and animal sacri ce o destiny is predetermined and so is death but there is no hell Mayan empire ranged from Mexico El Salvador Guatemala Belize and Honduras with over 25 different language groups 0 250900 BCE but maybe as old as 1800 Colapse of mayan empire a mystery but still alive today Popu Vuh Mayan bible Mayan cosmology is cyclical understand of time o Shaman mediator between spiritual world and human world 0 known as a medicine man or woman known to fall into trances and can even spirit travel and leave their bodies strong priesthood Less animal sacri ce than Aztecs Numerolgy is important this is 4th carnation of humans God crated out of nothing 0 Calendar resets after 2012 but thought of world ending Stereotypes mascots reskins braves casinos lndians Historical background Marshal trilogy all lands occupied by Indians belongs to US gov ndians were labeled as domestic nation so was domestic not federal disputes 1934 Indian reorganization act 0 Encouraged tribes to adopt constitutions forced US model and reslted in establishment of beaurau lndian affairs 1950 tribal relocation acts moved tribes to less desirable lands didn t always work 19705 American Indian movement focused on prideself determination Relgion land based religion so religion devastated without it o Resisted colonialism religious practices were way of maintaining language culture and identity 0 Pueblo tradition centered around rain along with Hopi tribe OOOO 0 both agricultural tribes who depend on rain ndian religion in modern world takes place in traditional religion peyote religion and Christianity 0 Peyote is protected by rst amendment but has to be consumed on native reservations in ritual o natives who converted to Christianity are controversial because belief that they sodl out but didn t have much of a choice US as New lsrael conquering native ppl and spreading Christianity Characteristics of native religion reverence toward natural world cyclical time oral tradition animism ancestor veneration death isn t end of relationship ritghts of passage libation offer alcohol before you drink divination Wicca myth that wiccans worship devil and communicate with spirits but do claim to practice magic Core is worshipping prechristian deities l connecting with more ancient religion associated with persecution of women neopaganism relationship and interconnectness between humanity and the natural world and the desire to revive preChristian religion 0 Ritual creates identity and community Gerald E Gardner 18841964 is driving force of modern wiccan movement 0 revival of practices of Wicca in book studied folklore and tried to argue that witches were connected to ancient fertility religion 0 Wicca religious cult of modern witchcraft especially in initiatory tradition found in themed 20th century and claiming its origins in pre Christian pagan religions beiefs include sacred is immanent and dwells in nature divine magic exists belief in gods and goddesses transformative power of nature draw on Yourban African and Egyptian religion Wiccan Creed ethical code that you cant harm others and only use magic for positive purposes 0 Sense of karma it will come back to you if you use magic to hurt others Rituals change of season and phase of moon Esbat occurs monthly during full moon festivals during equinoxes and solstices Practices include dancing meditation eating Structure is very decentralized with no institutions covens small groups of practitioners who gather for rituals Also can be self taught but generally people prefer community Malleus Malecifcarum hammer of witches or a guidebook as to how to identify and kill witches published in 19th century Germany 0 Led to persecution of women and cemented the belief that witches are real and pose threat to Christian world 0 Blames Eve for women being deceitful and lustful leading to witches Rastafarianism One of youngest religions less than 100 years AfroJamaican religious movement more of a movement than religion Minority religion but has three elements of belief o Garveyism 0 Christianity 0 Ethiopionism Marcus Garvey was not a rastafari but in uential because began back to Africa movement 0 People of African decent should return ot native countries because had been taken by force promoted recovery of black identity as African and Ethiopian o Prophesized a black king would arise and would be a black Messiah to liberal all blacks from oppression o Hallie Selassie was crowned emperor of Ethiopia and went by Ras Tarfair Makonne where they get their name 0 Hallie seen as ful llment of Garvey s prophecy seen as God s incarnation and claimed to be descendant of King Solomon and Queen of Sheba Psalm 68 Basic beliefs Hallie Selassie is the black messiah mystical return to Africa must live with a spiritual connection to African homeland Christianity incorporated because of colonization 0 Exodus story important because reveals that god liberates and punishes savehoder takes side of oppressed 0 represents Ethiopiancentered interpretation of bible Development 0 phase 1 in 1930505 religion was only popular among 4 Jamaicans 0 phase 2 in 1960705 emphasized economic class and God being on the side of oppressed and poor Reggae artists begin to gain recognition and begin to develop own language to describe realities 0 phase 3 new openness now open to all races Critiques white culture colonialism and ultimate the Jamaican government 0 promotion of spitual return to African because belief they are in spiritual exile and Jamaica is Babylon Rasta life made up of Reasonings smokediscuss lack of institutions belief in avatars prophets that come visions drums dreams dreadlocks ls patriarchal believes women are lesser Coors red blood black skin Green Ethiopiajamaica Gold faithhope and redblackgreen also color of Ethiopian ag Voodoo Voodoo is a false construction really just used by French to describe African religious practices in Haiti serve the sprits sereptent important symbol and ritual dance is central because human and spiritual come together Origianlly a slave religion and was a form of empowerment which fuelled slave revolts and embodied resistance 0 rejecting Catholicism very rural religion because of plantations o fueed Hatiain Revolution l slave leaders evoked spirit Voiscayman to empower them and overthrew French Since Earthquake in Haiti may Haitians believe in narrative that God is punishing them because the evoked spirits of Voodoo 0 new move towards Pentecostalism and conservative Christianity Vodoo and Catholicism after Vatican breaks ties with Haiti in 1805 and removed priests from island 0 slaves previously forced to convert as a way of justifying slavery but roman catholic elements remained in voodoo o Slaves hid voodoo in Catholic imagery and through Pretsavanns or voodoo priests who specialize in Roman Catholicism o Rituals begin with catholic prayer have similar calendars Duvalier papa Doc was president 195771 and manipulated voodoo to scare the population and his son jeanCalude baby doc began to associate it with witchcraft Voodoo is decentralized difficult to study Ritual dance important because slaves were able to maintain ritual practice in front of French through dance Mix of African origins but monotheistic and god is Gran Met good god 0 god is inaccessible to humans because we are too awed so practioners don t have relationship with god Wangas and gardes objects have sacred powers can be protective and healing Lwa loa are the spirits or supernatural beings who mediate relationship with god servent to Lwa Rada sweet tempered lwa petwo bitterfeisty Lwa o aren t perfect reciprocal relationship and lwa have emotions Konesans ritual knowledge you build up over time Ounfo voodoo temple often in peoples homes but must have poleb ecasue spirits descend from ceiling to oor on pole Ason rattle recived upon initiation Spirit possession is most important thing you can do Mounting is when a spirit possesses you and can happen to anyone Head washing is important because body ls medium for sacred Don t remember anything that occrued while possessed Danbala most powerful and oldest Lwa associated with snakes Represented by St Patrick Lakes eggs color is with and is married to Ezilli Rituas calendar corresponds to Catholic calendar and rituals to celebrate anniversary of initiation Rituals to ask for particular need also common and include alcohol food drumming animal sacri ce LukumiYouruba Religion Santeria Afro Cuban religion meaning way of the Saints and to practioners it s a Yoruba religion Santeria is a Yourban based religion which were slaves brought over in 19th century from Nigeria Cubans speaking spanish began to call them Lukumi but official name is Regla de Ocha Rule of the Orishas Emerges from encounter of Yoruba with Catholicism Slavery in Cuba occurred alongside mass genocide of indigenous people and Cuba become exporter of sugar industry after Haitian revolution ends and trade no longer occurs between two countries Cuba divided into sugar plantations by Spain and is the last Spanish colony to abolish slavery in 1886 Cabildos are religious brotherhood organized by tribal nation which the Spainsh allowed slaves to maintain and gather with o Baile ritual dance important to Caildos 0 Were allowed to do processions on feast days and most important is Losy Reyes Magos 0 built alters to saints to disguise Santeria sprits Major beliefs one we die spirits interact and engage with the human world certain people have gif to seecommunicate with spirits both good and bad Is a monotheistic religion with Olodumare as the creator but you cant have relationship with him Religious Freedom Majority of population is Christian but not a Christian nation Authors of constitution ranged from atheists atheists Catholics Christians but all believed in separation of church and state Aritce 6 of constitution cant discriminated based on religious background reigion plays role in polictis Kennedy only Catholic president 1st amendment means no official US religion Renold vs US 1878 set precedent for how US treats religion Renold practiced polygamy but decided you have the freedom to believe whatever you want but not the freedom to do whatever you want in name of religion so polygamy still illegal 14th amendment religion is power of federal gov not states Religious freedom act of 1993 struck down act which though groups weren t being treated fairly and wanted to protect them bc federal gov should be responsible for all religions not states Catholics swing vote but Jewsblackssome Catholics vote dem and evangelicalsconservative Catholicsmainline protestants vote republican Civi Religion by Rober bellah is religionlike elements connected with the American political system like god in inauguration speeches declaration of independent pledge of allegiance Church of Lukumi Babalue Aye vs City of Hialeah o Ernesto Pichato opens Santeria church but infrastructure starts to disappear and churchesanimal rights groups protest o accused of being cult and ordinances passed to prohibit possession of animals to slaughter investigation of complaints and prohibit slaughter of animals 0 supreme court ruled this unconstitutional meaning they are allowed to preform animal sacri ce voodooSanteria is recognized as religion not cult and able to have public space Why religion matters religion increasingly important as 9295 claim to be religious growth of religions has exceeded population growth more people religious than before reigion set aside as a sphere and is a matter of choice and freedom US most religious and religiously diverse in world religion is a human construction and hard to study because we can only observe peoples response to god not god himself De nition religion is an institution consisting of culturally patterned integration with culturally postulated superhuman beingsquot Melford Spiro Religion is nonempirical cant prove but de nes peoples lives Shelaism gt move towards being more spiritual but not religious and rise of the nones who are spiritual but not part of a formal religion
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