Exam Four Notes
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This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 120 at Kansas taught by Steve Ilardi in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 91 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Big Five 05022012 Big Five Neuroticism 0 Negative emotionality reactions to stressful situations 0 3 classi cations Reactive highly negative emotionality n Ever alert to the possibility that something might be wrong Wonderfully sensitive to the distresspain of others Easily discouraged or overwhelmed Resilient low negative emotionality n Largely unfazed by negative possibilities or actual negative outcomes May ignore others discomfort or distress Can handle high levels of stress and remain calm in the face of crisis Responsive moderate negative emotionality n Able to use both reactive and resilient responses based on the situation Emotionally balanced but in some situations will lack the sensitivity of reactives and the un appability of resilients El El El El 0 Usefulness Clinical diagnoses treatment outcomes Extraversion o Sociability 0 Level of sensory stimulation with which a person feels comfortable o 3 classi cations Extravert high extraversion Craves high levels of stimulation Energized by social interactions Drawn to leadership roles Usually has friendships Very expressive and easy to read lntrovert low extraversion El El El El El Craves quiet settings with lower levels of stimulation Energized by isolation Highly independent Highly productive on projects Reserved hard to read Ambivert moderate extraversion El El El 0 Usefulness Combines strengths and weaknesses of extraverts and introverts Can provide highly insightful leadership Highly versatile Effective in oneonone small and large group settings Life satisfaction Openness o Openness to new experiences perceptions and concepts 0 3 classi cations Explorer high openness a Highly imaginative and creative n Able to envision new possibilities for what could be in situations a lnvites change easily bored I Broad curiosity Preserver low openness n Focused on the here and now u Wants to conserve and preserve a Uncomfortable with change a Prefers not to question views or beliefs Moderate average openness n Confortable with a balance of the familiar and the new a Tolerates limited questioning of existing practices 0 Usefulness Vocational interestfit Agreeableness o Interpersonal warmth and trust 0 Tendency to maintain a positive emotional tone in situations o 3 classi cations Accommodator high agreeableness n Avoids con ict at all costs I Always puts on a pleasant exterior n Viewed as pleasant and likeable n Prefers cooperation to competition Challenger low agreeableness n Comfortable with con ict Not at all concerned with how others view them a May be seen as aggressive a Highly skeptical n Often competitive Negotiator moderate agreeableness a Natural mediators n Neither gullible nor cynical n Utilize a balance of logic and emotion o Usefulness Cardiac health overall health Conscientiousness o Pursue goals in an organized fashion 0 3 classi cations El Organizer high conscientiousness n Wellorganized and efficient I Prefer to plan ahead a Highly reliable Slacker low conscientiousness n Often disorganized a Highly spontaneous a Very processoriented Balancer moderate conscientiousness n A quotwork hard play hardquot ethic I Like things reasonably well planned 0 Usefulness job performance Universality of 5 factors Trait theorists o No real reason just happen to be 5 0 Biological model 0 Perhaps 5 major neural circuits 0 Evolutionary 0 Perhaps we re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptive signi cance about others Discovery of the Big Five 0 The most widely accepted factor analytic solution to the problem of reducing the trait lexicon Research started with a simple idea 0 If something is important then people will have invented a word for it Lexical hypothesis 0 The important aspect of human life will be labeled with words and furthermore that if something is truly important and universal many words for it will exist in all languages 0 Start of the identifying personality traits 0 Gordon Allport started the project by identifying about 4500 0 words that he thought were good descriptions of personality traits Raymond Cattell selected from that list 35 traits he thought were important Donald Fiske chose 22 traits from Cattell s list that Fiske then used in studies that analyzed selfratings along with ratings by peers and by psychologists Fiske s analyses found ve factors that may have been the rst emergence of the list known as the Big Five Implications of the Big Five 0 They are orthogonal 0 Means that getting a high or low score on any one of these traits doesn t determine whether a person will get a high or low score on any of the others Extraversion O OO Commonly refers to being sociable or outgoing Active outspoken dominant forceful adventurous Prone to make moral judgments that hold people responsible for the effects of their actions Extraverts or usually more popular and active than introverts Positive moods More likely to be happy longlived healthy and grateful o More success in dating and are viewed as more attractive Neuroticism 0 People who score high in this trait tend to use ineffective means for dealing with problems in their lives and have stronger negative reactions to stressful events 0 People asses happiness wellbeing and physical health correlated strongly and negatively with neuroticism 0 Could have a risk of developing a serious mental illness 0 People who score high or more likely to engage in criminal behavior Agreeableness 0 Associated with the tendency to be cooperative o Agreeable people smoke less 0 Women tend to score higher than men 0 People are more likely to attend religious activities good sense of humor well adjusted and have healthy heart Openness 0 Sometimes called intellect 0 Most controversial of the Big Five 0 People who score high are creative imaginative and clever o More prone to do drugs Universality of the Big Five Trait theories 0 No real reason just happen to be 5 0 Biological model 0 Perhaps 5 major neural circuits 0 Evolutionary 0 Perhaps we re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptive signi cance about others Big Five factors are theoretically independent but in realworld studies they correlate 0 Ex Evidence for highly neurotic extraverts 6 subdomainsfacets of Big Five 0 can be highlow in different subdomains of same trait Neuroticism O 0000 0 Anxiety Anger Depression Selfconsciousness lmmoderation Vulnerable to temptation Vulnerability How are you in a crisis Extraversion O O FdendHness How much do you display positive warmth to others Gregariousness How much do you likeseek out groups of other people O Assertiveness What you re like in groups Activity level How much energyhow many things do you have going on at one time Excitementseeking Taste for high levels of stimulation in world outside your own head Cheerfulness How happy are you Openness highly imaginative less grounded O O Imagination How much is your head in the clouds vs grounded Artistic interest Engrossed by art form Emotionality How introspective are you Adventurousness How much do you like trying new things lntellect How much you get lost in the world of ideas Liberalism How much you accept status quo vs how much you want to shake things up Agreeableness how cooperatecompetitive are you O 0 Trust How much do you trust others Morality How transparent are you vs how manipulative are you Conscientiousness 0 00000 O Selfef cacy Orderliness Dutifulness Achievementstriving Selfdiscipline Ca utiousness Behaviorists believe All knowledge worth having comes from direct public observation Only valid way to know about somebody is to watch what he does the persons behavior 0 mpies that your personality is the sum of everything you do Causes of behavior can be observed as directly as behavior itself 0 0 Because causes are not hidden in the mind They can be found in the individual s environment Environment refers to the rewards and punishments in the physical and social world 0 Goal of behaviorism 0 Functional analysis Maps out exactly how behavior is a function of one s environmental situation Description of how a behavior is a function of the environment of the person that performs it Behaviorism Theoretical view of personality that focuses on overt behavior and the ways in which it can be affected by rewards and punishments in the environment 0 Studies primarily directly observable behavior Personality doesn t include Traits Unconscious con icts Psychodynamic processes Conscious experiences 0 Anything else that can t be directly observed Born in 1913 o Behaviorist manifesto quotScience of psychologyquot Information 0 Him and B F Skinner believed that the best vantage point for understanding a person is from the outside because that is where they assume that all the causes of behavior were to be found Argued that psychology should be a science of behavior not the mind o In uenced Walter Mischel 0 Who wrote quotIfl have learned any lesson from my life as a scientist in psychology it is that whatever way one chooses to de ne 39personality it surely is not a decontextualized entity within in the mind quot Slogan 0 quotWe can only know what we can see and we can see everything we need to knowquot Founder of behaviorism 0 View on Personality 0 Only as a person encounters reality does she being to accumulate experiences and thereby build a characteristic way of reacting to the world 0 Derived his understanding of personality directly from Pavlov s ideas 0 Assumed that the essential activity of life was to learn a vast array of responses to speci c environmental stimuli and that an individual s personality consists of a repertoire of learned stimulusresponse associations Empiricism ldea that all knowledge comes from experience 0 Experience 0 In this analysis is not something that produces or exists separately from reality 0 Direct product of reality itself 0 Structure of reality determines 0 Personality 0 Structure of the mind 0 Our behavior Opposing view rationalism 0 Structure of the mind determines our experience of reality Neither phenomenological nor deconstructionist Implies that 0 At birth the mind is essentially empty John Locke called the mind of a new born baby a tabula rasa Latin for blank slate Written on by experience Associationism Explains how learning happens Claim that any two things including ideas become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time o Occurs as the result of a cause and effect relationship Lighting ashes then thunder booms Thunder and lightening become associated in the minds of all who experience this combination ldea that all complex ideas are combinations of two or more simple ideas Psychological combination 0 A smile of a certain kind is followed by a kiss In all of these cases the two things mentally become one Positivism A theory that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations as veri ed by the empirical sciences Data derived from sensory experience Hedonism 0 Provides motivation Provides an answer for why people do anything at all Claims that people learn from two reasons 0 To seek pleasure 0 To avoid pain These fundamental motivations explain why rewards and punishments shape behavior Form a basis of a value system that guides the technology of behavioral change a Behaviorism s proudest achievement Epicurus rst mentioned hedonism back in 300 BC Utilitarianism 0 Claims that the best society is one that creates the most happiness for the largest number of people Each person born a blank slate tabula rasa John Lock call the mind of a newborn baby a 39tabula rasa Ready to be written on by experience All behavior caused by environment 0 Environmental determinism No need to know what goes on inside a person mind is black box Organisms motivated to maximize pleasure minimize pain Habhua on The decrease in response to a stimulus on repeated applications Simplest kind of learning Can be a powerful mechanism of behavioral change Experimental research 0 Has shown that a response nearly as strong as the original can be maintained buy only if the stimulus changes or increases with every repetition Affects of being exposed to violent games movies or images 0 Could make you quotcomfortably numbquot 0 Less likely to help someone who is struggling 0 Make personality more aggressive Affective forecasting 0 People tend to overestimate the emotional impact of future events both good and bad Classical Conditioning 0 An unconditioned response that is naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited also by a new conditioned stimulus Most famous story 0 Ivan Pavlov His subjects were dogs which he hooked up to an apparatus that measured their salivation as they were fed Discovered that dogs inconveniently started salivating before they were fed Caused a change in our understanding of associationism n A bell begins to elicit salivation most quickly and reliably when it is run not simultaneously with feeding but slightly before Found out that conditioning is more than a simple pairing of stimuli n It involves teaching the animal that one stimulus the bell is a warning of the other food a Means that the principle of associationism is slightly wrong Events become associated not merely because they occurred together but because the meaning of one event has changed the meaning of another Affects emotional responses and lowlevel behavioral responses such as salivating Examples 0 Insulin release by the pancreas o Glycogen uptake by the liver 0 Speed of the heartbeat These ndings raised some possibilities concerning phygcalhea h o Opponent processes 0 Serve to lessen its effects 0 May be to teach people how to control their own immune system 0 One feels fear when one knows what the danger is and has a reason to think that danger is impending One feels anxiety when the source of danger is unclear or when one has no idea when the danger might actually arrive Learned helplessness 0 Feeling of anxiety due to unpredictability o A belief that nothing one does matters derived from an experience of random or unpredictable reward and punishment and theorized to be a basis of depression Operant Conditioning 0 Edward Thorndike s experiment 0 Put hungry cats in a device he called quotpuzzle boxquot 0 Cats could only escape by pulling on a wire or pressing a bar 0 Doing this the box would open and food was nearby o Thorndike then started the process over again 0 Found at that cats began to escape faster Respondent conditioning 0 First kind of learning 0 Skinner s term for classical conditioning Second kind of learning 0 Skinner s term for the process of learning in which an organism s behavior is shaped by the effect of the behavior on the environment To work out the laws of operant conditioning Skinner invented the Skinner box 0 Like Thorndike s puzzle box but much simpler 0 Used with rats and pigeons o Contained only a bar and a chute for delivering food pellets Reinforcement o A reward that when applied following a behavior increases the frequency of that behavior 0 Derives from the organism s effect on its environment 0 Consequence of behavior that increases future problems Punishment 0 Any consequence of behavior that decreases future probability 0 Positive affects Availability of alternatives Behavioral and situational speci city Timing and consistency Conditioning secondary punishing stimuli Avoiding mixed messages 0 Negative affects Arouses emotion It is difficult to be consistent Difficult to gauge the severity of punishment Teaches misuse of power Motivates concealment Cognitive model 0 Personality arises from information processing activity in brain Focus on thoughts as key determinants of behavior Less fully developed than other models of personality 0 Large in uence on clinical psychology Schema Jeffrey Young 0 Sub theory accounting for personality disorder o Asserts that most problematic parts of personality are xable Core belief 0 Summary of past experiences 0 Develop during childhood 0 Act as lters and bias our interpretation of new experience 0 Selfsustaining Often we aren t aware of schema o Operate in background as a given 0 Can be maladaptive o Hen are the cognitive basis for personality disorder Schema Modi cation 0 Identify it looking at recurring patterns 0 ID origins links to painful childhood experiences See it as quotchild s point of viewquot develop empathy for yourself Develop quotadult point of viewquot adaptive schema Begin corrective experiences Cognitive De nition and Info 0 The study of the mind using the scienti c method 0 Study of mental processes that occur between sensation and behavior 0 Perception memory problem solving language etc 0 Two approaches to this problem o Structuralism Believe the mind can be understood by reductionism le D To break down cognition into its component parts 0 Functionalism Look at the function of cognitive processes and generalized cognitive patterns Disconnection and Rejection Expectation that one s needs for security safety empathy and respect will not be met in a predictable manner Typical family is origin is cold rejecting lonely and abusive o AbandonmentInstability AB The perceived instability or unreliability of those available for support and connection lnvolves the sense that signi cant others will not be able to continue providing support or protection because they are emotionally unstable and unreliable o Mistrustabuse MA Expectation that others will hurt abuse cheat or take advantage of you lnvolves the perception that the harm is intentional Include the sense that one always ends up being cheated relative to others 0 Emotional deprivation ED Expectation that one s desire for a normal degree of emotional support will not be adequately met by others Three major forms a Deprivation of Nurturance Absence of attention affections or warmth n Deprivation of Empathy 0 Absence of understanding Listening or self disclosure n Deprivation of Protection 0 Absence of strength direction or guidance from others 0 Defectivenessshame DS Feeling that one is bad unwanted or invalid in important respects or that one is unlovable to signi cant others if exposed Involves hypersensitivity of criticism rejection and blame 0 Social isolationalienation SI The feeling that one is isolated from the rest of the world different from other people Impaired Autonomy and Performance Expectations about oneself and the environment that interfere with one s perceived ability to separate survive or perform successfully Typically family origin is enmeshed or overprotective o Dependenceincompetence DI Belief that one is unable to handle one s everyday responsibilities in a competent manner without considerable help from others 0 Vulnerability to harm or illness VH Exaggerated fear that imminent catastrophe will strike at any time and that one will be unable to prevent it Fear of heart attacks going crazy or elevators collapsing o Enmeshmentunderdeveloped self EM Excessive emotional involvement and closeness with one or more signi cant others often parents at the expense of full individuation or normal social development Feeling of being smothered by others 0 Failure FA Belief that one has failed will inevitably fail or is fundamentally inadequate relative to one s peers in areas of achievement Involves beliefs that one is stupid untalented etc Impaired Limits 0 De ciency in internal limits responsibility to others or longterm goalorientation Leads to dif culty respecting the rights of others 0 Entitlementgrandiosity ET Belief that one is superior to other people entitled to special rights and privileges Involves the feeling that one should be able to do whatever one wants 0 Insuf cient selfcontrolselfdiscipline IS Pervasive difficulty or refusal to exercise sufficient self control and frustration tolerance to achieve one s personal goals Otherdirectedness Excessive focus on the desires feelings and responses of others at the expense of one s own needs Typical family origin is based on conditional acceptance 0 Subjugation SB Excessive surrendering of control to others because one feels coerced usually to avoid anger retaliation or abandonment Two major forms a Subjugation of Needs Suppression of one s preferences decision and desires n Subjugation of emotions Suppression of emotional expression especially anger o Selfsacri ce SS Excessive focus on voluntarily meeting the needs of others in daily situations at the expense of one s own grati cation Leads to the senses that one s own needs are not being adequately met 0 Approvalseekingrecognitionseeking AS Excessive emphasis on gaining approval recognition or attention from other people or tting in at the expense of developing a secure and true sense of self Overvigilance and inhibition 0 Excessive emphasis on suppressing one s spontaneous feelings impulses and choices often at the expense of happiness relaxation or health 0 Negativitypessimism NP Pervasive lifelong focus on the negative aspects of life pain death guilt mistakes while minimizing the positive aspects Includes exaggerated expectation that things will eventually go seriously wrong o Emotional inhibition E Excessive inhibition of spontaneous action feeling or communication usually to avoid disapproval by others feelings of shame or losing control of one s impulses o Unrelenting standardshypocriticaIness US Underlying belief that one must strive to meet very high internalized standards of behavior and performance usually to avoid criticism Feeling pressure 0 Punitiveness PU Belief that people should be harshly punished for making mistakes Involves the tendency to be angry punitive and impatient with those people who do not meet one s expectations or standards De nition Approach to philosophy that focuses on conscious experience free will the meaning of life and other basic questions of existence Information Began in Europe in the mid 18005 Arose as a reaction against European rationalism science and the industrial revolution Existentialists thought science technology and rational philosophy had lost touch with human experience Purpose was to regain contact with the experience of being alive and aware Analysis began with the concrete and speci c experience of a human being existing at a particular moment in time and space The key existential questions are 0 What is the nature of existence 0 How does it feel 0 And what does it mean Three Parts of Experience 0 Biological Experience 0 Also called Umwelt Which consists of the sensations you feel by virtue of being a biological organism n Pleasure pain heat cold and all the bodily sensations Social Experience 0 Also called Mitwelt Which consists of what you think and feel as a social being Your emotions and thoughts about other people and the emotions and thoughts directed at you a Love fear admire lnner psychological Experience 0 Also called Eigenwelt This is the experience of experience itself Consists of how you feel and think when you try to understand yourself your own mind and your own existence Includes the experience of introspection When you try to observe your own mind and feelings the confusing often confusing experience is Eigenwelt Thrownness An important basis of your experience Heidegger used the German word 0 Geworfenheit Refers to the time place and circumstances into which you happened to be born 0 Your experience depends on what era you where thrown in Angst The anxiety that stems from doubts about the meaning and purpose of life 0 Also called 0 Existential anxiety 0 Can be analyzed into three separate sensations o Anguish Every human feels this because choices though inevitable are never perfect A good choice to do good in one way often leads to bad outcomes in other ways a Deciding to aid one person may leave others to suffer lnescapable o Forlornness No unquestionable set of rules or values nothing and no one can guide your choices or let you off the hook for what you have decided Your choices are yours alone Even if God tells you what to do you still must decide whether to do what God says There is no escape from this so you remain alone with your existential choices 0 Despair Any aware person realizes that may outcomes are beyond control including some of the most important elements of life a You can t hope to change your fate and the fates of your loved ones If you acknowledge this momentous and regrettable fact you will feel hopelessness at your inability to change crucial aspects of the world This inability only redoubles your responsibility to affect those aspects of the world that you can in uence Bad Faith 0 You must face the unpleasant experiences directly 0 It is a moral imperative to face your own mortality and the apparent meaninglessness of life and to seek purpose for your existence nonetheless o This is your existential responsibility which requires existential courage or optimistic toughness 0 Avoid the problem altogether O O O 0 Quit worrying about what life means get a good job buy a big car and advance your social status Do what your told by society convention peers etc Lead the unexamined life Existentialist call this headinthesand approach living in bad faith Ignoring issues has three problems 0 0 To ignore these troubling facts of existence is to live a cowardly life It is immoral and amounts to selling your soul for comfort You are giving up on life if you refuse to examine the substance and meaning of your experience Might as well not be alive or a rock If you ignore troubling issues by surround yourself with material comforts you still wont by happy Research shows that most people value a meaningful life more than being wealthy and that experience affect people s happiness more than possessions do Until one owns up to existential responsibility and thinks seriously about what is really important they will occasionally suffer from frustrating glimpse of the more satisfying life that could have been if they made different choices Choosing not to worry about the meaning of life and surrendering your choices to external authorities is still a choice What is not possible is not to chooseif I do not choose lam still choosing There is no exit from this dilemma At this point we will choose one of two 0 1 quotblue pillquot stay comfortably numb accept the path that our genes and social structure have set out for us Anesthetize ourselves o 2 quotred pillquot summon the courage to accept our thrownness realize the choices we do have and act on that freedom then living an authentic existence Authentic Existence Alternative to bad faith is to courageously come to terms with existence Face the facts 0 You are mortal your life is short and you are master of your own destiny Entails being honest insightful and morally correct Essence of human experience is this discovery 0 The human being is the only animal that understand it must die Humans must balance a propensity for life with an awareness of the inevitability of death Friedrich s superman 0 Ideal person sought to triumph over the apparent meaninglessness of life by developing the existential strength to face what must be faced De nition 0 Living with an awareness of the dilemmas concerning the meaning of life mortality and free will Existential Model The most important things is our subjective conscious experience Only model that does not claim to be scienti c Science has limits Science cant not tell us 0 Why we are here whether we are lucky beings in supernatural realm of consciousness of part of in nitely numerous universes here by chance 0 quotWhatit slikenessquot phenomenology SelfActualization Rogers Roger s message 0 The organism person has one basic tendency and striving to actualize maintain and enhance the experiencing organism A person can be understood only from the perspective of their phenomenal eld which is the entire panorama of conscious expenence o Actualize 0 Maintain and enhance life 0 The goal of existence is to satisfy this need The Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Before we can selfactualize we need to meet our basic needs rst 0 Human motivation is characterized by a hierarchy of needs 0 First a person requires food water safety and the other essentials of survival 0 When those are in hand the person then seeks sex meaningful relationships prestige and money 0 Only when these desires are satis ed does the person turn to quest for selfactualization The Fully Functioning Person Maslow and Rogers believed that the best way to live is to become more clearly aware of reality and of yourself o If you can perceive the world accurately and without neurotic distortion and if you take responsibility for your choices then you become what Rogers called a fully functioning person who lives what the existentialists would call an authentic existence expect that the fully functioning person is happy 0 Faces the world without fear selfdoubt or neurotic defenses 0 Doing this becomes possible only if you have experienced unconditional positive regard from the important people in your life especially during childhood Maslow believed that anybody from any background could become a fully functioning person 0 But if you feel that other people value you only if you are smart successful attractive or good then according to Rogers you will develop conditions of worth Condition of worth limit your freedom to act and think A person who has experienced unconditional positive regard from parents and other important people in their life doesn t develop such conditions of worth 0 Leads to a life that is free from existential anxiety because that person is con dent of their value Lives a life rich in emotion and selfdiscovery 0 They are re ective spontaneous creative adaptable etc Humanistic Model American model More optimistic Carl Rogers 0 Known for his concept of the actualizing tendency We have innate drive for selfactualization Conditions of worth can hold us back Pressure to follow rules Unconditional positive regard At least one person will allow us to follow our hearts 0 Rogers considered Unconditional Positive Regard his primary goal in therapy Information Concerned with the subjective experience of human beings and views using quantitative methods in the study of the human mind and behavior as misguided Approach to personality that emphasizes aspects of psychology that are distinctly human Closely related to the phenomenological approach and existentialism Focused on each individual s potential and stressed the importance of growth and selfactualization Goal of Humanistic Psychology 0 To acknowledge and address the ways in which the eld of psychology is unique Book Info Says that the human mind is fundamentally different because it is aware The mind knows it is being studied and has opinions about itself that affect the way it is studied 0 Two implications Psychology needs to address this awareness rather than igno ngit Selfawareness brings to the force many uniquely human phenomena that do not arise when the object of study is a rock molecule or even another animal a Such as will power re ective thinking imagination creativity free will etc a Self awareness makes these possible and psychology tends to ignore these topics n This is where humanistic psychologist come in n Theirjob is to seek to understand awareness free will happiness etc View of personality that emphasizes experience free will and the meaning of life One s conscience experience of the world Moment to moment experience of every aware person Roots go back to existential philosophers The only place and time in which you exist is in your consciousness here right now 0 The past future other people and other places are no more than ideas and in sense illusions The realization that only your present experience matters is the basis of free will 0 Past is gone the future is not here yet you are here now and can choose what to think feel and do Construal 0 Your particular experience of the world o It is by choosing your construal of the world deciding how to interpret your experience that you can achieve free will 0 By leaving this choice to other people or to your society that you lose your autonomy lntrospection Task of observing one s own mental processes Subjective conscious experience of things 0 What it s like to see the color red The feeling that through our subconscious experience we are exercising free will Mystery of Experience 0 Experience can t be explained by science Understanding Others 0 To understand another person you must understand that person s construals You can only comprehend someone s mind to the extent that you can imagine life form their shoes 0 You can t judge the actions and beliefs of other people through your own moral code
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