Exam Two Notes
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 120 at Kansas taught by Steve Ilardi in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Brain Modern technology 0 Examine two aspects of the brain 0 Its anatomy Examine the function of different parts of the brain and try to determine the timing and physical location of various brain processes 0 Its biochemistry Examine the effects of two fundamental groups of chemicals neurotransmitters and hormones on brain processes Related to behavior and personality in many ways 0 The interaction between different parts of the brain are more important than particular parts of the brain being important for certain aspects of personality Brain and Personality Dendrites o Projections on nerve cells 0 Axons 0 Pass the message of nerve cells Afferent nerves 0 Extremely long extend from the central nervous system to every part of the body Report what the body is feeling and doing Efferent nerves 0 Extralong axons send impulses and instructions from the central nervous system back to the muscles glands and other organs lnterneurons 0 Short axons or none organize and regulate transmissions between nerve cells 0 0 Key assumption every thought feeling and behavior occurs as the result of brain activity Metaphor brain hardware mind thoughts amp feelings software Biological Model 0 Computational theory of mind o Brain made up of 100 billion neurons oThe neuron is exquisitely designed to transmit information o Neural networks can process information compute o How much Estimated at 100 trillion operations per second Comparison Fujitsu KComputer 10500 trillionsecond o MindBody Dualism Bloom NaturalBorn Dualists 0 Biological Reductionism 0 Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Triune Brain reptilian quotpaeomammalianquot quotneomammalianquot human 0 Hindbrain quotReptilian Brainquot RAS Eysenck introversionextraversion Hypothalamus quot4 F5quot 0 Midbrain quotPaleomammalian Brainquot Limbic system mediates emotion Amygdala emotional appraisalintensity o Forebrain quotNeomammalian Brainquot ie Cortex Four cortical lobes Frontal Temporal Parietal Occipital Notes Moore s aw o Computer power doubles every two years Embodiment o Brain designed to process information relevant to what our bodies are doing Boom o Studied startle response in smaller children EED o Said that babies are natural born physicists Can predict thoughts and feelings Anatomy of Brain Thalamus o Regulates arousal and serves other functions Amygdala o almond in Latin 0 regulate intensity of primal emotional response 0 different areas control different parts Hippocampus 0 Important in processing memories Limbic system 0 Critical role in regulating emotion o Hindbrain 0 Where brain stem meets spinal cord 0 Reptilian Brain Reticular activating system a Set of neurons that project up the rest of the brain a Regulates level of arousal alertness Hypothalamus n In the middle on top of brain a Connected to everything u Secretes several hormones that affect the entire body a 4 F s 0 ght ight food fornication All animals have a hindbrain midbrain and forebrain Cerebral Cortex Has six layers that differ in function Neocortex o Outermost layer of the cortex 0 Most distinctive part of the brain 0 Frontal cortex 0 Set circuits regulating conscious experience of self 0 Inhibition Orbitofrontal right frontal a Self regulation will power a Ability to inhibit impulses Loss of inhibitory function 0 Acting on impulses outside of previous personality 0 Self regulatingwill power 0 Can fatigue very easily 0 Initiation Left frontal n The here and now very focused positive state active when you are not under threat a Goal directed reward vase activity 0 High levels 0 Greater ability to stick with something 0 Severe L OFC damage 0 Extremely low initiation 0 Motivation 0 Emotional regulation Left frontal n Expression of emotion I Damaged o Diminished emotional expression even if experience a lot poker face Right frontal n Experience of emotion I Damaged Can express full range of emotion but may not experience a lot 0 Logical reasoning Dorsolateral Prefrontal cortex n Lateral side working memory ADHD functionally peaks in mid 205 and sustains until mid 305 before it decreases o Empathy Cognitive empathy n Ventromedial 0 Theory of mind 0 Ability to read someone s mind what are their likely thoughts feelings Emotional empathy n Inferior frontal gyrus mirror neurons 0 Feeling others pain 0 Error detections Anterior cingulate n Important for the experience of normal functions a Monitors attentions Functions of Cortex Temporal Cortex 0 Works with limbic system to regulate emotion intensity 0 Assigning signi cance to events 0 Brain may determine event as spiritual or transcendent Parietal Cortex o Interpreting emotional social cues right parietal lobe Facial expression Bodylanguage Tone of voice Implications of the Lobes Bipolar disorder 0 Right frontal cortex goes of ine in mania disinhibition lose touch with reality creative ideas are not well thought out o Hypomania 0 Right frontal cortex is slightly online just full mania creative ideas have enough rational thought in that they can be enacted 1 of population low need of sleep 45 hours Role of Neurotransmitters 0 Brain 0 Neural computer information processed in neural networks 0 100 billion neurons average neuron connected to 1000 others Trillions of synaptic connections 0 each one codes information Neurotransmitter o messenger that transmits chemical signal between neurons 0 Each seems to specialize in signals related to speci c brain funcUons Serotonin Very wide spread Regulates amygdala o Connects to amygdala determines how active it is Stimulates drive of social contact 0 Many medications regulate serotonin circuits 0 SSRI Lexapro Zoloft Paxil Prozac Celexa a Do not increase serotonin in brain 0 Make it a more effective signal in areas that use serotonin a Can have inhibitory effect on both strong negative and positive emotions Reduce intensity ofjoy decreased attraction of romantic partner anorgasmia n 1 in 9 adults are on an antidepressant Donamine 0 Used by pleasurereinforcement centers in brain 0 D2 receptors addiction proneness 0 Dorsolateral PFC logical reasoningworking memoryattention Also regulates energymotivation level 0 Assess dopamine function eyeblink rate 0Psychostimulants RitalinConcerta AdderallVyvanse Provigil Norebinebhrine Used in circuits that regulate fearanxiety response Helps regulates ARAS level introversionextraversion Level of alertness attention Hormone chemical messenger secreted into bloodstream eg testosterone estrogen adrenaline human growth hormone etc 0 Many hormones cross bloodbrain barrier in uence behavior Testosterone Most widely studied hormone regarding behavioral effects 0 Levels vary considerably by gender MF 401 and within gender Testosterone and Aggression 0 men more aggressive than women from infancy onward 0 men with high testosterone levels more aggressive than men with lower levels 0 violent offenders have higher levels than nonviolent offenders o quotrambunctiousquot fraternity members elevated testosterone 0 age effects Other behavioralpersonality correlates of testosterone 0 sex drive and sexual responsivity o impulsivity 0 activity level 0 social dominancecon dence quotswaggerquot 0 positive mood 0 reduced empathy o visualspatial mental object rotation vs verbal uency 0 when quotfalling in lovequot testosterone drops in men and increases in women 0 drops in men after childbirth U 0 Digit ratio 2D4D indexring nger 0 Female average 101 0 Male average 097 0 Crude indicator of testosterone exposure in utero o More masculine ratio athletic ability spatialmechanical ability poorer school performance ADHD dominant facial structure 0 Sexual orientation in women not men Estrogen Fluctuations especially sharp drops in tandem with progesterone associated with depressed mood perimenopause PMDD But high estrogen linked to increased anxiety For some women cyclical rise in estrogen linked to irritability impulsive aggression Oxytocin 39Attachment hormone motherinfant attachment in all mammals When blocked in rats they lose all social memory oln humans increases our sense of trustin others l social connection Vasopressin receptors in male brain promotes monogamous attachment l Pervasiveness of samesex behavior in animal kingdom Penguins Bonobo chimps Sheep hypothalamus link 0 Rats 450 other species ll Female Homosexuality o Fingerratios male pattern 0 CAH high prenatal androgens gt 50 lesbian Clickevoked otoacoustic emissions quothearing sensitivityquot male pattern 0 Waisthip ratio male pattern 0 Approx 70 report genderrole alienation in childhood Heritability estimates 50 twin studies etc lll Male Homosexuality Hypothalamus smaller SDN region female pattern Anterior commissure larger female pattern Spatial ability poorer female pattern Verbal uency greater female pattern Odds of being gay increase 33 with each older brother hY antigens Approx 70 report genderrole alienation in childhood Xchromosome linkage mother s side of family Behavioral genetics Examining the in uence of DNA genes on patterns of behavior personality Heritability h the proportion of variance in personality accounted for by genetic factors 0 Basic methodology compare similarities between people who are related to varying degrees identical twins siblings adoptive siblings etc o 99 of all human genes are identical from one individual to another Behavioral genetics looks at the 1 that differs Among that 1 monozygotic identical twins 100 dizygotic twins fraternal twins 50 mother and child 50 father and child 50 full siblings 50 half siblings 25 adoptive siblings parents 0 Striking evidence of genetic effects identical twins reared a art 0 The jim Twins Bouchard s 39Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart o IQ 80 Neuroticism negative emotional reactivity 70 Aggression 67 Traditionalism tendency to follow rules 59 Social leadership 57 Selfcontrol 56 Risktaking 45 Intimacy closeness to signi cant others 15 Also no similarity in romantic partners Calculating h example Neuroticism OOOOOOO o monozygotic twin correlation 70 o dizygotic twin correlation 40 h e 70 12 h e 40 12h 30 l h60 o For most personality traits heritability h ranges from 040 060 meaning genes can account for about half of all variance in personality 0 e environment subdivided into 0 C common family environment and o u unique environment In majority of genetic studies of personality C 0 So no in uence of family on personality oJudith Harris interpretation Evolutionary Psych A Quick Summary Sel sh genes 0 genes program bodies to do their bidding 0 Major 39goal of genes replicate copies of themselves 0 We are not typically aware of genes programming just our own feelings Altruism 0 across animal kingdom genes program animals to help others that might be carrying copies of same genes ie genetic relatives Human genes still program us for the 39ancestral environment Obvious place to detect effect of natural selection on behavior mating strategies 0 Females have much higher biological investment in offspring 0 Thus females genes more bene ted by quality of partners not quantity 0 Males much greater genetic incentive for multiple partners 0 Across cultures females place greater value on nding partner with high social status intelligence success ambition resources 0 Across cultures men place greater value on youth amp beauty fertility example of waisthip ratio near 6570 as peak fertility indicator 0 Women also want attractive mates symmetry health good genes Malefemale differences in sexual jealousy 0 Women on average more upset by partner falling in love with another 0 Men on average more upset by partner being sexually unfaithful Shortterm mating versus longterm mating 0 Evolution of Happiness We crave thingssuccess status markers Temporary happiness return to baseline We never learn lesson Dan Gilbert Genes don t want us to Friendship reciprocal altruism quotNatural selection is evil George Williams prominent evolutionary biologist 0 We don t have to adopt genes motives can use frontal cortical circuits to resist Depression epidemic quotI don t think we re in ancestral Kansas any more Totoquot Environmental Mutation llardi Humans lived in huntergatherer conditions for 99 of existence Modernday huntergatherers eg Kaluli of Papua New Guinea don t get depressed The more quotmodernquot a society higher rate of depression 0 US today 25 US 19405 23 developing nat 2 5 Amish 2 Why Builtin antidepressant and protective features of ancient life o aerobic exercise increases BDNF o omega3 fatty acids EPA o natural sunlight 10000 lux o sleep 8 hrs o social support o engaging activity vs idle alone time rumination Therapeutic Lifestyle Change TLC Freud and Psychoanalysii o Sigmund Freud 18561939 Trained as research neurologist o No money in it retrains in hypnosis under Charcot Sets up practice in Vienna 1890 s invents quottalking curequot Discovery of childhood sexual abuse Decides it never happened must be fantasy 0 Development of psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalysis and the Structure of Mind Conscious vs Unconscious 3 primary parts of mind 0 Id Ego Superego 0 Id o expository of animalistic urges unconscious o Two components libido and thanatosseX and aggression o Clues of existence dreams Freudian slips forgetting etc 0 Id is irrational primary process thinking infantile 0Ego o develops out of id rational conscious delayed grati cation o Ego channels id s drives to optimize grati cation Superego o internalized social norms lntrapsychic con ict 0 source of all mental illness Psychoanalysis and Dreams Dreams are Freud s quotRoyal Road to the Unconsciousquot They speak in symbols not directly They always express a wish arising from the id Expressed in primary process thinking ld s wishes give rise to intrapsychic con ict ego passive observer lf con ict too intense ego interrupts l dream ends Discovery of the Big Five The most widely accepted factor analytic solution to the problem of reducing the trait lexicon Research started with a simple idea o If something is important then people will have invented a word for it Lexical hypothesis 0 The important aspect of human life will be labeled with words and furthermore that if something is truly important and universal many words for it will exist in all languages Start of the identifying personality traits 0 Gordon Allport started the project by identifying about 4500 words that he thought were good descriptions of personality traits 0 Raymond Cattell selected from that list 35 traits he thought were important O 0 Donald Fiske chose 22 traits from Cattell s list that Fiske then used in studies that analyzed selfratings along with ratings by peers and by psychologists Fiske s analyses found ve factors that may have been the rst emergence of the list known as the Big Five Implications of the Big Five 0 They are orthogonal 0 Means that getting a high or low score on any one of these traits doesn t determine whether a person will get a high or low score on any of the others Extraversion O 0 000 O Commonly refers to being sociable or outgoing Active outspoken dominant forceful adventurous Prone to make mora judgments that hold people responsible for the effects of their actions Extraverts or usually more popular and active than introverts Positive moods More likely to be happy longlived healthy and grateful More success in dating and are viewed as more attractive Neuroticism O O O 0 People who score high in this trait tend to use ineffective means for dealing with problems in their lives and have stronger negative reactions to stressful events People asses happiness wellbeing and physical health correlated strongly and negatively with neuroticism Could have a risk of developing a serious mental illness People who score high or more likely to engage in criminal behavior Agreeableness O 0 Associated with the tendency to be cooperative Agreeable people smoke less 0 Women tend to score higher than men 0 People are more likely to attend religious activities good sense of humor well adjusted and have healthy heart Openness 0 Sometimes called intellect 0 Most controversial of the Big Five 0 People who score high are creative imaginative and clever o More prone to do drugs Universality of the Big Five Trait theories 0 No real reason just happen to be 5 0 Biological model 0 Perhaps 5 major neural circuits 0 Evolutionary 0 Perhaps we re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptive signi cance about others Big Five factors are theoretically independent but in realworld studies they correlate 0 Ex Evidence for highly neurotic extraverts 6 subdomainsfacets of Big Five 0 can be highlow in different subdomains of same trait Neuroticism 0 Anxiety 0 Anger OO 0 Depression Selfconsciousness Immoderation Vulnerable to temptation Vulnerability How are you in a crisis Extraversion O O O FdendHness How much do you display positive warmth to others Gregariousness How much do you likeseek out groups of other people Assertiveness What you re like in groups Activity eve How much energyhow many things do you have going on at one time Excitementseeking Taste for high levels of stimulation in world outside your own head Cheerfulness How happy are you Openness highly imaginative ess grounded O Imagination How much is your head in the clouds vs grounded Artistic interest Engrossed by art form Emotionality How introspective are you Adventurousness How much do you like trying new things lntellect How much you get lost in the world of ideas Liberalism How much you accept status quo vs how much you want to shake things up Agreeableness how cooperatecompetitive are you O 0 Trust How much do you trust others Morality How transparent are you vs how manipulative are you Conscientiousness O O O O Selfef cacy Orderliness Dutifulness Achievementstriving o Selfdiscipline o Cautiousness 0 Modern Technology 0 Related to behavior and personality in many ways 0 The interaction between different parts of the brain are more important than particular parts of the brain being important for certain aspects of personality Brain and Personality Key assumption every thought feeling and behavior occurs as the result of brain activity Metaphor brain hardware mind thoughts amp feelings software Anatomy All animals have a hindbrain midbrain and forebrain Testosterone Testosterone and Aggression 0 men more aggressive than women from infancy onward 0 men with high testosterone levels more aggressive than men with lower levels 0 violent offenders have higher levels than nonviolent offenders o quotrambunctiousquot fraternity members elevated testosterone 0 age effects 0 Other behavioralpersonality correlates of testosterone 0 sex drive and sexual responsivity o impulsivity ac v ylevel social dominancecon dence quotswaggerquot positive mood reduced empathy visualspatial mental object rotation vs verbal uency when quotfalling in lovequot testosterone drops in men and increases in women 0 drops in men after childbirth Discovery of Big Five 0 Start of the identifying personality traits Gordon Allport started the project by identifying about 4500 words that he thought were good descriptions of personality traits Raymond Cattell selected from that list 35 traits he thought were important 0 Donald Fiske chose 22 traits from Cattell s list that Fiske then used in studies that analyzed selfratings along with ratings by peers and by psychologists Fiske s analyses found ve factors that may have been the rst emergence of the list known as the Big Five OOOOOO
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