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POL 202 Midterm and Final Study Guides

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by: Jolie Spiegelman

POL 202 Midterm and Final Study Guides 202

Marketplace > University of Miami > 202 > POL 202 Midterm and Final Study Guides
Jolie Spiegelman
GPA 3.9
Comparative Politics

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Study Guides for POL202 Midterm and Final Exam
Comparative Politics
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Date Created: 02/18/15
12032014 Recognize maps of the states we have studied in our course Review theories of democracy democratic consolidation and transition Regime types in Soviet Union Nigeria and China Differences between proportional representation and single member plurality electoral systems Which system would a large party small party or minority group prefer Concepts Clientelism powerful patron offers resources in return for support and services Patrons are linked by ethnic religious or other cultural ties which only benefit the elite Clientelism undermines both social trust and political stability collectivization agricultural land removed from private ownership and organized into state and collective farms Import substitution industrialization strategy for industrialization based on domestic manufacture of previously imported goods to satisfy domestic market demands coup d etat forceful extraconstitutional action resulting in removal of an existing government example Mexican President Madero assassinated in 1913 during coup and wealthy landowners took over the lands of villagers NAFTA Treaty established in January 1994 among the US Mexico and Canada that largely eliminates trade barriers among the three nations and established procedures to resolve trade disputes 0 NAFTA increased vulnerability to international economy and US economies and led to economic crises of 1994 and recession of 1995 Soviet Union Russia Tsarist patrimonial state Held until 1917 a system of governance in which a single ruler tsar treats the state as personal property Bolshevik revolution Lasted from 19171929 and was led by the Bolsheviks who were Marxists They believed that revolution re ected the political interests of the proletariat Resulted in the establishment of Soviet Union 0 Slogan was Land Peace and Bread 0 Began with an extended civil war from 19181921 which introduced war communism and New Economic Policy which loosened state control over the economy but not over large scale industry 0 Strategy was based on Democratic centralism and the Vanguard party 0 Started international isolation of Russia as the Bolsheviks became more authoritarian through the 1920s This ultimately leads to the rise of Stalin after Lenin s death Democratic centralism Hierarchical party structure with leaders elected from below and strict implementation of party policy Vanguard party Political party that claims to operated in the true interests of the group or class that it purports to represent Bolsheviks even if this understanding doesn t correspond to the expressed interests of the group itself Stalin s terror Stalin revolution occurred from 19291953 and the party was subject to the personal whims of Stalin and his secret police Citizens and economy were isolated from the outside world Collectivization Removal of agricultural land from private ownership and organized into large state and collective farms Occurred during the Stalin Revolution as collectivization of farms occurred to prevent the emergence of a capitalist class Caused people to be uprooted from the countryside and shift towards urban industrial life Industrialization Industrialization occurred from collectivization when the people could no longer work their land so moved to city to find jobs Command economy Soviet economic system in which important economic assets belonged to the state Economic plans defined production goals and prices are controlled by the state In addition foreign relationships are channeled through a central economic bureaucracy 0 An economic system in which the state directs the economy through a series of bureaucratic plans for the production and distribution of goods and services The government rather than the market is the major in uence on the economy International isolation During the Stalin Revolution citizens and the economy were isolated from the outside world A positive effect was that this served as a protection from the effects of the Great Depression around the world As a negative effect Russia was unable to keep up with the economic and technological transformation in the west Gorbachev Takes over during period of deStalinization Focuses on reform programs that encouraged economic growth and political renewal without undermining the Communist party Main principles included 0 Perestroika economic restructuring which led to decentralization of economic structures 0 Glasnost openness leading to the easing of controls on public debate and ideas 0 Demokratizastiaa limited democratization 0 New Thinking was encouraged including halting military buildup ratifying arms control agreements and allowing contact with international partners Break up of Soviet Union Resulted in 15 newly independent states including the Russian Federation which was the largest successor state Russian Federation became independent in 1991 and Yeltsin proclaimed a commitment to westernstyle democracy and market reform Market reforms under Yeltsin Markets reforms are a strategy of economic transformation that reduces the role of state in in managing the economy and increased the role of market forces There were four pillars including 0 Lifting price controls 0 Encouraging small private business and entrepreneurs 0 Privatizing most stateowned enterprises O Insider privatization privatization of state industries into joint stock companies or private enterprises O J oint stock companies a business firm whose capital is divided into shares that can be led by individuals groups of individual or governmental units I first stage of privatization 0 Opening the economy to international in uences 0 Created the Oligarchs I privatization of state during 1990s control important sectors of Russian economy after Yeltsin opened up the economy Oligarchy of those who ran the major industries in Russia had monopoly over industry Soft authoritarianism under Putin Pattern of soft authoritarianism since 2000 meaning a system of political control in which a combination of formal and informal mechanisms assure the dominance of a ruling group or dominant party despite the existence of some forms of political competition and expression of political opposition Sovereign democracy Putin adopted the concept of sovereign democracy meaning an adaptation of democracy from Western systems to fit Russian traditions This includes an independent judiciary free press basic civil liberties competitive elections and strong political leadership State capture The ability of firms to systematically turn state regulations to their advantage through payoffs to officials Russia is a high statecapture economy Restrictions on the role of interest groups in Russia Interests groups previously had to register with and form a relationship with local government to be recognized There is new legislation following 2006 to regulate these organizations in hope to provide a sense of civil society Elections in Russian Duma Duma is the lower house and is chose through proportional representation PR system Elections occurs at least every four years and seats are allocated to parties roughly in proportion to the votes each party receives Mexico Mexican Constitution Established in 1917 as the supreme law of the land and set formal set of political institutions and guaranteed citizens a range of progressive social and economic rights ranging from minimum wage universal education male suffrage social security It also limited the power of the Roman Catholic Church 0 easy to change Constitution is easily amended and includes human economic and social rights 0 Separation of powers Three branches with checks and balances including the Judiciary President and legislature There is a two chamber legislature Senate and Chamber of Deputies 0 Senate is composed of 128 senators elected from districts and the Federal district 32 senators are elected through PR or based on the number of votes each party receives 0 Chamber of Deputies made up of 500 members 300 by district simple majority and 200 by PR Chamber has threeyear terms President s formal powers President sets outline of policy and uses resources to ensure adoption His formal powers include initiating legislation leading foreign policy and creating agencies Informally he can make policy by decree and trough administrative regulations and procedures Sexenio Six year administration referring to the six year terms carried out by the President governors and senators PRI rule elite centered coalition PRI is the Institutional Revolutionary Party founded by a coalition of political elites who preferred compromise to violence Its goals included supporting the government organizing the electorate and distributing patronage PRI was previously based on corporate representation of class interests 0 Functioned through extended networks that distributed public resources to activists who controlled local votes 0 Power was centralized and sectors responded to elites rather than members leading to associating with lack of effective participation and corruption 0 Only party that has presence in every single region of Mexico China Mao Zedong Declared the founder of the People s Republic of China in 1949 and remained in power until 1976 0 Originally seen as social reformers who addressed problems including 0 Redistribution of land to increase agricultural production 0 Eliminating opium addiction and prostitution 0 Enhancing the status of women Great Leap Forward Occurred from 195 81960 as a result of Mao s discontent with PRC Included a utopian effort to accelerate economic development and ultimately move towards communism But failed because of irrational policies wasted resources lack of incentives for hard work ultimately leading to famine and an industrial depression Cultural Revolution An ideological revolution from 19661976 to restore Mao s vision of socialism and communism It s goal was political purification through class struggle 0 Phase 1 creation of the Red Guards who supported Mao and attacked those who went against him Destroyed cultural artifacts of China s imperial past 0 Phase 2 People s Liberation Army is sent to restore political order and the Red Guards are sent to the countryside 0 Phase 3 Con ict over who should be Mao s successor and in 1976 moderates stage a coup and arrested the Gang of Four End of Cultural Revolution Iron rice bowl Under Mao s economy provided guarantees of lifetime employment income and basic benefits from birth to death to the majority of urban and rural workers 0 Iron Rice Bowl broke down as reformers believed these guarantees were costly and didn t encourage individual success so income and employment no longer are guaranteed 0 Results in decline in rural social services and the decline of the public health system Collectivization agricultural land removed from private ownership and organized into state and collective farms This occurred while Mao was in power and the government overtook private property This was an economic success and increased bureaucracy but economic inequalities continued Chinese Communist Party rule established in 1912 and was inspired by the Russian revolution and was supported by the Soviet Union Party expanded its membership and military foced by the end of WWII by controlling the countryside in the north and the nationalists were pushed out of power due to their corruption and economic failings Came to power in 1949 after the victory of the Chinese Communist Party in the Chinese Civil war Central Committee Meet annually and its members are elected for fiveyear terms by the National Party Congress It is a significant gathering of party elite and is a forum for decision making and political decisions It is composed and controlled by China s top leaders Transition to market economy Begins when Deng takes over Communist Party after Mao s death and politics and ideology become less important than economics 0 Shift to individuals being encourage to work harder and efficiently to earn more money 0 Prices become set according to supplydemand and there was competition between stae and private businesses 0 Market economy encouraged private business and became the fastest growing economic sector although stateowned enterprises still existed 0 Created a consumer revolution and a new middle and upper class Socialist market economy China s official economic system under Deng Refers to the mix of state control socialism and market forces capitalism that China followed in its quest for economic development It implied that socialism promoted equality while the market and profits encouraged people to work hard and for foreign companies to invest in the country Socialist democracy Provides democracy for the overwhelming majority of people and suppressed or exercises dictatorship over only the enemies of the people The Chinese Communist Party believes this is better than a democracy and is based on the Chinese Communist Party as the only ruling party in the country Cadre A person who occupies a position of authority in a communist party state Cadres don t have to be a Communist party member There is a twoterm limit for all cadres Elections at subnational level Elections are used to give legitimacy to th partystate so people are allowed to participate in the political process under controlled circumstances Most elections are indirect and citizens don t have control over real power only for lower bodies of government Direct elections are most common at the village level and some exist at a township level Mass organizations Organizations in a communist partystate that represent the interests of a particular social group such as workers or women but which are controlled by the communist party Two important examples are 0 All China Women s Federation which advocates for domestic violence prevention to economic rights 0 All China Federation of Trade Unions ACFTU which allows for individual workers to explain their grievances against management guanxi Connections which occur between parties to create one of the two coalitions Elitists and Populists Guanxi play an important role in the policy process and can either help or hinder corruption depending how they are used Nigeria British colonial rule Lasted from 18601945 and British colonization for trade deepened the extraction of natural resources and exploitation of Nigerian labor Political and economic systems were formed by colonialism 0 Indirect rule Describes the British style of colonialism in Nigeria in which local traditional rulers and political structures were used to hel support the colonial governing structure Allowed traditional structures to remain and was used to govern centralized monarchies 0 Haphazard boundaries British divided Nigeria into a federation of three regions with their own elected governments in 1954 with one major ethnic group dominating each region 0 Contribution to ethnic politics Strengthened collective identity by fostering political contribution Also played off ethnic and social division to prevent resistance through repressive tactics Ethnicity was used to mobilize support and pursue competition and promoted a political agenda by the elites Clientelism in Nigeria Clientelism occurs when a powerful patron offers resources in return for support and services and has been a source of con ict between the north and south as well as ethnic groups These divisions are made clearer through clientelism corruption and unstable authoritarian governments 0 Ethnicity primary form of political identity and ethnicity provides both personal and business connections Prebendalism Disbursing of public offices and state rents to one s ethnic clients Because of this a stable democracy is nearly impossible and this pattern justifies the pursuit and use of public office for personal benefit of the officeholder and his clients Oil curse in Nigerian economy 1970s oil boom allowed Nigeria to increase eductation defense and infrastructure expenditures and the import of capital and goods increased seven fold But this oil wealth increased corruption While it generated large amounts of income it also became a source of external dependence Weak political and economic institutions Military rule left an underdeveloped executive branch and a weak legislature and judiciary These deteriorating political institutions made the country a center for international drug trafficking and commercial fraud The economy is dependent on imports oil revenues sparse external loans and aid Military rule Military rule in Nigeria lasted from 1966 to 1979 as a consequence of ethnic violence and a civil war occurred under the militaryled government who defeated Biafra After the war there was a policy of national reconciliation but military elite were unwilling to relinquish their power and ultimately were overthrown in 1975 and the Second Republic emerged Federal character Federal structure with states able to enact their own laws Each state is dependent on the federal government Military rule left an authoritarian political culture with centralized economic and political control due to oil wealth Executive dominance of the legislature Nigerian legistlatures have commonly but sidelined or subservient to the executive branch Fraud manipulation and military interference have marked party and electoral systems Only control legislature has over funds is the right to pass budget Nigerian participation in peacekeeping exercises Potential political and economic giant Participates in peacekeeping efforts through both the UN and the African Union Rents revenues channeled through the government which are abovemarket returns to a factor of production The purist of economic rents is profit seeking that takes the form of nonproductive economic activity Political parties They are elite centered have no ideological basis amp clientelist Parties are associated with ethnic groups with one party per dominant ethnic group Parties are more attentive to their ethnic groups than the development of Nigeria Currently in the Fourth Republic parties are are primarily alliances based on convenience with the sole purpose of gaining power They are now more multiethnic and foster a climate of compromise QUESTIONS The term patrimonial state refers to o The system of government in which the ruler treats the state as his personal property Two key ideas introduced by Lenin and the Bolsheviks were 0 Democratic centralism and the concept of the vanguard party Which of the following was a feature of the country during the Stalin era 0 Collectivization of agriculture rapid industrialization which favored heavy industries the development of satellite states in Eastern Europe and increased personal control of the party by its leader as indicated by purges What does soft authoritarianism refer to o A system of informal and formal mechanisms that assure the dominance of a ruling group despite the existence of some forms of political competition and opposition The Poririato was the period of o Authoritarian rule by por rio Diaz in which he copied European values and technologies and closed off opportunities of large numbers of the middle upper class favored elites wanted economic progress and centralized authoritarian systempolitical order Which of the following statements is TRUE 0 throughout much of the 20th century Mexico pursued a policy of import substitution industrialization by the government encouraged the domestic manufacture of previously imported goods to satisfy the demands of its domestic market Which of the following was result of the Mexican revolution of 1910 o The foundation was laid for a strong central gov power of foreign investors was severely limited in uence of the catholic church diminished power of rural landowners was undercut Which of the following is TRUE 0 throughout much of the 20th century Mexico pursued a policy of import substitution industrialization whereby the gov encouraged the domestic manufacture of previously imported goods to satisfy the demands of domestic culture The Mexican Miracle of the 19505 and 19605 0 rapid economic growth and economic industrialization of the country during this period Import substitution industrialization had the following effects 0 it achieved rapid economic growth industries that received government subsidies had less incentive to produce efficiently particular groups such as business elites and labor leaders gained substantial access to the government because of their importance in this scheme of development 0 large commercially oriented farmers emerged to dominate the agricultural economy 0 Which of the following groups were hurt by import substitution industrialization o the urban poor peasant farmers workers in the informal sector of the economy and foreign competition 0 The discovery of the large oil reserve in the 19705 allowed the gov to embark upon substantial investment programs in virtually all sectors of the economy allowed the gov to nance initiatives to reduce poverty and deal with declining agricultural production allowed the gov to address at least initially some of the problems brought about by import substitution industrialization meant that oil grew dramatically as a percentage of the country s export o How did PRI maintain control over Mexico for so long without facing signi cant challenges to its power PRI had a good party organization and was able to be inclusive 0 provided a lot of subsidies 0 All of the following help to explain the 200 year durability of the chinese imperial system except extensive trade with Europe 0 an effective national government the in uence of Confucianism the structure of Chinese society and a merit based bureaucracy all positively affected the durability o What became of the nationalists after China s communist party came to power 0 they ed to Taiwan after losing to the communist Between 1953 and 1957 China took steps that moved it decisively towards socialism these included all of the following EXCEPT instituting a secret police organization to silence its opponents o It did include the collectivization of agriculture implementing a planned economy the government takeover of industries virtually eliminating private property 0 The great leap forward was an attempt to quickly propel china s economic development to the level of western countries like the US and Britain 0 was initiated because Mao was unhappy with the effects of certain Sovietstyle programs relied upon China s massive labor power ultimately resulted in a rural famine and an industrial depression 0 What was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 0 Was launched by Mao who thought that the policies of Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were leading to elitism and inequality 0 was an effort to purify the country of class enemies 0 involved massive authoritarian tactics such as harassing torturing and killing those accuse of being class enemies ended with Mao s death 0 The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were both 0 radical utopian movements launched by Mao in order to achieve his ideological objectives for China o The command economy under the soviet system 0 achieved rapid industrialization o Yeltsin s Russian presidents market reform policies involved ALL of the above 0 lifting price controls 0 encouraging small business and entrepreneurship o privatizing many state industries 0 opening the economy to global in uences o The term state capture refers to o a from of corruption in which rms systemically turn regulations to their advantage through paying off state officials 0 Which of the following bene ts of the Soviet era social welfare system has been maintained 0 Universal health care During the Maoist era the state s economic policies Helped to raise the education and health standards of the Chinese people Establish a strong industrial base for the Chinese economy Led to the wasted resources that diminished economic growth Established a system of state guaranteed bene ts The success of china s movement from a planned economy towards a free market economy can be seen in o o The dramatic rise of the country s gross national product per capita o The fact that the private sector is the fastest growing part of the country s economy 0 o The fact that the country has been the fastest growing economy for two decades 0 o A consumer revolution in the country The term socialist market economy refers to the Mixture of state control and capitalism that is being used to promote economic development in china Which of the following have been used to enforce china s one child policy 0 Intensive media campaigns landing the virtues of small families Fines Positive economic incentives Forced sterilization and abortions The Russian president has the power to 0 issue decrees call a state of emergency 0 grant pardons call referenda Putin has sought to assure greater federal authority over the regions by 0 creating federal districts to oversee the regions 0 removing regional executives from the federation council 0 eliminating the popular election of regional executives o removing several recalcitrant regional executives from office How are members of the Duma are elected 0 through direct national elections that operate under proportional representation Sovereign democracy refers to the idea that democracy in Russia should be adapted to Russian traditions Which of the following might be taken as evidence for Russian restrictions on the role of interest groups 0 increased government supervision of such groups 0 channeling public activism through official forums like the civil forum and the public chamber 0 restricting the activities of nonforeign groups How does the Chinese Communist Party exercise control over state organizations 0 almost all key officials are party members 0 the party uses a cadre list system to control personnel appointments 0 party organizations parallel government agencies at all levels 0 government agencies contain quotleading party groupsquot comprised of key officials who are also party members Communist party states like China are characterize by all of the following except refusal to participate in international organizations 0 Presence of an official ideology based on MarxismLeninism a political system dominated by a single party social institutions dominated by a single party and state control of key sectors of the economy are characteristics of Communist Party States The official ideology of the Chinese Communist Party 0 is adapted from MarxismLeninsim with additions by Mao The most powerful organization in China s communist party state are the Politubro and Standing Committee Which of the following is TRUE about the Chinese Communist Party o It is the world s largest party and less than 10 percent of the Chinese population belongs to the party 0 Women make up only about 20of the party s membership 0 the arty has actively sought private entrepreneurs as members 0 more than two million people many of them young join the party each year Which of the following BEST describes elections in China 0 most elections are indirect but direct elections are widely used in rural villages and there have even been experiments involving the direct election of lowerlevel communist party members Which of the following describes the state of religion in China 0 freedom of religion is guaranteed in the constitution but religious life is limited to officially approved organizations Which of the following is TRUE about protests there have been very few large scale political demonstration in the country since 1989 0 workers have protested over the breaking of the rice bowl layoffs low wages and unsafe conditions 0 there has been an upsurge of rural protests over issues such as illegal land seizures and the governments failure to pay for agricultural products 0 generally since 1989 protests have been localized and focused on immediate material concerns What is meant when China is called a MarketLeninism system 0 it is a system of increasing economic openness with oneparty rule The text points to all of the following as potential harbingers of democracy in China EXCEPT the increasing acceptance of democratic ideas among the older established leaders 0 Potential harbingers of democracy in China include enhanced political and economic power of local governments the coming to power of a younger better educated and more worldly leaders the partial depoliticaition of the legal system and a growing middle class The Mexican Constitution 0 establishes three branches of government each with separate powers 0 contains guarantees for a wide range of rights including familiar ones like the freedom of speech as well as economic and social rights such as the right to a job 0 can be easily amended o is quite long Formal powers of the Mexican president include initiating legislation creating government agencies making policy through decree appointing public officials Historically Mexicans citizens interacted with their government through 0 the personal and informal mechanisms of clientelism In terms of its impact on the policymake process the sexenio allows the president to introduce extensive changes upon coming to office 0 makes innovation just as likely as discontinuity makes it possible to see tremendous policy shift even during a period of party hegemony as was the case when the PRI was dominant 0 provides the president with a group of middle and high level official who share his general policy orientation and are motivated to follow his lead 0 Sexenio means 6 year terms What are the advantages and disadvantage of presidential system such as Mexico 0 Advantage o president is the head of state easy to approach The PRI was founded by a coalition of political elites who believed that o it was better to work out their differences thorugh a system of compromise rather than resorting to violence Which of the following is NOT true 0 The Mexican government has traditionally responded to organized interests through pragmatic accommodation o where open con ict has occurred between organized interests and the government the government has been quick to rely upon repression rather than to seek some kind of compromise solution 0 there is a long tradition in Mexico of civic organization operating at the local level with considerable independence from politics 0 urban popular movement organized around issues that cut across cass boundaries have been increasingly visible in Mexico since the 19805 Assets that are bene cial to Mexico during its democratic transition include all of the following except 0 the strong role played by the Catholic Church in Mexican society and politics It included a tradition of constitutional government a strong sense of national identity a political system that has incorporated a wide arrange of interests little military involvement in politics Introduction to Comparative Politics Study Guide for the nal exam Nigerias border 0 were arbitrarily drawn by the british to mark where their in uence ended and the french s began 0 British colonialism help to ensure that ethnicity would be the primary element in political identi cation and mobilization by establishing administrative regions of the basis of ethnicity permitting the development of ethnically based associations fostering competition among ethnic groups 0 utilizing local leaders to help support their colonial rule Clientalism is the practice by which a particular group receives disproportionate policy bene ts or political favors from a political patron usually at the expense of the large society In Nigeria patrons are typically linked to clients by any of the following ties EXCEPT ideology o patrons ARE typically linked to clients by ethnicity culture and religion 0 Since its independence Nigeria has had all of the following types of government EXCEPT 0 single party rule 0 It has had presidential rule parliamentary rule and military rule 0 Both military and civilian governments of Nigeria have tended to adopt which kind of economic posture 0 an interventionist one with the state intruding unhindered into the major sector of the economy 0 Since the early 19705 Nigeria has relied upon oil for 90 about percent of its exports and 75 percent of its government revenues 0 Oil has had what kind of economic impact on Nigeria s economy 0 it has provided enormous revenues but has also fostered a neglect of other economic sectors About percent of Nigerians live 0 less than a dollar a day 0 70 Introduction to Comparative Politics Study Guide for the nal exam Which of the following is NOT an illustration of the regional religious ad ethnic dimensions of the Nigerian economy 0 The majority of the country s poor are located in the Middle Belt occupied by minority ethnic groups 0 The following ARE examples of the dimensions of the economy 0 Christians argue that past governments have been tilted towards Muslims located in the north in terms of the distribution of economic resources while Muslims fear that more current governments have tilted the balance towards the more Christian south 0 ethnic and religious based association have served as vehicles for mobilizing economic activity 0 minority groups living in the oilproducing regions have undertaken actions both peaceful and violent n an effort to gain a greater share of oil revenues 0 Under British colonialism investments were made in the infrastructure in the south thus resulting in a situation that resulted in better economic advancement in that area after independence 0 The Nigerian national question could best be stated as 0 how is the country to be governed given its great diversity 0 Nigeria s prolonged experience with military rule has resulted in a political culture that is primarily apathetic o Nigerian politics have generally followed a policy of rotation of political office based upon ethnicity o ethnic rotation 0 Which statement describes the difference between ethnic rotation and federal character 0 The former refers to a practice of rotating political offices among the different ethnic groups whereas the latter refers to the setting aside of ethnic quotas in government hiring practices 0 One strategy civilian governments have used to keep the military away from politics concerns redirecting it towards peacekeeping exercises 0 Which of the following statements BEST describes how the Nigerian executive has evolved over the years 0 it has become more centralized and more personalized All of the following are factors that help explain executive dominance over the legislature EXCEPT Introduction to Comparative Politics Study Guide for the nal exam 0 Nigerian constitutions have consistently failed to provide the legislature with the power of the purse 0 The following factors DO explain executive dominance 0 since independence the same party that has won the executive has also won the majority either outright or in coalition in the legislature o president and governors allied with them to control the primaries process 0 Nigerian legislatures were either nonexistent or powerless under military rule effectively establishing a pattern of executive dominance Which of the following statements best describes Nigeria s political parties 0 they are elite centered structures that lack an ideological basis and exist mostly to capture power Which of the following BEST describes Nigerian political culture 0 a lack of a sense of national identity instead remaining loyal to their ethnic regional and religious groups Factors that challenge the further consolidation of democracy in Nigeria include all of the following EXCEPT o expressions by the military s senior officers that the military has a role to play in the country s politics 0 They include o militias expressing ethnonationalist demands 0 the growing use of extrasystemic measures including violence by the political elite to advance their interests 0 the presence of minor parties with only narrow ethnic constituencies According to the tet further consolidation of democracy in Nigeria will require stable coalitions that balance power among the competing gropus 0 replacing the system of competitive oligarchy that currently exists with a more representative one o the creation of a viable multiethnic opposition party 0 further decentralization of power TERMS 0 Comparative politics versus international Relations 0 Comparative politics is the field within political science that focuses on domestic politics and analyzes patterns of similarity and difference among countries 0 The difference between comparative politics and international relations can best be described as I The study of comparative politics involves comparing domestic political institutions processes and politics in different countries whereas the study of international relations involves examining the foreign policy of and interactions among different countries 0 Critical juncture O A critical moment or watershed event that helps define transitional moments 39 Typology O A method of classifying by using criteria that divides a group of cases into smaller cases with common characteristics 0 Classifying states according to their level of democracy is an example of a typology 0 Causal theory 0 An in uential approach in comparative politics that involves trying to explain why if X happens then Y is the result 0 To test the independent and dependent variables draw observable implications of the argument s expectations in order to prove the argument wrong 0 State 0 In comparative politics the state refers to the key political institutions in a country 0 The post powerful political institutions in a country including the executive legislative and judicial branches of government the police and armed forces 0 Nation 0 Distinct politically defined territory in which the sate and national identity coincide 0 Political legitimacy 0 Political economy 0 The study of the interaction between the state and the economy meaning how the state and political processes affect the economy and how the organization of the economy and strategic choices made by the government and state actors affect political processes 0 rule of law 0 holocaust 0 failed state Monetarism laissezfaire economy Keynesianism foreign direct investment social market economy codetermination vote of no confidence convention of collective responsibility constructive vote of no confidence constitutional monarchy O A ceremonial role With the title often being passed from generation to generation cabinet government fusion of powers federal state unitary state welfare state neoliberalism gender gap parliamentary sovereignty parliamentary democracy chancellor Junker Nazi procedural democracy democratic corporatism Eurozone Basic Law civil servant party democracy citizen action group grassroots democracy Development 0 GDP Per Capita 0 Human Development Index Human development index is produced by the UN and takes into account life expectancy income per capita education Iiteracynumber of people who nish high school or get higher degrees Is the best measure of development in terms of how it captures the real quality of life in a country 0 Sustainable Development 0 Electoral Systems 0 singlememberdistrict system I Used in the US Great Britain France I only one representative elected to legislature from an electoral district I Stronger reliance on the personality of the candidates 0 proportional system I Higher number of parties in proportional representation I More proportional system is more likely there will be a coalition government I Voter turnout is higher in PR I Representation of women and minorities is higher in PR I High party discipline between elected representative s parties and constituencies I Ideological definition of parties is higher I Generally in western countries 0 mixed system combining both as in Germany voting for both party and candidate 0 5 percent electoral threshold I Must represent 5 of population to obtain a seat 0 Implications I party systems I voting turnout I inclusion of minority and gender 0 Parliamentary vs Presidential Democracy 0 Parliamentary Democracy Guiding principles is parliamentary sovereignty and the executive branch and legislative branches are fused together so that the Parliament is directly elected and the PM is the leader of the majority party 0 Parliamentary Advantages 1 Governability executives have legislative majorities an can therefore pass laws quickly and make policy 0 political gridlock is less likely and major reform is more likely 0 There are fewer Veto point where reform can be blocked 2 Often multiparty coalition give different parties a stake in executive office 3 Strong disciplined political parties 4 competition based on party programs and platforms less on personality 5 greater accountability voters know who to blame or rewards 6 exibility to remove chief executive and change the government at any time if the public loses confidence 0 Parliamentary Disadvantage 1 Possibility of cabinet government instability when alliances break up or parliament loses confidence in PM 0 Frequent changes in government 2 Parliament follows prime minister so deputies almost always vote the party line 0 Too much discipline 3 Deputies must answer to their party so ties to their local constituencies tend to be weaker 0 Party agenda is key 0 Presidentialism Guiding principles are separation of powers and checks and balances and there are separate elections of the executive and legislative branch as well as a fixed term for executive offices 0 Presidential Advantages 1 Checks and balances to guard against abuses of power 0 This works in theory but not always 2 Electoral mandate for chief executive so the president is elected by popular legitimacy 3 Dispersed power and multiple veto points guard and promote policy continuity 0 Less likely to have radical change or policy uctuation 0 Presidential Disadvantages 0 Britain 0 000000000000 0 I 1 Political gridlock or stalemate due to executivelegislative con ict 0 This is common when the president does not have a majority of his own party in Congress I 2 Policy inertia meaning that veto points block necessary reform and new policy initiatives I 3 No mechanism to remove the chief executive or president who has lost public confidence I Only option is impeachment for specific offenses I 4 Populist tendencies or competition based on personality rather than programs 0 Leaders without party support who campaign as anti establishment are considered outsiders Map Political Parties Role of State in Economy Relation to EU Magna Carta Industrial revolution Democracy House of Commons Collectivism Thatcher s reforms Current coalition between ConservativesLiberal Democrats devolution Scottish Independence referedndum Relationship with US 0 Germany 0 OOOOOOOOOOOOO Map Political Parties Role of State in Economy Relation to EU unification under Bismark WWI WWII Rise of HitlerThird Reich Holocause Divison of West and East Germany post WWII Types of State during Cold War Gastarbeiter program reunification post Cold War ius sanguinis blood relations ethnic versus ius solis civic definition naturalization Questions to know What is Political Contestation 0 Political contestation voters have the right to chose between two parties you have the choice between parties or candidates All of the following are true of Great Britain s constitution EXECPT that 0 it sets up a dual executive with the powers equally shared between the prim minister and the monarchy True or False In Great Britain the prime minister and judiciary cannot overturn Parliament s actions 0 True True or False Trade unions make up a large part of Conservative party membership 0 FALSE they are important for the Labor party Given the questions about representation and fairness that singlemember plurality raises the Liberal Democrats in Britain has forced the coalition government to consider changing the electoral system to what 0 The Alternative Vote What does a mixed member system in Germany mean 0 Citizens cast two ballots one for an individual and one for a party Which electoral system would you prefer if you were a minority 0 Proportional Which electoral system would you prefer if you were a leader of a big party 0 Single Member Which electoral system would you prefer if you were the leader of a small third party 0 Proportional As in an approach to economic and social policy in the UK Keynesianism is based on what 0 Commitment to maintain high level of eployment and steady rates of growth keep prices stable and achieve a desirable balance of payments schedule and rates of exchange All of the following are true of monetarism except that it 0 called for a widespread nationalization of the industries What is Social policy in the UK today characterized by 0 Austerity including recent budge cuts and changes to the National Health Service The German economy before 1945 could be characterized as 0 strong statecontrolled economy focused on heavy industry The social market economy in Germany currently is what 0 A capitalist economy with generous social benefits Democratic corporatism refers to what 0 A cooperative relationship between labor unions business associationsa nd the state in the making of public policy The average German receives how many weeks of paid vacation per year 0 Six weeks 34


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