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Exam 1 Notes

by: Alexandra Garcia

Exam 1 Notes HDFS442

Alexandra Garcia
GPA 2.8
Minority Families in America
Dr. Lillian Phenice

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About this Document

Exam 1: covers African Americans and Arab Americans
Minority Families in America
Dr. Lillian Phenice
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Popular in Minority Families in America

Popular in Human Development

This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexandra Garcia on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HDFS442 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lillian Phenice in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Minority Families in America in Human Development at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 02/19/15
Lecture 2 09022014 World Population Data 0 More than half the world lives on less than 2 a day 0 All the Y chromosomes aside from mutations 0 Are all traced back to south Africa 0 The X chromosomes 0 There are four branches of women I There could possibly be 4 sisters 4 mothers Read Journey of Man very interesting read optional The Great What 0 Melting Pot Big mush elimination of distinction 0 Cultural Pluralism Big salad bowl keep part of heritage alive 0 Anglo conformity have to conform to the majority if you can t it will hinder your life style 0 Conformity is everywhere from the clothes you wear to the things you do What is a Minority 0 Sociological versus statistical 0 Power or dominance relationship 0 Unequal access to power Ethnic groups 0 Meaning people or nation 0 People who share unique social and cultural heritage Share a peoplehood from one generation to another Race religion national origin or some combination of these Learn this by Behavioral processes unfold and change as the individual foes through infancy to aging in the context of a variety of physical and socialpsychological cultural environments The Ecology of Human Development Bronfenbrenner s Model 0 O O O O Microsystem Mesosystem System that is around you that in uences you not live in I EX police Exosystem Macrosystem Developmental niche Super amp Harkness Eyes through which we look Self Image Beliefs about humankindfamily Religious beliefs Sociopolitical participation Nature of reality Logical orientation and limits knowledge Towards a Cultural futurology 0 Local perspective to National perspective to global perspective Black Family Life Brief Historical Perspective 0 1492 Pedro Alonso Nino 0 First black man in the new world and member of Columbus s O 0 1773 Phillis Wheatley 0 First black woman poet in America 0 Published her poems on Various subject Religious and Moral 0 After the Wheatly s death she was a free woman 0 1790 s US Census 0 697681 African slaves 0 59538 free individuals 0 Virginia had the largest Black population of 304000 0 Slavery and Family life 0 African Americans were stripped of identity language and the cultures of their homeland 0 Identity as slaves meant replacing stable family life with transient structures determined by owners 0 1817 American Colonization Society founded to solve the problem of slavery 0 Solution was to send all Africans back to Africa 0 Land was purchased in Liberia 0 By 1822 12000 blacks moved to Liberia O 1831 Nat Turner led slave revolt O In 1830 the black population included 2009034 slaves and 319000 free persons 0 Last major slave rebellion before the Civil War 0 This movement led to stricter state legislation 0 1850 The Fugitive Slave Law 0 Required the return of runaway slaves to their owners 0 20000 slaves escaped Via the Underground Railroad to freedom into Canada and Northern US 0 Harriet Tubman credited with leading over 300 to escape 0 The Underground Railroad O Signals the black lawn jockey I First owned by George Washington I If safe house a ag or lantern was hung I In the south a green or red ribbon was tied to the statues arm Red danger green safety I Quilt code before and after the Civil War Actually maps 0 1861 Start of Civil War I 1863 President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which freed slaves only in states fighting in those states 0 Education plays a major role early in Black Legacy I 1881 Tuskegee Institute Alabama Founded by former slave Booker T Washington I 1895 WE B DuBois became the first Black to receive a PhD From Harvard 0 Madam CJ Walker 18671919 I An African American woman who became America s first self made woman millionaire I Her philanthropy supported the NAACP Tuskegee Institute and BethuneCookman College I She was orphaned at 6 married at 14 and widowed at 20 Sharecropper s daughter to a laundress to a millionaire 1963 March on Washington I Martin Luther King led the march and revealed his dream one day his people and all people would be judged by their character and not their color 1964 The Civil Rights Act I Signed by President Lyndon Johnson I Integrated public accommodations I Prohibited discrimination on the basis of race religion and sex Martin Luther King I Received the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership in the Civil Rights movement and his unending belief in nonviolence as a means for obtaining equal justice for all The President of the United States Barack H Obama I Mother US citizen father Kenyan citizen I Raised mainly by grandparents living in Hawaii I Attended Punahou School in Honolulu I Law degree from Yale University I Senator from Chicago Illinois I Nobel Prize Black Billionaire I Aliko Dangote 33 Billion richest black person in the world I Oprah Winfrey 27 Billion second richest during 2005 2006 2007 was the richest I Bob Johnson Black Entertainment Television founder now worth 1 0 Billion after a divorce with wife Sheila 0 Nichol s Psychology of Blacks I Has worked with Blacks over many years I Is a psychologist by training I Has a positivistic approach I Nichol s Model beyond Black and White B Axiolo gy the science of values what is worthy 0 Person to person the highest value lies in the interpersonal relationship between persons 0 Epistemology the science of knowledge esp reference to its limits and validity 0 Affective one knows through symbolic imagery and behavioral patterns and rhythms 0 Logic Principles of speech and reasons main tendencies 0 Diunital the union of opposites 0 Younger Population I Of the 18 million blacks who reported Black with at least one other race 54 were under 18 years of age 0 West African Family Characteristics I Organized into extended kinship units I The family is like a clan This may be the predecessor of the extended structures of today s Black families I Many matrilineal tendencies of family in certain tribal groups women were strong and had prominent roles of providing for daytoday sustenance 0 Present forces that shape modern African American families I Urbanization rural to urban migration I Poverty high unemployment I Racism Discrimination 39 Upward mobility SES I Recent immigration from other countries like the Caribbean and Africa brings tensions of identification Black Population 2012 0 445 million or 142 of the US Population 0 Significant facts of today 0 There are more black veterans than any other groups 0 There is a significant decrease of men and women incarcerated in state and federal prisons than previous decades Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Residence 0 551 live inside the metro area central city 0 31 live outside central city metro area 0 139 non metropolitan 0 By 2015 if trend continues 12 will live in suburbs Ratio of Black men to Black women 0 For every 100 unmarried Black woman there are only 60 marriageable Black male 0 Nearly 50 have never married highest among all groups 0 Only 30 are married Black Family Patterns 0 Past 10 years declining rates of marriage higher rates of divorce lower fertility rates increased female headed households higher birth rates to unwed mothers higher rates of children living in poverty 0 These trends are similar to black and white families but their impact on Blacks have been more substantial Life Expectancy of children born in 1988 0 65 of AA men lack health insurance vs 41 of whites 0 695 years for Blacks M 0 757 years for Whites M 0 Black males life expectancy is approximately 7 years shorter than females African American Males 0 Men ages 2534 commit suicides at a higher rate than any other African American group 0 Young Black men are the only segment of the US population with a decreasing life expectancy New England Journal of Medicine McCord and Freemen 0 Life expectancy of Black men in Harlem was a lower than it was for men in the third world country of Bangladesh 0 In the last twenty years the quality of life for Black men for deteriorated remarkably Marriage and Divorce trends 0 Significant trend to postpone marriage to a later age than in years past 0 Higher rate of never married AA adults can be explained by higher rates of unemployment college attendance esp women extended periods of cohabitation prior to marriage Unemployment Rates 0 Is over twice the rate of young white Hispanic and Asian men 0 Over 20 of young AA men live in poverty as compared to 18 Hispanics or 10 whites Family income married couple 0 Approx 276 makes 75000 and over 0 Approx 252 make 5000074000 0 Households making over 75000 has increased 47 over the last 5 year period 0 68 of middle class live from pay check to pay check 0 95 do not have enough for of their essential expenses for 3 months Black Male Female headed household 0 Median income was 36102 In 2012 it dropped to 33460 0 Single Females median income 25958 0 More than 40 of femaleheaded households are poor Af uent African Americans 0 Since the 60 s there has been a four fold increase in income to over a million families earning over 5000 median50000 0 Approx 52 owned firms 28 women owned 0 Characteristics include 0 Well educated O Homeowners 0 Married 0 Suburbanites Black Fertility and Family Size 0 African Americans have a birth rate of 72 percent of births to unmarried mothers as compared to all races and origins of 357 0 Families tend to be larger in number of children than their white counterparts 0 AA women give birth to their first child at an earlier age than white women Living arrangements of Children 0 Majority of AA children live in femaleheaded households 0 Family structure and poverty are shown to have adverse effects on educational attainment and employment opportunities and to have a positive association with delinquency Child Rearing Motherhood Strategies used successfully strengthen the family unit is their approach to childrearing Three aspects 1 Shared parenting 2 Pride in Children 3 Nurturing firmness in discipline AA Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren Historically known to have held their kin networks together Today more grandmothers are postponing or changing their retirement plans to raise their grandchildren Increasingly assuming full time care for their grandchildren not just as needed in caregiver Grand parenting Sense of Obligation Majority of AA grandparents feel they are obligated to raise their grandchildren RodgersFarmer amp Jones 2002 Most did not want their grandchildren in the foster care system Grandparents regard rearing as rewarding Companionship new meaning for their life Grand parenting Stress Economic stress Family stress resentment from biological parents due to intermittent involvement and authority Resentment from other adult children Social service needs Legality of attaining service for nonlegally adopting grandchildren living in their home Marriage the Reality That s a little White girl s dream Pessimism related to the reality of marrying and remaining married 0 Declining opportunity for attaining mainstream family patterns and marriage Economic Impediments to Marriage and Alternatives to Marriage 0 I could be poor and do bad by myself 0 Male joblessness as a major factor in lower marital rates for some 0 You can depend on your mama Extended FamiliesSocial Networks Complex household formations 0 The role of extended families is critical to social functioning 0 Embededness in the extended family is psychological and emotional support as well as assistance with parenting children 0 There is a cultural expectation that one is responsible to assist others in the family Research on Neighborhood effects McLoyd amp Ceballo 1998 2011 0 How does neighborhood where family resides impact family income and use 13 years later similar findings 1 Goods and services available are priced higher in comparison to those available to whites 2 Financial services ie insurance mortgages are higher 0 Implications less discretionary money to save invest and spend on child related services purchase goodsservices US government policies aimed at improving education for ethic groups 0 There are scholars who observe that AA continues to be effectively segregated from other groups in low scoring schools 0 Debate by educators Split between those who believe that we should be race blind in programs 0 Marva Collins Chicago 5000 0 Chicago Public Schools 1 1300 but outcomes are not as good MC much better Educational Disagreements 0 To those who believe that the long history of discrimination is still a problem today 0 SAT scores fro almost all groups are related to income and ethnic group 0 Education Gap Drop out rates 0 97 males117 females 0 Grade 3 Data Math score level seems to be among the lowest What are some solutions to this problem in the Education of Black children 0 Income levels are significantly related to SAT scores in many cities 0 Mixed in early childhood education programs Academic achievements Important Digital Divide 0 A map of the world shows the global digital divide The countries with the least computersnetwork were in Africa Where as O A study in CA Showed that households with the least computersnetwork were Latino Immigrants however African Americans have yet not utilized all their capabilities for access Poverty unemployment 0 Is this a structural problem 0 Is this a personal problem 0 Is this a result of social positions and the accompanying roles including sex and race 0 US Dept Labor Feminization of poverty full time 81 of wage paid to men African American Extended Kinsystem Dr Alvin Poussaint psychiatrist Harvard University 0 In 1925 Harlem 5 out of 6 Black children under age of 6 lived in homes with both father and mother 0 1965 Moynihan Report I 25 of Black Families were single female headed households 0 1986 Single parent female headed I Households increased to approximately 47 0 Total numbers of children living With one parent 5500000 Black 9900000 White In uences of Family life 0 Forces that have in uenced the Contemporary African American family 0 Adopted practices form West Africa 0 Slavery an a legacy of victimization 0 Past and current discrimination 0 Economic inequality 0 A high degree of geographical propinquity nearness 0 Strong sense of family and familial obligation 0 Fluidity of household boundaries 0 Willingness to absorb relatives fictivereal 0 Frequent interactions With relatives get together gatherings 0 Mutual assistance more than sharing basic needs Ability to deal With crisis 0 A high degree of geographical propinquity nearness 0 Strong sense of family and familial obligation 0 Fluidity of household boundaries 0 Willingness to absorb relatives fictivereal 0 Frequent interactions With relatives get together gatherings 0 Mutual assistance more than sharing basic needs Ability to deal with Crisis African American Values 0 Strong Kinship bonds 0 Strong work orientation 0 Adaptability of family rolesegalitarian 0 Strong religious orientation 0 Spirituality in a belief structure that one has the ability to recover from adversity 0 Unduanting belief in a better day 0 Strong achievement orientation Motherhood and underpinning in African American Family life 0 Much significance and honor given to mothers and grandmothers 0 Common themes 0 Womencentered networks fulfill varied roles nurturer financial provider teacher caregiver and community and family stabilizer Community s other mothers as well as symbols of power Juxtaposed with the central role of motherhood is the role of fatherhood is broad 0 Many AA biological fathers embrace their fatherly duties with sinceritydedication 0 Much of the research on parenting focuses on lower socioeconomic households the concerns of the middle and upper middle class black families is nor a focus for most researchers Parameters of Fatherhood are Broad 0 Uncles ministers deacons elders of the church male teachers can be viewed as father figures 0 Black fathers take an equal part in child rearing decisions in the family 0 Fathers predominant relationship and interaction pattern appears to be warm nurturing and loving toward his children African American Men s Groups Initiate service projects to help improve the economic and social plights of deprived children and families Black Masons have a long history of this 100 Committed Black Men The Elks Male Afrocentric Majors to empower and save Black males in this country what must we do Develop comprehensive policies and programs designed to address causes rather than symptoms Policies that focuses on social economics and political forces that shape the lives of Black males Cool Pose the dilemmas of Black Manhood in America 1992 Useful analysis of gender roles values self presentation situational constructed and performanceoriented behaviors scripts and physical posturing EconomicLabor Force Participation The unemployment rate for Black men for the last ten years have been twice that of white men Poor families are slipping deeper into poverty Those who believed that immigrants were taking away jobs they pointed the blame to whites for this happening and not the immigrant groups Good news Blacks own some of Nation s firms Black contribute up to 20 of the new entrants to the labor force Education Cities with over 90 African American students 0 Atlanta 0 Detroit 0 Washington DC Approximately 88 finish high school Percentage of Black women enrolled in college has increased by 16 and decreased for African American men by 14 School Enrollment 0 From 19801990 Black graduate student enrolment has decreased Gender Issues Education 0 Black Women 3554 with 5 or more years of college never married chances are 1000 1 0 EX In a particular category 15000 black women and 499 black males 0 97 black women marry within ethnic group Physical Health 0 Blacks have different utilization patterns 0 Blacks enter the Health care system later than whites 0 Are often sicker on entry and therefore stay longer 0 Over utilization of emergency care possibly linked to crisis oriented and treatment as well as barriers to service utilization resulting in delayed treatment African American Family a group of people who are biologically and spiritually bonded or connected and whose members relations to each other and the outside world are governed by a particular set of cultural beliefs historical experiences and behaviors Family Formation 0 For many family households begin not with marriage but with birth of a child 0 72 are born into families where mother is not married to the biological father 0 More than 50 are headed by a single woman Differential Birthrates 0 Black Women tend to begin having children early but complete their families while relatively young 0 The African American community does not view adolescent pregnancy so negatively and assist and play vital role in the rearing of the children 2000 Census Poverty rates 0 352 of single Black mother household were poor compared with the 78 of black married parent households Poverty rate is increasing in 201213 0 More percentage of Black children live in poverty with limited resources Including individuality and privacy 0 Therefore they are more at risk for learning problems dropping out being held back a grade Strengths Interpersonal Relationships 0 Focus particularly on Parentchild relationship 0 Parents seldom make their love for their child reinforcement contingency 0 This relationship could be characterized by parent anger punishment and disappointment for the child s mistake failure and misbehavior Without canceling out the love associated with the bond Discipline of children varies with social economic classes 0 Fathers from working class background use more physical than verbal discipline Staples 0 African American socialization stresses obedience to adults 0 Rearing children in ecological risky neighborhoods is one of the reasons given for strict obedience to parental authority an adaptive strategy Qualities parents encourage in their children 0 The importance of self respect and pride and must know about racism 0 Understand that fair play may not be reciprocal E g they ll get a break but a Black child won t 0 A good education is top priority 0 You don t know when someone is going to show you over prejudice All parents have similar tasks that all must complete to help their children develop into self sufficient adults 0 The difficulty is raising children to have pride in their ethnic group s concept when the group is perceived in a negative manner by the wider society McAdoo 19782004 A myriad of complex social and educational issues affect Black children 0 The family and the church are key in enhancing the social functioning of the Black Child 0 Provide the cultural processes that contribute to resilience and healthy functioning Haight 2002 African American Grandparents 0 Many live in close proximity to their married children and their families 0 Have many opportunities to in uence the development of their grandchildren 0 Grandmothers show more supportive behaviors in mother grandmother families than mother father grandmother families Siblings 0 Older children play key roles in African American households 0 Older children often help mother in care of household including taking care of siblings 0 Can be source of maturation as well as strain for these siblings Substance Abuse among Black Youth 0 Evidence indicates that alcohol and drug use is lower than among white youth 0 EX 37 blacks ages 1117 0 29 reported use of cocaine at least once vs 51 whites 63 Hispanics 0 Adverse consequences are more serious 0 10X more likely to be arrested 0 more likely to be sent to prison than treatment programs 0 more likely to be victims of alcohol related homicide Urban Black Child s life spheres 0 Black child s development is rooted in person environment interactions 0 There are 7 hierarchically nested life spheres 1the child 2 the family or home 3 the neighborhood 4 the Black community 5 the white community of business service etc in Black communities 6 the broader community that is nonblack and 7 social structures eg political economic Ecological Perspective 0 Structure of Black children s lives more complex than white children 0 Involved in more settings 0 Black children are older younger Bicultural experiences encourage earlier maturity and independence 0 Relationships between Black and White communities result in uncertainty to predict if their efforts will meet with success or failure Black children are over represented in some of the high need social services systems 0 In 2000 565 of the 110000 children waiting to be adopted were Black 0 14 live with a biological parent and a stepparent Colman 2001 0 2013 23 of adoptive children are Black adoptive children emotional well being 26 diagnosed ADDADHD Parenting in Middleclass Black families 0 Much of the research on AA parenting focuses on lower socioeconomic households 0 What about upper amp middle class Black parents 0 What is lit like to raise black children in a predominant white neighborhood Is the Black middle class child insulated from the harsh realities of life and are unaware of more subtle forms of racism Is the Black middle class child insulated from harsh realities of subtle forms of racism 0 Advantage of children growing up in a black community increase sense of black awareness and self identity 0 Well beyond the obVious spending one s early years free from the concern of physical harm is to degree a privilege Research nding on Middle class Black Families 0 Some Middle class AA youngsters do not identify with the Black community 0 Some Middle class AA youngsters have bought in to the negative stereotyped image of blacks often times arrested for illegal drug use distribution rather than seeing any sort of positive light Class Color and Gender 0 A child moves in and out of one s social group more readily if one is a part of the middle class 0 Black girls and women are treated differently than Black men 0 Females are perceived as less of threat and can move in and out of larger culture with greater ease Arab Speaking Places 0 Mostly Southwestern Many Arab Americans trace their ancestry to 0 Many places including Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lybya 3 Waves of Immigrants 1 Wave Many were Christians Many were successful in achieving celebrity status over time a Easily assimilated 2 Wave 1950 s1960s 3 Wave 1970 s1980s encountered negative reception a Instead of assimilating remained on the outer edge of society Novel media often vilified them b Those who stress their distinctiveness and those who assimilate rapidly How many live in the US 0 Estimates vary approximately 3 million some estimate 5 million 0 Recent immigrants reluctant to give personal and confidential Immigration to US 0 First significant wave in 1875 until 1920 0 Second wave began in 1940 0 Mainly educated and professionals from Egypt Palestine Iran 0 Came seeking opportunities 0 Most early immigrants were from Lebanon and Syria and most were Christians Differences in the immigrant families rst wave vs second 0 Second wave retained more of their culture 0 First wave distant themselves from the Arab world by adopting western culture and language 0 Earlier many worked as slaves on plantations Other were traders peddlers industrial worker and farmers Others became large businesses Haggar and Farah SUMMARY 0 1St wave assimilated 0 2rld wave 0 3rd wave did not want to assimilate Where do you nd Arab Americans 0 Arabs are found in all 50 states 0 Mainly in New York California Michigan Religion 0 Arabs belong to many religions 0 Including Islam Christianity Judaism and Druze 0 Most Arab Americans are Catholic or Orthodox Christians 0 In some parts of the US Arabs are mostly Muslim but 12 of Muslims worldwide are Arabs Other groups from the Arab Region 0 Chaldeans are Catholic from Iraq 0 Have large communities in the US the Largest in Detroit 0 The Chaldean Catholic Church has connections with the Roman Catholic Church 1551 0 Parishes in Michigan California Chicago and Arizona Chaldean Language 0 Different from Arabic 0 In Iraq Chaldeans are religiously distinct from the Muslim majority 0 Fosters a separate identity but also have an Iraqi nationality and some shared concerns with Arabs Do not assume that an Arab American should know Arabic 0 Many recently immigrants usually know more than one language either French or English Business government 0 It is common for Arab Americans to know more than two or three languages They are familiar with Western Media Arabic 0 In Arabic and in English the sounds and characters are different and more than oneway to transliterate the words 0 English is in Latin characters Arabic is in the 28 characters Arabic alphabet scriptlike 0 Example KoranQur an Mohammed to Muhammad Education 0 Arab Americans are on the average better educated than nonArab Americans Attending college is higher than the national average 0 Twice as many in percentage terms earn degrees beyond the BA or BS 0 Key Factors length of time in US country of origin and gender Employment 0 More likely to be selfemployed or to be entrepreneurs or to work in sales 0 About 60 are executives professionals office and sales staff 0 At local level manufacturing workers in Detroit Income 0 Nationally Arab American households have higher than average median income 0 Income caries by location like in Detroit it is below the overall average O Individually they are found at every economic strata of American Life Like Many Maintain ties with their home countries 0 Very proud and often maintain regular contact with relatives and friends there 0 Have loyalties to their place or origin and their country of citizenship Arab American F amilv Generallv more important than individual 2 People draw their identity from their role in their family 0 To avoid stereotype of gender roles it is best to ask their story of their life experience 0 Roles vary tremendously due to country of origin ruralurban length of time in the US 0 Families are larger than nonArab American families but smaller than families in Arab countries Extended Family 0 Cousins are important and are differentiated between maternal and paternal cousins 0 Generations can live in one household and not specifically a characteristic different from the rest of the US population Marriage 0 Arab women typically got married at a younger age than nonArabs but this is changing as they follow careers 0 Arab women might also marry older men who can provide financial security Among the most recent immigrants marriages might be arranged Where a parent may make a recommendation of someone from the country of origin or other family But no one is forced to marry that person Arab Americans prefer to marry someone of a similar religious background 0 Typically couples meet and ask their families approval before getting engaged O In group marriage may be encouraged to preserve heritage but Arabs and nonArabs frequently marry each other Most Cherished Values 0 Communal cohesion 0 Honor 0 Endurance promote own beliefs 0 Grace of Words and Fluency of Expression Interpersonal Relations 0 If they are practicing Muslims or recent immigrants a smile nod and a word of greeting is appropriate 0 Some Muslims feel it is inappropriate for unrelated men and women to shake hands Paying Compliments 0 Be yourself and be observant For some recent immigrants you need to be more reserved 0 Complimenting a possession may be misunderstood the person may feel compelled to offer you the object Gift Giving C Giving tokens of gift is a polite practice 0 You must weigh the consequences so as not to offend the giver Arab Women 0 Some women wear garments that cover their faces or head 0 This is a religious practice not a cultural practice 0 It is rooted in Islamic teachings about hij ab or modesty 0 Covering is not universally observed by Muslim women and varies by region and class Practice of Hijab 0 One interpretation that everything should be covered except hands face and feet Long clothing and a scarf 0 In Iraq and Saudi Arabia especially woman may wear a cloak that covers her head Women in the US do not use veils 0 Black when worn by women may mean a sign of mourning 0 May wear black for several days 0 Beneath a robe a woman may be wearing a traditional dress casual clothes or a business suit Appropriate Dress Islamically O In a manual entitled The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam Yusuf alQaradawi O The Prophet did not appreciate seeing women wearing men s clothing should not pluck their eyebrows wear wigs hairpieces dye their hair or interfere with their God given attributes O Wearing appropriate dress emphasizing modesty A Great Strain for Women 0 Possibly when ArabAmerican Muslim women find themselves caught in some kinds of feminist discussions 0 Especially when what is valued in Islamic society is held up to criticism stereotyping 0 Many Western women hold views that Arab Muslim women as born yesterday assumptions Aswald 1996 Some Arab American women express these perspectives of Western feminism 0 Focus on freedom and opportunity for the individual rather than for the welfare of the larger group Emphasis on sexual rather than cultural identity 0 Consciousnessraising is based on the desire to avoid exploitation by males but for Arab Muslims to avoid exploitation by outsiders Ka yyeh 0 Some Arab men wear a checked garment on their head 0 It is traditional and not religious 0 It s a sign of identity and pride Socialization of Children 0 All children should learn social code of conduct 0 Obey parents 0 Be polite in the presence of elders 0 Demonstrate generosity O Cooperativeness O Humility 0 Helpfulness Religion 0 Most Arab Americans are Christians 0 They live side by side With others Muslims who are most often later immigrants 0 The Quran is the Holy book for Muslims Islam is the Religion for those who are Muslims O The five pillars O Belief in God and the prophet Muhammad 0 Prayer five times a day 0 Sharing a alms With the poor 0 Fasting during Ramadan 0 Pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia Beliefs and Practices of Muslims O Merged into their culture are ideals of submission and obedience to God Prescribed rituals Strict concepts of good versus bad 0 Clean versus unclean Forbidden and permitted acts e g 0 Adultery consumption of alcohol and pork Bodily excretions certain animals are considered unclean necessitates certain rituals to cleanse self Different Modes of adaptation in the US 0 Denigrating the old culture by opting for the external features of the modern American life style 0 Denving the new culture Become so frightened that the old cannot be abandoned 0 Families turn inward and try to maintain old ways However children often run into con ict in school 0 Bicultural Family attempts to bring two cultures together and tolerates some con ict that occurs when cultures clash Muslims living in the US 0 In the US the Muslim community is largely middle class doctors engineers academics 0 Have a greater sense of social confidence and positive sense of belonging 0 Europe is made up of or mainly working class and even some would say underclass 0 There is a greater geographical spread and conscious they are here by choice ARAB AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS Words common to out culture 0 Sugar Coffee Syrup Sherbert Sciences 0 Astronomy 0 Algebra 0 Chemistry 0 Technology Agricultural Industry 0 Grafting O Fertilizing Jihad 0 Misunderstood and overused term literally means Struggle not holy war 0 Term not found in the Qur an 0 An Islamic concept Which can be on a personal level inner struggle against evil Within a struggle for decency and goodness on the social level and a struggle on the battlefield When necessary Exam 1 Tuesday


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