Exam Three notes
Popular in Personality
Popular in Department
This 38 page Bundle was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 120 at Kansas taught by Steve Ilardi in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.
Reviews for Exam Three notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/15
Hormones 04102012 Hormones Biological substances that affect the body in locations different from where they were produced Stimulates the activity of the neurons Chemical messenger secreted into bloodstream Serotonin Inhibitory effect on some important neural circuits Plays an important role in the regulation of emotion and motivation Amygdala o Emotional intensity Stress response circuits Anterior cingulate quotgive a damn levelquot Stimulate drive for social contact SSRI Lexapro Zoloft Prozac Celexa o No more effective than a placebo for most depressed patients 0 Difficult side effects 0 1 in 9 American adults are taking a depression med Hypothalamus Hormones that are important for behavior are released by Epinephrine Also known as adrenaline Found throughout the body Can rise in response to stress When released into blood stream 0 Heart speeds up 0 Digestion stops 0 Muscle tense 0 Brain becomes fully alert on the matter at hand Norepinephrine Also known as noradrenaline Work primarily within the brain Can rise in response to stress When released into the blood stream 0 Heart speeds up 0 Digestion stops 0 Muscle tense 0 Brain becomes fully alert on the matter at hand Oxytocin In females promotes nurturant and sociable behavior along with relaxation and reduction of fear Attachment hormone motherinfant attachment in all mammals o Strongly released in motherinfant attachment Promotes very strong emotional attachments When blocked in rats they lose all social memory 0 Have no ability of who is a friend and who is not In humans 0 Increases our sense of trust in others social connection Increases empathy o More strongly connected with others 0 Can manipulate oxytocin levels Squirt salt water in your nose and you ll become more trustworthy more empathy Block oxytocin 0 Less trustworthy cynical Psychopaths have oxytocin but lack the receptors Ecstasy increases oxytocin levels 0 Originally called empathy o Boundaries start to erode Feel close to people Stress and depression lower the levels of oxytocin Testosterone Men are more aggressive than women Most widely studied hormone regarding behavioral effects Men with high testosterone levels are more aggressive than men with lower levels Violent offenders have higher levels than nonviolent offenders 0 Assault and physical violence Rambunctious fraternity members have elevated testosterone Age effects 0 More testosterone in bloodstream than your body is allowed to use 0 Guys age and on average their testosterone declines 0 As guys age less likely to commit violence Sex drive Men are more impulsive than women Social dominance and con dence swagger 0 Causes high testosterone Positive mood 0 Natural antidepressant Reduce empathy o Testosterone goes up empathy goes down Visualspacial mental object rotation vs verbal uency o Goes up with higher testosterone Predicting Increased handeye coordination Verbal uency goes down we are less articulate Studied adult women who take testosterone When falling in love testosterone drops in men and increases in women 000 0 When men fall in love their testosterone level plummets 0 Reduced sex drive men on average have high sex drive 0 Reduction might put it in a sweet spot to max the drive Increased empathy When women fall in love their testosterone level increases 0 Less con ict 0 Higher sex drive want to start a family 0 Quality mate higher sex drive Drops in men after child birth 0 Living in same household with newborn testosterone decreases Less aggressive Reduced impulsivity reduce shaken baby syndrome Higher empathy increased bonding Reduced sex drive more likely to stick around a Time for the woman s lady parts to recover Digit ratio 2D4D indexring ner O O O 0 Female average 101 Male average 97 Crude indicator of testosterone exposure in utero More masculine ratio athletic ability spatialmechanical ability poorer school performance ADHD Men with more girly pattern are dramatically more likely to pursue academic careers a Every male had a female pattern Male empathy tends to correlate with this pattern 0 Sexual orientation in women Mascualine pattern is more strongly associated with homosexuality There is no relationship between digit ratio and your current level of testosterone Correlation stronger if you look at your right hand Estrogen Female sex hormone Females have about 40 nanograms per deciliter Fluctuations especially sharp drops in tandem with progesterone 0 Associated with depression mood PMDD perimenopause 0 Peak at day 13 and 20 0 Drop in mood when it drops 0 High estrogen linked to increased anxiety 0 Corresponds with lower testosterone Helps regulate serotonin function 0 Changes in personality Women experience different attractions when they are in a different stage in their cycle During fertile phase In Women are attracted to guys with more testosterone healthy symmetrical good genetic material guys Attracted to guys with high levels of testosterone During non fertile n Attracted to guys who are good providers more empathic more committed more nurturing more feminized 0 During pregnancy time ovulation 0 Women are hardwired to nd males who would be good fathers 0 Birth control 0 O O o o Cortisol Changes the types of guys girls are attracted to Have stronger preference for a more feminized male Once off birth control women tend to not be attracted to their mate Risk of being depressed after going on birth control Can change emotions Released as a response to physical or psychological stress 0 Part of the body s preparation for action 0 Important part of several normal metabolic processes Vasopressin Receptors in male brain promotes monogamous attachment 0 Hormone that s related to oxytocin Vole Main job is help regulate kidney function 0 Two species MountainVoIe PrairieVoIe a Rare exotic animals with monogamy 5 of mammals are monogamous AVPRlA 0 Gene to help determine the vasopressin in the male brain 0 Controls the vasopressin function in the male brain 0 Guys who have high levels tend to divorce Dopamine Used by pleasurereinforcement centers brain Turns motivation into action Plays key role in the mechanisms that allow the brain to control body movements Involved in systems that cause one to respond to reward and to approach attractive objects and people Can produce reward de ciency syndrome 0 Characterized by such diverse outcomes as alcoholism drug abuse smoking ADD etc Behavioral activation system 0 Produces the motivation to seek rewards Basis of sociability and general activity level D2 receptorsaddiction pronenesscontrol 0 High levelshighly stimulated 0 Experience changes the structure of your genes not the coding of our genes but when they get turned on or off 0 Metholation Body puts quotgenetic condomquot over the genes that should not be turned on D2 regulates the reward circuits Addiction substances directly or indirectly effect the dopamine in your body Dorsolateral PFC logical reasoningworking memoryattention O O Allows you to keep your attention while you use your higher order reasoning ADD Have been found to have reduced dopamine activation of the Dorsolateral PFC Fail to get dopamine based reward while they are focusing on a rewarding task ln boring lecture as long as you can track the information you are pursuing a meaningful goal and getting little bursts of a reward ADHD Doesn t get those bursts so they don t stay with the lecture Drift off during the story and that can damage the relationship Someone with ADHD u If they nd a task that is truly rewarding such as a video game they get a thing known as hyper focus They become addicted to it Psychostimulants O O O O Ritalinconcerta Adderallvyvanse Provigil Increase the amount of dopamine 15 to 20 of college students take these drugs side effects difficulty falling asleep weight loss decreased appetite anxiety etc Pervasiveness of samesex behavior in animal kingdom Penguins 0 Male Chinstrap penguins famous case 0 Decided to mate together with a rock 0 Zoo keeper gave him an egg name Tango Bonobo chimps 0 Share 96 genetics with chimps o 2 species common chimps a TV and movies a Highly aggressive Bonobo chimps n Smaller n More intelligent a Not violent u like to have a lot of sexany way 0 Sheep hypothalamus link 0 Rats 450 other species Female homosexuality 0 Finger ratios male patterns CAH high prenatal androgens 0 Secret fantasies 0 Bi curious o Clickevoked otoacoustic emission hearing sensitivitymale pattern 0 Waisthip ratio male pattern 0 Peaks at 7 Men 9 o Lesbians have the more male pattern 0 Approximately 70 report genderrole alienation in childhood 0 As kids struggle with the female roles Heritability estimates 50 twins studies etc 0 Strong genetic link Male homosexuality Hypothalamus o Smaller SDN region female pattern 0 Larger in men than in women 0 Ground zero for brain in sexual orientation Anterior commissure 0 Larger female pattern 0 Spatial ability 0 Poorer female pattern Verbal uency 0 Greater female pattern 0 Odds of being gay increases 33 with each older brother hY antigens o 35 of men are gay 0 has to be the same mother 0 mothers body never sees a Y chromosome until she is making a baby immune system tries to block the Y chromosomes 0 Approximately 70 report genderrole alienation in childhood 0 Xchromosome linkage mother s side of family Michael Bailey 0 Plenthismograph 0 Measures an erection o Gage of sexual arousal 0 Watch videos guys on guys girls on guys girls on girls Men are strongly hetero or homo Most women respond to any combination of the shows Personality trait 0 Pattern of behavior relevant to more than one situations 0 Result of a complex interaction between an individual s genes and the environment Behavioral genetics 0 Examining the in uenced of DNA on patterns of behavior Controversy Eugenics o The belief that humanity could be improved through selective breeding Cloning o The belief that it might be technologically possible to produce a complete duplicate of a human being Heritability h the proportion of variance in personality accounted for by genetic factors 0 Basic methodology compare similarities between people who are related to varying degrees identical twins siblings adoptive siblings etc o 99 of all human genes are identical from one individual to another Behavioral genetics looks at the 1 that differs Among that 1 100 o monozygotic identical twins 0 dizygotic twins fraternal twins 50 0 mother and child 50 o father and child 50 0 full siblings 50 0 half siblings 25 adoptive siblings parents 0 Calculating Heritabilities Phenotype o Observable traits of a person Genotype o Underlying genetic structure Bouchard s Minnesota Study of Twins IQ 80 O O 0 Almost as close as if I were to take the IQ test twice 1 year apart Become a controversial measure Led to be believed that it is not scienti cally valid One of the most scienti cally robust concepts What is IQ and what is it useful for Intelligence quotient the measure of how much you can learn and how much you can use your knowledge Applying your intelligence in useful ways Ranges in score from 1150 Bell curve One of the most accurate predictors of an array of outcomes GPA educational attainment how much money you will make what social class you will belong to etc Enhance IQ with regular exercise Neuroticism negative emotional reactivity 70 Aggression 67 Traditionalism tendency to follow rules 59 Social leadership 57 Selfcontrol 56 Risktaking 45 Intimacy closeness to signi cant others 15 very low 0 0 Random spouses no correlation No similarity in romantic partners o By sharing the same genes they are very similar 0 e environment subdivided into 0 C common family environment and o u unique environment 0 In majority of genetic studies of personality c0 0 Genes count for 23 of reliable variance 0 Genes are the blueprints for the functioning of the brain 0 quotyour turning into your parentsquot not for the reason you think They gave you your genes 0 Judith Harris interpretation 0 So no in uence of family or personality Do to some combination if heredity and environment We tend to subdivide into shared and unique environment 0 The Jim Twins 0 Identical twins reared apart What Heritabilities Tell You 0 Genes Master 0 Estimates challenge that presumption whenever they turn out to be greater than zero and they nearly always do 0 quoteverything is heritablequot 0 not all of personality comes from experience some of it comes from genes 0 Insight Into Etiology 0 Can sometimes tell you whether speci c behavioral or mental disorders are part of the normal range or are pathologically distinctive 0 Severe mental retardation apparently is not heritable IQ below 50 100 is average Insight into effects of the environment 0 Provide a window into how the early environment does or doesn t operate in shaping personality development 0 Growing up in the same home doesn t make children similar to each other Does The Family Matter If the shared family environment truly has little or no effect on personality development the implications are stunning Aspects of the family environment have no affect on the child s development 0 Neighborhood 0 Home atmosphere 0 Income 0 Nutrition 0 Parents styles of child rearing Good parents adjust their own behavior to the needs of each children Nature and Nurture Scientists debate on what percentage of any given trait was due to nature heredity and what percentage was due to nurture upbringing and environment The less a trait varies across individuals the lower its heritability is likely to be High heritability o Trait might vary greatly across individuals or it might be a trait that is determined largely by genes 0 Low heritability o Trait night vary less across individuals or it may be a trait that depends less on one s genes How Genes Affect Personality 0 TV watching is heritable Divorce is heritable Molecular Genetics 0 Association method Tries to determine whether differences in a trait correlate with differences in a particular gene across individuals 0 DRD4 Affects the development of dopamine receptors Different forms are associated with variations in sensation seeking Associated with the risk of ADHD o Dopaminergic systems Plays a broad role in the control and regulation of behavior and even bodily movement 0 5HTI39 Important in the development of neuroticism o Alleles Different forms of the same gene Appears to be present in more than 75 ofJapanese people Emotional sensitivity GeneEnvironment Interactions How particular genes are associated with particular behavioral or personality outcomes 0 Genes can t cause anybody to do anything any more than you can live in the blueprint of your house Genotype only provides the design and so indirectly affects the behavioral phenotype by in uencing biological structure and physiology as they develop within an environment 0 Genes can in uence the development of behavior only in people who live in some kind of environment 0 Without the environment there would be no behavior 0 The same environment can affect individuals in different ways Epigenetics 0 Can determine how or even whether a gene is expressed during development The Future of Behavioral Genetics 0 Genes are important in the determination of personality Remaining jobs for behavioral genetics 0 To explain how genes create brain structures and aspects of physiology that are important to personality 0 To explain how a person s genetically determined tendencies interact with the environment to determine behavior 0 Freud s Model of the Unconsciousconscious 0 Id 0 The repository of the drives the emotions and the primitive unconscious part of the mind that wants everything The unknown thing Majority of your mind 0 Unconscious OO OO Ego 0000 O Irrational Urges sex and aggression Clues of existence Dreams Freudian slips forgetting etc The relatively rational part of the mind that balances the competing claims of the id the superego and reality Develops out of ld Rational conscious delayed grati cation Channels ld s drives to optimize grati cation Main job is to nd a middle course between the competing demands of motivation morality and practicality Bonobo Chimps Can recognize numbers only animal Points to the bowl with more treats and the other chimp gets that bowl After a few rounds the chimp starts to gure out the game and gets so mad at himself They never restrain until they are trained Put ashcards on the bowls and he looks at the numbers and points to the smaller number Superego O CO The part of the mind that consists of the conscience and the individual s system of internalized rules of conduct Internalized social norms Kids always being told what is right and wrong At a certain stage they became curious about exploring bodies Harsh set of voices that tell us that the ld s wishes are morally wrong This is our conscious 247 con ict 0 Intrapsychic con ict Source of mental illness Ego being caught in between Determined by the strength and size of your ego The healthiest thing the ego can do is to become conscious of what the ld wants and what the Superego can do and nd a happy medium Small ego n Neurotic Puny ego n Lose touch with reality and become psychotic 0 Dream Interpretation 0 Freud analyzed dreams in order to understand aspects of personality as they relate to pathology 0 Freud believes that nothing you do occurs by chance every action and thought is motivated by your unconscious at some level 0 ln society we have the tendency to hold back our urges and repress our impulses But they are released in a disguised way u Through our dreams a The content of the unconscious may be extremely disturbing Freud believes that the unconscious expresses itself in a symbolic language Slips of the tongue 0 Unintended words expressing that somewhere deep down we do mean that we didn t mean to say 0 Also called Parapraxis Neurosis o Comes about from the frustration of basic instincts either because of external obstacles or because of internal mental imbalance o Disorder in which feelings of anxiety obsessional thoughts and compulsive acts without objective evidence of disease that dominates the personality Psychosis 0 Severe psychological disorder Schizophrenia o Characterized by symptoms such as delusions that indicate impaired contact with reality 0 Freud didn t believe that catharsis talking cure could successfully treat people with psychosis Sigmund Freud Himself 0 18561939 0 At age 44 he published his rst book on the interpretations of dreams Wrote about Moses 0 Regarded himself as a latter Moses 0 Had a revelation of the world 0 Medical doctor who practiced in Vienna Austria from the 18905 to the 19305 0 Jewish Spent his last few years of his life in London Development of Freud s Theory Began his career as a research neurologist Studied hypnosis in France with JeanMartin Charcot 0 Found a way to treat patients who had neurological damage o Hysterical paralysis Hypnotized the women and make them remember some traumatic event in their past Moved into psychiatry to make a living and get married Made a discovery early in his clinical practice 0 When his patients talked about their psychological problems sometimes that was enough to cure them At rst he used hypnosis to get his patients to talk about dif cult topics Then he used free association 0 Instructing the patients to say whatever came to mind 0 Later named the talking cure Talking cure was his greatest contribution to psychotherapy o Freud wasn t good at hypnosis but he was a very good listener Listen to women and have them tell him their past trauma Psychoanalysis is in essence a cure through love 0 Letter to Carl Jung Most of his patients were women who have been sexually assaulted o Freud rst believed them 0 This blew Freud s mind Talking about sex in that age was taboo 0 Later he changed his mind and decided these memories were fantasies Development of the psychoanalytic theory 0 All of us are driven by unconscious urges that we are not aware of They are animalistic and they are present at birth Unconscoiously a They wanted sexual interaction In This was a fantasy expression of their deepest darkest urges Psychoanalysis Life and Death 0 Two motives are fundamental 0 Life Libido a Sex drive a Fundamental force exists within every person 0 Death Death always wins Thanatos a Greek for death a When you forget something and it hurts someone you meant to do that unconsciously to purposely hurt that person Entropy a Basic function forces in the universe toward randomness and disorder Freud s view on life was seen as tragic Opposite of libido and thanatos o Doctrine of opposites Everything implies even requires its opposite a Life requires death n Happiness requires sadness One cannot exist without the other Fourideas Psychic determinism o Idea that everything that happens has a cause that can be iden ed o Assumption that everything that happens in a person s mind and therefore everything that a person thinks and does also has a speci c cause 0 Leaves no room for miracles free will random accident 0 All seeming contradictions of mind and behavior can be resolved 0 Conclusion that many important mental processes are unconscious 0 Internal structure 0 Mind made of parts that can function independently and con ict with each other Psychic con ict 0 Because the mind is divided into distinct and independent parts it can con ict with itself 0 Compromise formation The main job of the ego is to nd a compromise among the different structures of the mind and the many different things the individual wants all at the same time What the individual thinks and does is a result 0 Mental energy 0 The psychological apparatus of the mind needs energy to make it go o Called Mental or psychic energy also known as libido o Libido The drive toward the creation nurturing and enhancement of life or the energy stemming from this drive 0 The mind s capacity for processing information rather than its energy that is limited 0 One goal of psychoanalysis is to free up more psychic energy for the challenges of daily living 0 Free association 0 Instructing the patients to say whatever came to mind 0 Later named the talking cure Transference o Tendency to bring ways of thinking feeling and behaving that developed toward one important person into a later relationship with a different person Countertransference o Emotional response of the therapist to the patient 0 Insight 0 Understanding of relationships that sheds light on or helps solve a problem 0 Recognition of sources of emotional difficulty Catharsis 0 Discharge of emotions so as to result in the alleviation of symptoms or the permanent relief of the condition 0 Sudden and dramatic outpouring of emotion that occurs when the trauma is resurrected 0 Talking cure Psychodynamic Any clinical approach to personality that sees personality as the result of a dynamic interplay of conscious and unconscious factors Psychoanalytic a theoretical view of personality that emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind Follow the Money Psychic energy is always both necessary and limited 0 Focal point for energy de nes the stages of psychological development 0 Oral anal phallic and genital 0 Each has three aspects Physical focus I Where energy is concentrated and grati cation is obtained Psychological theme a Related to both the physical focus and to the demands on the child from the outside world during development Adult character type a Associated with being xated in that particular stage rather than fully developing toward the nextone Oral Stage 0 t018 months 0 Babies lack of motor control and physical coordination is almost total 0 One thing a baby can do is suck 0 One place of pleasure in a baby is the mouth 0 First place were psychic energy is focused Mouth is were the life force and primary feelings of pleasure are concentrated Psychological theme is dependency o On the mother 0 At this stage the baby is all id 0 Wanting stuff is the id s specialty Oral character 0 Adult personality trait that Freud thought resulted from extreme childhood experience at this stage 0 Comes in two types Both share an obsession discomfort and fundamental irrationality about any issue related to dependency lndependentsoub n Refuse help from everyone a Determined to go it alone no matter what the cost a No accomplishment means anything unless it is achieved without assistance Passive individuals I Wait around seemingly forever for their ships to come in a Do nothing to better their situations a Continually bewildered about their failure to get what they want u Wanting something should be enough to make it appear Both types are equivalent Tendency to ip from one type to the other completely 0 Spend much more time thinking about what they wan than about how to get it 0 To avoid xation Balance of grati cationfrustration nursing o Fixated personality OO Clingy and dependentirrationally independent Anal Stage 18 to 36 months Start to control your emotions Begins to learn language Must learn to control your bowels and processes of elimination Develops the ego 0 Job is to mediate between what the child wants and what is actually possible Physical focus is on the anus and organs of elimination Toilet training is an important part of the stage Psychological theme is selfcontrol and obedience Develops the ability to control urges Testing state of the baby to the parents 0 Terrible twos Two ideas can go wrong 0 Unreasonable expectations Can be traumatic If parents make demands that are unreasonable the result could be psychological trauma 0 Never demanding Can be equally problematic Three classi cations of parents 0 Authoritarian Extremely rigid and obedience oriented o Permissive Weak and lacking control 0 Authoritative Compromising between rm control and their children s freedom 0 Authoritative parents children were fared the best later in life 0 Adult anal character 0 Personality organized around control issues 0 Outcome goes two ways First I Become obsessive compulsive stingy orderly rigid and subservient to authority a Tries to control every aspect of their life and often seems equally happy to submit to an authority gure I Cant tolerate disorganization or ambiguity Second a Have little or no selfcontrol n Unable to do anything on time n Chaotic and disorganized I Have a compulsive need to defy authority 0 Both are equivalent 0 To avoid xation Balance of grati cationfrustration potty training o Fixated personality Anal retentiveanal expulsive Phallic Stage 3 to 6 years 0 Begins with a realization that boys and girls are different 0 Fact begins to sink in at around 3 12 to 4 years and dominates psychological development until about age 7 0 Speci c realization is that boys have a penis and girls don t 0 Basic task is coming to terms with sex differences 0 Story of Oedipus 0 Killed his father and married his mother 0 Psychoanalytic version Young boys fall physically as well as emotionally in love with their mothers n Fear their fathers jealousy o Fathers might castrate them in retaliation Less intense for girls a Suffer grief over the castration they believe has already occurred a Realizes that she has no penis she suffers quotpenis envyquot Castration a To remove the testes or ovaries To resolve this anxiety and grief each child identi ed with the samesex parent taking on many of their values and ideals which lessens the child s feelings of rivalry and jealousy that might otherwise reach at critical level Psychological theme is gender identity and sexuality 0 The need to gure out what it means to be a boy or a girl 0 Best examples are the parents 0 lden ca on Taking on many of the parent s attitudes values and ways of relating to the opposite sex 0 Related themes include love sexuality fear and jealousy Adult consequences include the development of morality o Is a byproduct of the process of identi cation 0 The values of your samesex parent provide the beginnings of your own moral outlook Another adult consequence is the development of sexuality 0 What kind of person you nd attractive o How you handle sexual competition 0 Overall role of sexuality in your life Most important result is an image of oneself as masculine or feminine Development of the superego 0 Sum of one s identi cations makes this up 0 Part of the mind that passes moral judgment on the other parts judgments based on a complex mixture of all the different moral lessons learned directly and by example from everybody one has ever identi ed with 0 Provides a conscience and a basis for reasonable morality Adult phallic character Superego that is overdeveloped or underdeveloped 0 Completely rigid moral code 0 No shades of grey and no expectations 0 Lacks a moral code altogether O o Asexual person To avoid xation 0 Identi cation with samesex parent Fixated personality 0 Con icted sexuality Latent Stage 7 to 12 years Allow the child to learn much of what he will need in adult life The rest period ends with a bang at puberty Focus is on work Hxann 0 Trauma Fixated personality 0 Workaholiccon icted work Genital Stage 13 years Concentrate on the important learning tasks of childhood 0 Learning to read 0 Names of plants and birds Fundamentally different from the others in that it is not as something individuals necessarily pass through but something they must attain Adulthood is not inevitable its an achievement Physical focus is in the genitals o Refers to the process of reproduction or giving life 0 Become the source of new life and the basis of a new psychological theme Focus is the creation and enhancement of life 0 True maturity entailed the ability to bring new life into the world and nurture its growth Developmental task is to add something constructive to life and to society and to take on the associated adult responsibilities Psychological theme is maturity Genital character is well adjusted and balanced Mental health 0 The ability to love and to work Workaholic 0 Experience little con ict between work and home because they simply give up on the home part Arrested development o Is to leave out one of the two aspects of life that a person must balance Fixated personality 0 Generativecreative 0 Defense Mechanisms Techniques the ego uses to keep certain thoughts and impulses hidden in order to avoid anxiety Created by his daughter Anna Anxiety From Psychic Con ict Can be generated by stresses from the outside world and also by con icts within the mind itself Psychic con ict o Happens when a mind battles itself 0 Result is anxiety Realistic Anxiety 0 Cause anxiety 0 Relationships performance in school career aspirations 0 Anxiety is a sign that something isn t right Dissociation Includes day dreaming zoning out Selfhypnosis Gives you the ability to do more than one thing at a time Denial Refusal to admit the source of anxiety 0 Best known defense mechanism 0 People seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth Primitive and dangerous defense 0 Denial in fantasy 0 When children in their imaginations transform an evil father into a loving teddy bear Repression Also called motivated forgetting Not being able to recall a threatening situation person or event Acts to keep information out of conscious awareness 0 Dangerous defense 0 Should function unconsciously Suppression Force the unwanted information out of our awareness Reaction Formation Also called believing the opposite Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite Projection Also called displacement outward Tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people Ra onaHzann o lnvolves explaining an unacceptable behavior or feeling in a rational or logical manner avoiding the true reasons for the behavior 0 Prevents anxiety Protects selfesteem and selfconcept o Trivialization 0 Which amounts to convincing yourself that your shortcomings or regrettable actions don t matter lntellectualization Works to reduce anxiety by thinking about events in a cold clinical way Allows us to avoid thinking about the stressful emotional aspect of the situation and instead focus only on the intellectual component Displacement Redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target 0 Have a really bad day at work and then go home and take out your frustration on family 0 Taking out our frustrations feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening Sublimation Positive defense 0 Transforming of an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable even productive form Excessive Complexity Occam s razor 0 Less is more 0 All things being equal the simplest explanation is the best Case Study Method 0 Data must be public 0 The bases of one s conclusions must be laid out so that other scientists can evaluate the evidence together Uncheckable means that it may be biased Vague De nitions 0 Operational de nition 0 A scienti c concept should be de ned in terms of the operations by which it can be identi ed and measured 0 Doesn t come close to providing speci c answers Untestability Discon rmable 0 Should imply a set of observations or results that if found would prove it to be false 0 This is the difference of religion and science 0 There is no conceivable set of observations or results that would prove that God doesn t exist 0 The existence of God is not a scienti c issue 0 Because there is no experiment that would prove the theory wrong it is unscienti c Sexism Freud considers males the norm and bases his theories on their psychology Considers females as aberrations or deviations from the male model 0 Side effects of being female 0 Having less selfesteem less creativity and less moral ber 0 CadJung One of Freud s earliest disciples Freud declares Jung his Crown Prince and anointed him the rst president of the International Psychoanalytic Association Jung s theories departed from Freud s theories 0 Two men couldn t get along any more Jung s increasing interest in mystical and spiritual matters irritated Freud that most 0 Synchronicity lnner rhythm of the universe 0 Best known idea is the collective unconscious o The proposition that all people share certain unconscious ideas because of the history of the human species 0 Archetypes Fundamental images of people that are contained in the collective unconscious Go to the core of how people think about the world both consciously and unconsciously Examples n The earth mother the hero the devil the supreme being Another idea is the persona o The social mask one wears in public dealings o In some degree everyone s persona is false because everyone keeps some aspects of their real selves private Anima o The idea of the typical female as held in the mind of a male Animus o The idea of the typical male as held in the mind of a female Ambivalent o Pertaining to the coexistence within an individual of positive and negative feelings toward the same person object or action simultaneously drawing him or her in opposite directions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'