Exam 2 Notes
Exam 2 Notes HDFS442
Popular in Minority Families in America
Popular in Human Development
verified elite notetaker
HDFS 212: Chidren, Youth, and Family
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Alexandra Garcia on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HDFS442 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lillian Phenice in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Minority Families in America in Human Development at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
HispanicLatino in America 10022014 Focus is on Mexican American Origin Families 0 Spanish people imprecise and often inappropriate Includes people from over 24 countries from the Americas to Caribbean and Spain Any people who speak Spanish 0 Hispanics Specifically connotes a lineage or cultural heritage related to Spain Many are not of Spanish descent like Native Americans and many live in Latin American countries not Spain 0 Latino refer to people from or having a heritage related to Latin America who are people of many nationalities This term is widely accepted by many however not appropriate for millions of Native Americans who inhabit this region 0 Mexican Nationality of the inhabitants of Mexico Term is used appropriately for Mexican citizens who visit or work in the US Not for citizens or naturalize citizen Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mx vs US 0 Declaring peace between two countries Mexico and US right to private property their own religion and right to speak and receive education in their own tongue approx 150 years ago MexicanAmerican Chicano 0 Usually used to recognize US citizens who are descendants of Mexicans Term is acceptable to many Mexican descendants 0 Chicano Source is traced back to the 30 s and 40 s Became a term appropriated by Mex American activists who took part in the Brown Power movement in the 60 s and 70 s in the US Southwest and now widespread usage Hispanic population 0 Approx Hispanics 505 million as of 2009 0 The fastest amp largest growing group constituting 163 of nations total population 0 Mexican Descent makes up approx 64 of the group 92 Puerto Ricans States with most Latinos 0 California 48 and Texas together have over 22million Latinos La county 47 million 0 Other states with more than 1 million are 0 New York Florida Illinois Arizona New Jersey 0 Traditionally lived in cities today approx 55 Latinos reside in suburbs 0 In 2000 45 lived in the West 33 lived in the South 14 in the Northeast and 8 in the Midwest Changes over time 0 Mexican origin families are affected by social and economic changes in society 0 Qualities within arrangements have served as sources of adaptation and survival M B Zinn O A bit of History 0 Contract laborers went back and forth across the Rio Grande with little problems were rout1nes 0 Important for economic expansion 0 Later became redefined as immigrants and later yet as illegal immigrants 0 Probably of Labor migration was prior family migration experience Heritage of Mexican Americans 0 Patriarchal and elaborate systems of kinship and co parenting compadrazgo were the rule including parents uncles aunts grandparents sisters brothers children and co parents and padrinos godparents 0 Family roles were highly gendered Women stayed at home with housework and children Men did outside productive work Dire economic situations dramatic changes 0 Women Chicana entered the working labor force as males faced persistent unemployment 0 Family responsibility began to change 0 Men started to find employment in other areas of the state or nation 0 Chicana assumed the responsibilities of 0 Heads of household mother and a wage earner Effects of Acculturation on Compadrazgo 0 Although Catholicism is still dominant force the compadrazgo ceremony no longer serves to sustain the fictive kinship systems as it was traditionally defined It is now more a part of the Mexican American tradition than a religious one In a study younger woman noted they had close friends who were their comadres although they did not necessarily share a baptism child between them Los Comadres as a parenting support system 0 Godmothers often provide economic and social resources especially for households headed by single mothers social insurance 0 Often times these relationships last long after the child has become an adultlife long relationship 0 Based on a relationship of mutual trust Categories of Cultural Values 1 Identification with family community and ethnic group 2 Personalization of interpersonal relationships 1 interpersonal relationship 3 Status and roes based on age and gender 4 Latino catholic idealogy 1 Identification 0 Child rearing encourages the development of a self identity embedded within the context of the familia 0 The familia network extends to the community often through marriage and kinship 2 Personalization of Interpersonal relationships 1 interpersonal relationship 0 A child is socialized to be sensitive to the feelings and needs of others and to personalize interpersonal relationships personalismo 0 Encourages cooperative social motives and discourages competitive behaviors that set one apart 0 Bien educado well educated 3Status and roles based on age and gender 0 Has clearly defined norms of behavior governing individual s actions in the familia and community 0 Age and gender are important determinants of status and respect Grandparents 0 Have much respect and considerable status owing to their knowledge and experiences 0 Children are told to model after adults and as such modeling becomes a preferred teaching style Statusroles of children 0 Are expected to be obedient and respectful toward their parents 0 This is even after they are grown married and have children of their own 0 Authoritarian parenting style is practiced 0 You listen to your elders mom dad and grandparents Gender Roles 0 Males are expected to have more knowledge about politics and business and the outside world 0 Males are often perceived as the dominant figures in the family 0 Females are expected to know more about child rearing health care and education 0 Women can also be a curendera one who has the power to heal Findings challenge stereotypes 0 The stereotype of the Macho Latino male 0 The stereotype of the Latina woman who is prevented from working outside the family 0 In fact Among younger Latina the percentage working actually exceeds that of non Latinas Resistance to Change 0 Traditional expression of Mexican cultural socialization of Women 0 There is no difference between the Married women and the single woman when it comes to the household division of labor A working mother still does most of the tasks around the household Juggling family and work Over 51 in labor force Mexican American female household 0 Median income approximately 13000 0 Lower educational attainment and limited outside work related skills 0 Employed in technical sales and administrative support positions 39 of Hispanic females Service occupations for about 24 Changing Family form Approximately 58 2012 of households are maintained by married couples including separated by married Out marrying at 174 to different group Hispanic males out marry at 41 females at 374 In 2000 40 34 of all Latino children lived With a single parent Spanish Language 34 million older than 5 speak at home 78 29 of Texan residents speak Spanish at home leads all states 5 Latino Catholic Ideology Strongly in uences the lives of Latinos and reinforces and supports cultural values Latino Catholicism is a synthesis of Spanish European Catholicism and indigenous religious beliefs and practices Shared by more than 80 of the people Religious symbols serve as markers of ethnic identity Increasing protestant community Values Beliefs and Health A word view of disease and healing With historical roots Curanderismo synthesis of beliefs Derived from Aztec Spanish J udeoChristian Spiritualism and modern medicine Mexican American Folk Healers O Partera Midwife O Sobador Masseuse O Senora Card readers 0 Curanderao healer Mex Am Folk Medicines 0 Plants onion garlic aloe vera cactus 0 Precious stones silver gold copper 0 Magical perfumes Respect cultural values to in uence help seeking behaviors 0 Eg Familiaismo fatalism spiritualityreligiosity machismo marianismo 0 PatientProvider Interaction personalismo respect simpatia confienza carino children Acculturation 0 Different members of a family have different values especially those matters that are genderspecific 0 Differntiation in health beliefs exists especially intergenerationally 0 As acculturation increases traditional cultural values and health beliefs decreases Education 0 60 of Hispanics 25 and older has at least a High School Diploma 2007 0 HS graduation rate of Cuban Am Highest at 687 Lowest Mex Am At 487 Those born in the US70 complete HS immigrate as teens 28 2008 0 13 33million of Hispanics 25 and older With a Bachelors degree or higher 2007 0 811000 advanced degree Masters or doctorare 0 Income gap is attributed to educational levels Business and Income Income There are approx 12 million Hispanic owned firms generating amp 1863 billion in revenues 28 are owned by Hispanic women The median income is 30735 The highest ever recorded 68 who are 16 or older are in the labor force 2006 82500 are chief executives 46200 are physicians and surgeons 53600 postsecondary teachers 43000 lawyers 5700 news analysis reporters etc 700000 own businesses in the US Accounts for 97 billion in receipts 70 of those over age 10 are in the labor force 14000000 accounts for 9 of total labor force 2009 39679 median income 2012 34800 4800 drop 0 Highest among Cuban Am Lowest among Mex Am Poverty highest among Dominican Americans 281 Poverty rate up from 2009 O 31 lack health insurance 2008 Government 0 Have participated in every military con ict from the American Revolution onward 0 Admiral D Farragut 1866 first person to be namedfull admiral in the Navy s history 0 Antonia Novello MD First Hispanic and first female to become the US Surgeon General in 1990 Immigrants 0 40 are immigrants 0 At home at least 69 are bilingual 0 90 speak English 0 78 speak Spanish Handbook of families and Health Crane and Marshall Eds Largest ethnicracial group in US 0 Population more youthful 297 0 Relative to whites 199 0 Relative to Blacks 259 0 Mexicans have the most youthful age structure 0 Latinos are concentrated on the lower segments of national socioeconomic distributions Resource Characteristics 0 Income spread over larger family households lower per capita resource levels 0 Jobs concentrated mostly in agricultural construction manufacturing and personal services translate not only into lower incomes but also constrains wealth accumulation and health insurance coverage less out of pocket expenses medications etc Household Characteristics 0 Mexicans most likely to live in households of 5 or more members 281 compared to whites 94 or blacks 113 0 Trend data indicate patterns shifting toward smaller households more unmarried adults with dependent children and more adults living alone Implications for Health 0 Larger households increase exposure to communicable conditions 0 The benefits and detriments of social ties 0 More widespread impact of an individual health or illness 0 Latino women s life expectancy is 822 years higher than whites at 801 years and blacks at 745 years National Center for Health Stats 2003 0 Agesex mortality rates reveals disparities Men 1524 higher than comparable white males Latino Disability Data 0 Indicate a higher prevalence rates of adult onset diabetes among Mexican origin 0 Among those 520 91 of Latinos have disability compared to 74 whites and 10 blacks Epidemiological paradox 0 Why are Latino different 0 Paradox because the lower sees status of Latinos 0 Health disparities are defined as disproportionately high levels of disease functional Possible Reasons for the Paradox 0 Migrants typically tends and young adults 0 Migrants are usually from the healthier segments of their countries of origin 0 Those who become ill or disabled may return because they may no longer successfully compete in the labor force 0 There are also cultural barriers to negative health behaviors which indirectly promote better health also social support and ethnic solidarity Aging and Health 0 Acculturation may be in uencing infant mortality rates 0 Older adults more likely to live as dependents in a multigenerational household 0 Latinos report higher levels of most serious medical conditions health disease and diabetes and impaired physical functioning than whites 0 Usually physical functioning is predictive of mortality of 2 years later 0 Mexicans report fewer activity limitations than whites but they rate their health negatively and receive less medical care than whites Social Capital 0 Family is part of the cultural environment that in uences individual lifestyles habits shared on diet nutrition exercise substance use and preventive care 0 Latino parent usually women is the first line of defense in promoting health or providing for health care Some would say sharing a collective health capital Also is consuming unit purchasing products and services that is shared among members of the family 0 0 Caught between historical foundations and nonAmish current technological issues 0 Brief Historical Information 0 Immigrated in early 1700 s 0 Invitation of William Penn s invitation to settle in Lancaster Country Pennsylvania 0 Made a wise decision fertile terrain moderate temperature and long growing season 0 Quickly became known as superior family sized farmers In America took on an Outward identity 0 Began wearing distinctive dress and took on an identifiable recognition 0 Society revolved around them they resisted all change becoming more conservative and seemingly more peculiar 0 Not all communities survived some faded away Descendants of early 16th century Mennonites 0 All aspects of daily life occupation work means and destination of travel choice of friends mates are retained except for slight variations in 0 Type of Machinery 0 Type of clothing width of hat brim 0 Living patterns R Redfield s Little Community I Distinctiveness 2 Smallness 3 Homogeneity 4 Self sufficiency Distinctiveness 0 Outside observers can easily be aware of the distinctiveness of the Amish people I Often large farm houses without electrical wiring nor telephone lines I Yards containing buggies and other horse drawn equipment 0 Missing are the powerful modern tractors bags of commercial fertilizer 0 Girls I Wear long solid colored dresses and long black stockings and black shoes 0 Boys I Wear dark solid trousers with buttoned front aps and held up by cloth suspenders 0 Man I Full beard outside in the field of corn spreading manure only type of fertilizer 0 Farm holdings around 80100 acres 0 Farm wife usually baking canning sewing mending and a child near by I Insiders see many symbols of the group s identity 0 QQQQQ 0 Styles of clothing Grooming A distinct language A common occupation change in some areas Intimate knowledge of other members of the community Religious ceremony Common sentiment I Generalized attitude that the old is the best and the new is the devil 0 Example I Responsibility of their aged relatives I Majority cultural goals of the education would even go to jail then send their children to high school I Believing they are a peculiar people living a superior life style I Where the outside world has in uenced the Amish families Economic factors 0 Smallness Under pressure of adverse conditions the Amish may discard old traditional farming methods and devise new ways to survive I Basic social unit is smallness this is the church district Limitations imposed by horse and carriage travel and assembling in a single household Approximately 3040 households Households take turns biweekly for religious services Each settlement is a distinct where decisions making occur Bishop must be married is the chief administrator and leader of the congregation Is responsible for baptism Performs marriages Preaches regularly Announce disciplinary measures of the church Regal and ordung Rules and order There are many taboos to keep the outside world out Punishment or threat of punishment is a strong incentive for conforming to the norm Transgression is subject to the counsel of the entire community To be expelled or receive full fellowship requires a unanimous vote Everyone knows each other by name Are associated with genealogical position virtually the whole district forms a body of relatives Homogeneity A totality of its culture and psychology Ways of thinking and behaving are alike for all persons in corresponding position of age gender States of mind alike for generations In physical types inbreeding In socially approved ways of working with nature In sharing practical knowledge Critical thought has no place and science is worldly except in the area of farming operations Some of the most productive farmers in the US 0 Example 0 QQQQQQ Q 0 Infant born is received with joy His given name will be similar to his grandparents his cousins his uncles Last name is same as fathers which is one of about 40 common family names Will grow up conforming to patterns of life similar to brothers and sisters Boys join church in late teens baptism is the incitation into adult life Dress grooming conduct and attitudes similar Each person has a vote in decisions made by the church but an unmarried person s in uence is limited Upon marriage HampW will form a new residence depends on patrilineal status Married couple may take over the farming operation with parents moving into grandparents house 0 Homogeneity of relationships 0 0 0 0 Husbands head of the household and the leader in public contacts He is the leader in religious life and ceremonies Aged are respected and brings personally satisfying rewards Wisdom accumulates with age Self Sufficiency 0 Is associated with closeness to soil animals and weather nature 0 Is associated with hard work thrift mutual aid and repulsion of city ways 0 Role of Amish women 0 0 She has direct standing on her family s standard of living She has voting rights in all matters 0 Her recreation includes weddings quilting 0 Linkages 0f Amish birth 0 A birth is not looked on as an economic burden 0 This is usually takes place at home however Infants are dressed functionally and not with new expensive clothing 0 Birth control is look as sinful Amish Birth Ceremony 0 The economy permits a large household 0 Only a small portion of adult remain unmarried 0 Very little separation of husband from wife during fertility 0 No taboo against medical practices Amish Marriage 0 Elaborate affair of the whole community 0 Held usually in Nov amp Dec work allow all to participate 0 Great preparation for the wedding which is usually held on Tuesday or Thursday 0 Young men approaches the DeaconMinister who acts as a go 0 Deacon obtains the formal consent of the parents who already have given consent Announce the intent at the next service Usually bridegroom lives at the brides home until the wedding day Bridegroom invites personally all the wedding guests Wedding customs vary in ceremony and community especially the menu physical arrangements and weather games are played Large scale preparation on wedding day approx 30 people arrive 7AM Custom requires the bridegroom to cut off the heads of the fowls Men pick feathers of ducks chickens turkey and women washdress them Women bakes pies crack nuts wash potatoes Men wash celery supply plenty of hot water from large kettles Before daylight bride and groom amp their attending two couples go to neighbor s place where wedding will take place Clothes are new but typical of their regular Sunday clothing Customary for young people to sit in couples thus each boy is forced to take a girl to the table whether wants to or not Bride and groom spend the night at the bride s house Gifts chie y of kitchen ware and farm tools No place for divorce separation is almost unknown Visit every family household after wedding spend night with all families Is looking at as a matter of course A community is very concerned of sickness and everyone visits those sick Death news travel quickly tradition takes over Neighbors take over all work and preparation for the funeral young men the farming chores women cooking etc Closest kinsmen gather in the living Observe a wake stay up all night Funerals are held after the 3rd day By tradition dead are dressed in white men in white shirts trousers socks women white dress organdy cap which was worn on wedding day Usually do not embalm wash and dress the dead and place the body in the coffin themselves Coffins are plain varnished wooden boxes Plain simple funeral nothing artificial burial usually on farm No tears or sorrow except for little Variations of death and dying Embalming may take place in the funeral home And funeral director dresses body places body in coffin and delivers it to family In some communities the dead is buried in their Sunday best outfit It is common to have 2 funeral services in the home and bamde or other farm building Usually a gravesite silent Lord s Prayer ends the service Health and Medical Behavior Both folk and scientific concepts of healing are utilized There are nothing in Amish religious practice that forbids the use of modern services Boundaries of the use of an automobile have no counterpart in the medical field Often wait too long before seeking medical help Significant contribution to genetics hemophilia Mental Health Suicidal tendencies as well as mental illness are more prevalent among married women than men in general Living up to social expectations of the faith 0 The highest frequency is among young men when basic values of the culture are to be accepted or rejected 0 Persons are urged to work instead of thinking and sitting around Humus and Humanity 0 America s greatest asset is farmland and the people who will bend low to work it 0 land and people are always linked in the plain people s mentality Practices that emphasize their belief Blessed are the peacemakers 0 Do not allow their members to sure will expel from the church any who do 0 Spiritual ideas work in individuals families and communities behavior is the test of the truth 0 For four centuries rejection of the sword has been essential for membership Usually 9 Special Days 0 Christmas the most cherished of Holidays 0 Gift giving is appropriate 0 Easter some colored eggs but no Easter Bunny 0 Thanksgiving a prayer and fasting day No work is performed 0 Sisters Day sisters from the same day visit and make quilts The Plain People 0 The Amish along with certain Mennonite and Brethren groups make up this group called the plain people 0 All share doctrines of adult baptism nonresistance and emphasize separation from the world 0 Largest concentrations in Ohio Pennsylvania and Indiana with settlements in approx 17 states and into Canada 0 1920 s Beachy Amish Prior to European Contact 0 Estimated population from 1 million7million18million 60m 0 Diverse population with high degree of linguistic and cultural variations 0 Almost al variants of marriage and family practices were found among American Indian People Population 52 million 0 52m are American Indian and Alaska Native median income 39664 w50000 0 Poverty rates based on 2010 census is at 284 This amounts to approximately 701000 persons 0 292 2010 lack of health insurance coverage This rate is significantly higher than African Americans Asians whites but lower than Hispanics 565 Federal Recognized Tribes 0 States with high populations 0 California Oklahoma Arizona Alaska Largest Tribes 39 Cherokee 819000 I Navajo 195764 39 Chippewa 170000 O O O O
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