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Unit 1

by: Amaris Mae
Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
World Regional Geography

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About this Document

These are all the notes for the first unit of Professor Dymond's World Regional Geography class. This includes text book readings - there is no need to read much outside of these notes
World Regional Geography
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GEO3120 at George Washington University taught by Dymond in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/19/15
Introduction Geography is the science that studies the spatial distribution of human and physical phenomenon quotstuffquot on the earth s surface What is where and why it s there and how it affects people Examples Flows of capitals Linguistics Identities how people see themselves Demographics Urban populations only just became a majority urban world rather than rural Distribution of resources Mining Oil How it affects the economy Information technology Immigration and emigration Location Direction and Distance Absolute location location that is xed Relative Iocation is more Relative location location described in terms of another speci c than situation location although they are very similar Baltimore is 40 miles north of DC Site internal characteristics physical and human A mine what climate do you have What soil What is the surface like Situation area surrounding a cite DC is in the Chesapeake Watershed by the Appalachians JOE SAYS APPALACHIAN CORRECTLY Absolute direction the cardinal direction points joy to the human constructs Relative direction culturally based relational direction quotMiddle Eastquot quotBack eastquot Absolute distance a measured distance from point A to point B Miles Relative distance takes into account the time What is the terrain What is the form of transportation Region You can have a climate region Bounded has common characteristics that areas around it do not have Topography can de ne a region As well as human factors Any aspect of culture can be de ned as a region HUMAN CONSTRUCT WHO WOULD HAVE GUESSED Region human created and subject to human bias exible and dynamic they must have location spatial extent and boundaries They have to have commonalities distinguishing features may be hierarchically arranged Speci cally in polities Formal Region regions designated by common characteristic Religion vegetation language Functional Region region that works together as an integrated functional system Bound by connectivity integration and functionality Ex EU or metropolitan area Perceptual Region has to deal with beliefs EX Bible belt or the South Latitude and Longitude Latitude Parallel and equidistant Horizontal 0 degrees is the equator North Hemisphere North Latitude South Hemisphere South Latitude quotWith respect to the equatorquot 1 degree of latitude 69 miles Minute 115 miles 1 nautical mile Second 0192 miles Longtude Prime Meridian on one side International Date Line on the other Not equidistant because they converge at the poles Remember that to the right of the Prime Meridian is the Eastern Hemisphere Remember to the right of the International Date line is the Western Hemisphere But is east of the International Date Line 15 degrees is a time zone 36024 15 Began with railroad Equals an hour Time zones converge at the poles The distance that each area is covering is different even when in the same time zone based on how close it is to the pole They are moving at the same rotation rate days are still 24 hours but they are moving at different distances so they are receiving light differently International Dateline is ALWAYS WHERE WE HAVE 24 HOURS OF DIFFERENCE If you travel to the right of the International Date Line you gain 24 hours If you travel left west to the eastern hemisphere you lose 24 hours Physical Geography Upper Mantle Lithosphere rigid hard plates Asthenosphere softmoltenplastic Transform plate boundary San Andreas in California Diverging Rifts and trenches gt earthquakes You can also get mountain ranges in the middle of these Because the molten material rises and build like Santorini Converging Mountain building uplift and very serious earthquakes Mega thrust earthquakes The plate that slides under is subducting under the overriding plate Low Pressure Cyclonicconvergent Warm surface air lnward counterclockwise circulation Less dense Air rises from surface and eventually cools Remember that these an Low density air can hold more moisture happen because the earth is 50 it PreCipitation always trying to balance High Pressure I I temperature Anticyclonlcl divergent If you begin with warm air the Coolcold air in lower atmosphere sinks to earth tries to cool it if you surface begin with cold air the earth Outward clockwise circulation tries to heat it Cold air is denser High density air can t hold much moisture Air sinks to surface and eventually warms You move from high to low Differences in pressure give us wind Low pressure circulates counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere Clockwise in the southern hemisphere High pressure circulates clockwise in the northern hemisphere Counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere Sea breeze Land breeze Air over land heats up more quickly than land over water Because land can change temperature quickly Fronts Are named for the weather they are bringing in Cold fronts can more easily push out warm front s Have an effect on our current weather Convchon quotTypical day time heatingquot Orographic Lift quotMountain with clouds on top of itquot Mountain serves as a topographic barrier Windward side lee ward side Wind comes from the windward side hits the mountain warm humid air is then rapidly lifted Then the warm air is condensed it precipitates forms clouds On the leeward side is the dry rain shadow On the windward side is a lot of rain and snow Rains and snows like crazy in the Bay of Bengal Maritime vs continental interior climates Maritime mildmoderate Affected by the size of the body of water Even a large river Ex Great Lakes Affected By the wind speed and direction Also in uenced by current Water in the west is cooler than in east Continental interior wide range from cold to hot Large water body temperatures change slowly slower than air and terrestrial temps in temperate latitudes away from the equator and the tropics north of the tropic of cancer and south of the tropic of Capricorn the air ows from west to east Altitudinal zonation elevation wind direction and latitude you have different crops at different altitudes Different temperatures at different altitudes Soil changes as you change altitude Different vegetation composition Exposure to sunlight Some are exposed Some sides of the mountain are in shadow Orographic lift One side of the mountain is going to get a lot more sunlight than the other Tierra caiente cacao Tierra templada con and cofre Tierra friar potato and barley these items are subjective based on the base temperatures of the place as you go up in latitude ie Canada as opposed to Columbia the crops will change Consider altitude and latitude Nation State and NationState Nation people A uni ed group NOT a country or place It is a politicized culture group often through a desire for selfrule You are buying into and supporting a political ideal Ex Kurds State political space Nation state A people in one political space Chapter 2 Natural environment dynamic system of interacting events that produce regional difference Atmosphere and hydrosphere interactions that produce weather and climate Lithosphere earth s crust changes brought about by the working of the earth s interior Ecosystem modi cations that occur when living organism namely plants and animals respond to modify local climate Climate based on the long term averages of the weather conditions mainly temp and precipitation Tropical excesses and polar de cits are compensated by ows of air and ocean water between the two regions Tropic oceans become reservoirs of heat Ocean currents move this heat pole ward Oceans account for most of the water that evaporates into the atmosphere and becomes precipitation Rainstorms are produced when humid air streams collide forcing the air to rise commonly by the equator Tropical climates High temperatures 30 degrees Celsius Main climatic variations in tropics are seasonal differences of rainfall Northsouth distribution Subtropical temperate climates Have marked seasonal temperature differences between summer and winter Ex North America and Europe Low pressure frontal cyclones bring rain and high winds High pressure anticyclones bring calm blue skies Europe bene ts from the ocean currents that war air above Polar climates Truly polar climates are frozen all year round Have no weather systems of their own Dominated by dense cold air In winter almost total darkness dominates for several months of the year Global warming Focus on the carbon gases that humans emit into the atmosphere by the burning of coal oil and gasoline Add to the gases that trap solar energy in the lower atmosphere and probably enhance the greenhouse effect and natural climatic warming The phenomena actually will cause many areas to cool and become wetter Lithosphere movements Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions quotRing of requot Paci c Ocean plates crashing there Divergent plate boundaries midAtlantic ridge Eruption of molten lava builds lceland Convergent plate boundaries Collisions Andes Mountains One plate goes up mountain the other plate is sub ducted Sub ducted plate produced molten rock that rises toward the surface under pressure and erupts to create volcanic mountains and huge lava elds such as those forming in the Columbia Plateau NW US Relief vertical differences between highest and lowest points of landscape features Weather rain snow and ice work mechanically to break down rocks Erosions removal of earth39s surface material through concentrated ows of wind water or ice Biome forest grassland desert polar and ocean Natural hazards volcanic eruptions earthquakes hurricanes and other storms river and coastal oods Pose challenges for housing settlements Protection is also costly Natural resources earth s materials that humans identify as useful Renewable resources replenish naturally water is renewable Ultimately are nite in quantity Nonrenewable resources include fossil fuels and metallic minerals Exhaustible Deserti cation destruction of the productive capacity of an area of land Deserts expand Industrial revolution 1750 First in London lntensi ed the scale of human intervention in natural environments Growth of the ozone hole over Antarctica poses another problem Depletion of the ozone layer increases ultraviolet ray penetration and the risk of skin cancer People living in Argentina Australia New Zealand and China are most prone to skin cancer Acid rain Affects up to several hundred kilometers downwind of major urban industrial areas Sulfur and nitrogen The phenomena is a growing menace downwind of new industrial areas in developing countries Rio earth Summit 1992 UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto 1997 Goal of reducing greenhouse emissions C02 CH4 N20 HFCs Greenhouse emissions in New Zealand were down 5 in 2008 from 1990 Cultural geography Material trays social structure and belief systems Language use religious beliefs and af liations CULTURE IS A LEARNED BEHAVIOR Language speech writing and singing a means of communication among people 6000 languages in the world lndoEuropean groups the largest European languages became lingua fracas Religion organized set of practices that professes to explain our existence and purpose on earth Universalizing global religions seeking to convert Christianity Buddhism and Islam Adherence to Judaism and Hinduism is considered mainly a matter of birth Diaspora dispersed community comprised of closeknit groups Aka Jews Judaism Christianity and Islam are the world s most in uential monotheistic religions Box Geography at Work Landscapes and Global Change Population growth economic development industrial technologies ecological changes China s agricultural landscapes have changed Thought that agricultural success was achieved by overcome nitrogen limitation by planting nitrogen xing legume quotgreen manurequot Turned out to be false Soil nitrogen concentration had increased over time quotSink effect Global consequences Ethnic group cultural group whose members are de ned by such characteristics as common origin religion language customs or physical feature Ethnocentrism refers to those who judge other ethnic groups harshly because they do things differently Race to be seen as biological differences although biological traits can be used as much to divide between races as within them Furthermore the most basic human biological character is DNA and blood type demonstrate little variation across race Class hierarchies created by an emphasis on such criteria as ethnicity race religion material wealth education perceived birth rating etc EX royal family UK is at the top Gender inequality ex female multinational In the EU women hold 6 million of the 8 million new jobs created from 2000 to 2010 Cultural hearth where the development of agricultural technology religion Language and social forms originated Demography study of population numbers densities growth and decline and migration Crude Birth Rate number of lives birth per 1000 inhabitants per year Total Fertility Rate average number of births per woman for one lifetime Crude Death Rate number of deaths per 1000 inhabitants per year Infant mortality die within the rst year Child mortality die within the rst ve years Migration long term movement of people into or out of a place Population doubling time the time in year taken to double the number of people in one place Increase of 1 is doubling time of 70 years Developing countries have shorter doubling times Malthus theorized that humans would run out of food to support too large of a population 195 countries in the world Kosovo is the newest rogue state 77 countries recognize it Taiwan once had 100 countries recognize it now only 22 Nationalism pride in one s national identity and the belief that one39s national interests are more important than all other interest 5 Indigenous people rst inhabitant of any given area Numbers decline as they are colonized GDP total value of goods and services produced in one country for one year PPP purchasing power parity estimates of GNP and GDP at comparison of living costs among countries Europe Site and Situation Around the same latitude as Canada Yet Ireland has tropic vegetation in areas Iceland Still has a hot spot underneath So it is still active Hotspnngs Volcanic activity North European Plain Key agricultural zone One of the most productive areas we have in the world At some places can be 100 miles inward Climate As you go up in latitude you have cooler climates High latitude and high altitude is the coldest Dominate climates in territorial extent are the D temperate climates EX France Spain Italy oceanic temperate climate Ex Palando Estonia Lituania continental temp rate cimate E climates boreal High latitude high altitude Cold temperature regime F climate Polar EX Norway Sweden and Finland tundra CS Mediterranean climate subtropical winter rain climate Long season spring through summer and into the fall Generally dry A short mild wet winter EX Southern Spain western ltaly Sicily eX Southern California eX southwestern South Africa Agriculture wine olives citrus crops Climate Change Trees core sample of ice soil core sand core organic matter that can tell us about the shifting elements in the air With the Eurasian Plate and African Plate neither is truly sub ducted Continentalcontinental convergence Soil Erosion can take away bad soil Taken downhill Eluvium planes Volcanic eruptions Flooding Rivers want to ood natural process Carry nutrient rich sediment Glacier Retreating Not a big deal in Europe More of a problem in the Himalayas Greenland melting could block or cool the Gulf Stream and Europe might lose that moderating force from the Atlantic ContentedContinental Convergence African Plate and Eurasian Plate Neither is truly sub ducted Active mountain building volcanoes and earthquakes Divergent zone in northern waters between North American and the Eurasian plat e Volcanic eruption and geothermal pools in Iceland Rivers Rhine is one of the most important rivers in the world Starts in mountain of Switzerland Flows 820 miles Towards Netherlands and mouth in the North Sea Had to create an extensive system of dams dikes and canals Because most of this river system is below sea level The more we do this the lower the land gets Rotterdam the key port of Europe Sometimes cited as the busiest port in the world In competition with Shanghai and Hong Kong Ruhr river 0 Important commercial industrial tributary of the Rhine o 35 miles long 0 Valley 0 Den sent industry for Europe Rivers form from mountains due to orographic lift Distributaries ow out of the main river Deltas series of distributaries Drainage basin A drainage divide quotThings were going one way and then this watershed moment happened and everything went a different wayquot Waters drains east of one side of the feature and west on the other side Rhine River is a drainage basin Danube River Goes into Russia Flows into Caspian Sea Population High percent urban Sub region from 6077 74 urban 38 cities have over 1 million people East central Europe has the lowest percent urban Northern Europe Scandinavian countries has the highest percent urban Muslim populations are one of the only populations growing and younger Urbanization rates are slower than in developing world regions Cities are still growing Global migrants EX London has the most global migrants Aging population Advanced demographic transition stages four or ve Most European countries are welfare states So this is a major issue Catholic Church Increased opportunity for women Population change is not concurrent with Catholic Church EX Spain Italy Social thinking is very progress demographically Migration Geo Identity and Migration Most large cities have signi cant minority s of foreign bornmigrant communities Historically they came from 1 or 2 source areas 2000s immigration trends are diversifying urban geographies Not from a single source More migration from the Middle East More migration from south amp East Asia But MOST from Eastern Europe MateriaIIy Wealthy amp Technologically Advanced PPP big mac It could be possible to get more for your buck in a poorer economy HOWEVER the poverty is so intense that one is better off in a weathermore expensive economy Far Iess consumer goods and ownership in African states Geographic Situation CentraIity Extensive regional and global connections Transportation Hnance Communication Geopolitics PostUSSR Integration and Change Transition and bridge zones in Europe Western Europe Most populous Wealthiest Most politically connected and in uential Cities house the EU NATO and World Court Most in uential cities are London and Paris Each have about 30 of 500 largest global companies Important currency signi cant about global cities Central banks Port cities hub for commerce Regionally signi cant and signi cant in their state Insurance and marketing are huge nance things US Alpha Beta and Gamma cities No alpha cities in the global south Why is it so quickly up to par with Europe Monroe Doctrine We were very accepting of immigrants Wanted to be like Europe had positive European legacies Situated with water And lots of resourcesquotlt London City 86 million 2010 UN Urban Agglomerations Larger metro region maybe 15 million Mega city because gt 10 million it s situational Truly a quotworld cityglobal cityquot Politics media transportation banking publishing education Migration Dramatic impact Clustered in a ring around city But none in city Similar to black Caribbean Settled in the same places China Some clusters in central city and a little to the left A little to the northwestern corridor and eastern corridor Industrial historic area is to the east Now there is a prominent commercial zone under signi cant urban change Still more poor on average but it seems they are trying to change that India Lots and lots in the outer North West Some in the southern corridor Pakistan Also in North West but not as many lrish NorthNorth West White British Not in central bureaus On the outskirts OPPOSITE OF THE US Population Grew before WWll Then signi cant decline after WWl Loss of infrastructure Families hiding in the country side Slow stable growth as of late Primarily due to immigration 1990s approx 48 growth 2000s approx 8 growth Approx 23 of immigrants to UK end up in metro London 65 million in London at the moment Early 2000s boom 20072009 bust Olympics impact to be determined A lot of the jobs were given to immigrants And not all of them are going to stay Most popular migrants skilled workers neighbors UK citizens were more receptive to immigration when it was high skilled immigrants Positive Negatives Fill position the native Londoners don t want to do Pay into the system Taxes Diversity Can we put the strain on the welfare system Are the mechanisms in place or host them Xenophobia Leaders have to adjust for the new makeup Large Muslim sect Some radicalized An Islamism not Islamic population in London Rising house prices Service jobs can t live in the center of London le nurses police men Mostly white Crime More poverty l more crime Chapter 3 European land was mined for coal and ore and the and then drilled for oil improved the European standard of living now one of the highest but profoundly affected Earth s ecosystem Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian continent Climate Oceanic temperate climates Norway to Spain Atlantic Ocean bring in a lot of rainfall throughout the year Temp Rarely drop below zero and get very hot in the summer Because of the melting icecap the temperatures have begun to drop Subtropical winter taint climate Mediterranean Climate Season shift occurs In the summer it is hot and dry because of wind from the Sahara and creates drought like conditions Continental temperate climate central and eastern Europe Winters are severe Summers are warmer than on the coasts and are marked by thunderstorms Europe got warmer until some 5000 years ago Venice Flooding and high tides weaken its foundation 1990 St Mark s square was ooded nine times Venice now deals with ooding about 200 times a year Alps Young mountain range Form the highest ranges Part of a series of ranges that include the Sierra Nevada in southern Spain the Pyrenees between France and Spain and the Apennines in the Italian Peninsula Estuaries where rivers meet the seas facilitated port building River Valleys The Rhine and Elbe in Germany on the West the Danube in the south of Germany Loire Rhone and Seine rivers in France Po River in Italy The Rhine is the world s busiest waterway Mouth of the Rhine in the Netherlands Problems there with the levees have given way Coal eld and steelmaking areas of the Ruhr and Saar are now less productive and polluting but some 20 of the world chemical industry output occurs around Basel Mannheim and Ruhr Pollution was at its worst in the 19705 Natural vegetation of Europe is temperate forest Deciduous trees in lowland Evergreen trees in upland Loess windblown glacial debris Easy route of diffusion for farming technology originating around the Mediterranean Sea via the Danube When humans cut the forest soil washed down hillsides more rapidly and added silt to rivers Smog winter smoke fogs Acid deposition thermal power stations burning coal emit sulfur and nitrogen that compound When combined with precipitation it becomes acid rain Black triangle Czech Polish and East German boundaries where acid rain is most prevalent Europe moved from extracting coal to oil to being dependent on gas In mid 19805 natural gas became the cheapest and cleanest fuel for electricity generators Steadily increased reliance on Russia for gas after 1991 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant affected nuclear policy Germany shut down most of its nuclear plant Capandtrade system European Union seta maximum amount of carbon dioxide that individual companies are allowed to emit those companies wishing to emit more can purchase allowances from companies that emit less than their caps 202020 plan 2007 plan that seeks to cut emissions by 20 percent increase energy ef ciency by 20 and obtain 20 of energy from renewable sources by 2020 Mediterranean World s highest level of oil pollution 28 of the world s seaborne oil traf c Takes 80150 to refresh the Mediterranean Large algae blooms especially in the Adriatic Tourists arrive in July and August when water supply is short and local sewerage systems nd it hard to cope NATO 1949 East Central European countries were eager to join Russia objected NATO accepted Poland the Czech Republic and Hungary 2002 lt formed a partnership with Russia Wants to help solve border disputes Bosnia Kosovo and Macedonia EU 1993 Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community EEC 1957 To create a common market in which goods capital people and services moved freely between countries gt EEC forms the legislative branch of the EU along with the Council of the European Union or the Council of Ministers Treaty of Maastricht in 1991 attempted to set a timetable for monetary and political union and changed the name of the organization to the EU in 1993 In 2004 10 countries of the Soviet Bloc joined the EU Supranationalism the idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual bene t that they can share the same government economy including currency social policies and military Devolution local peoples design less rue from their national government and seeking greater authority over themselves Separatism the desire for complete independence BOX ON EU Pros it is dif cult for one small European country to compete with China Japan Russia and US Better to unite EX US has 310 million people the EU combined has over 500 million Pros free movement of labor capital and goods strengthens business and provides more opportunities to buy the best products at the lowest prices In 2002 1215 members adopted the Euro In 2007 Slovenia joined 2008 Malta and Cyprus joined soon to switch to the Euro Cons when in an economic recession such as Portugal Ireland Italy and Greece one would normally devalue your own currency but in the EU you can t do that The only other option is to drastically slash government budget which is what they did UK Denmark and Sweden are not on the Euro EU is adopting the path of continued integration As economically poorer countries of East Central Europe join the Edu Edu regional development fund charley redirect to them from the countries and regions that used to be the poorest in the EU PIIG Population Patterns Europe s population is decreasing in most East Central European countries and some Mediterranean countries Only small increases in most Western and northern European countries Portugal Italy and Spain have the lowest fertility rates in the world The exceptions to populations decline are countries with signi cant Muslim populations Albania BosniaHerzegovina and Macedonia Greatest population density is in the industrial belt that turns southeastward form Central Britain through northern France Belgium and the Netherlands and Germany Low population density is in the mountainous areas such as the Alps Apennines Greek mountains the Pyrenees and the Carpathians Europe has few extremely large cities because functions are often spread among several cities Paris 10 million and London 9 million are the largest The period of 19451970 was one of rehabilitation expansion and restarting of cities expanded their functions and populations Gentri cation renovating poor and dilapidated housing increasing their value of the house stock and changing neighborhoods from lowincome to high income Ex allowing for only pedestrian traf c in central areas and arcades of specialty shops become features of city centers In the 1980s relaxing planning restrictions led to a further dispersal of economic activity from city centers Nevertheless suburnization in Europe is much less pronounced than in the US The Mediterranean countries are less urbanized than countries in either western or northern Europe But they have some of Europe s largest cities The lack of major world cities in Eastern Europe arises from the small size of the countries the late arrival of industrialization and the focus on manufacturing growth linked to mediumsized industrial town expansion during Soviet times The largest cities of the southern part of East Central Europe were built as expressions of the AustroHungarian Empire s presence European women frequently receive a higher percentage of university degrees than men Only four European countries have gender parity Latvia Lithuania Macedonia and Serbia Sweden placed second for percentage of parliamentary seats held by a woman After Rwanda France and the United Kingdom France began with the Capet family in 900 French Rev in 1789 In 1982 the government made 22 provinces called regions granted them considerable autonomy The UK adopted its name in 1801 England Wales and Scotland Northern Ireland In 1922 independentminded Irish removed all but six countries of Ireland from the UK The Irish Free State had to swear allegiance to the British monarch unU1949 In the North six counties still held by UK Irish nationalist or Unionist loyalists Both France and UK are very involved with their former colonies 1945 France created a currency CFA franc for its western and central African countries France also maintains the French foreign legion a military unit or non French citizens that ght for French interests Decolonization after WWII where parent countries had to give up control over their colonies European countries needed works and many were encourage to come from the former coIonies By the 1970s Western Europe was rebuilt but slumping genomic hurt further by an international oil prices meant that less labor was needed Europeans blame migrants for taking theirjobs The UK France and Germany have the largest number of immigrants UK was the rst to accept a bunch of immigrants Gave full political rights Racial Relations Acts in 1965 1968 and 1976 France received huge numbers of immigrants from Algeria and other colonies To the French all French are citizens and making a race relations laws would be segregation within itself In 2004 the French government forbade Muslim women from wearing hijabs to school Some young Muslim girls liked this wanted to break off from tradition Germany didn t receive immigrants from colonies it didn t really have colonies Originally recruited workers from Portugal Spain Italy Yugoslavia and Greece And then from Turkey now there are lots of Turks more than 2 million Right to work but not citizenship gastarbeiter guest worker In 1999 Germany changed its immigration laws and became quota nation 0 Immigrantsquot Russia Top ten for population Covers 11 time zones For some reason far beyond my comprehension people are moving to Siberia Because of climate change Also because Russia is approaching a aged progressed population And Russia is trying to grow industry so migrant community are coming in Even Latin Americans It s cold And rivers freeze DU TDU illll quotLU B39U39lll f39 W l frilly1 A N E ETDUEjl l39 l Hillquoti TU Bi 1 ll 3N0l l39ll39llll xl Climate Rain shadow Affected by how much land is in high latitudes Not conducive to agriculture Potatoes grow at this latitude Great resource diversity Not in terms of agriculture But in terms of minerals and carbonbased fuels Ural Mountains Ancient geology Formed once from convergence of plates that no longer exist 1500 miles in length Mostly around 1000 ft high Hills not a mountain peak is 6200 ft bigger mountains to the south block air from Indian Ocean warmth colder air from the arctic from sinking down into South Asia Longer frozen season shorter growing season and poor soils in higher Ob River 2290 miles long Origins in the Sot near Novosibirsk and ows north towards the Arctic lrtysh is major tributary Key for the transport of lumbertimber and grains Not usable for many months because it s frozen over Some industrial use a few hydroelectric power plants Don River Westernmost River in Russia 1160 miles long 800 navigable Passes through gentile agricultural lands and steppe lands Volga River 2300 miles long Movement of freight and commercial goods transportation of goods and people 200 miles navigable Connected to Moscow and the Baltic through canals Most industrial river basin ows into the Caspian Sea which doesn t have an n outline Pipelines Russia is relatively rich in natural resource s Lots of oil Mineral rich Lots of rich sediment in the middle of country Lomonosov Ridge extension of continental shelf that connects Russia to Greenland and Canada lce melt and Arctic resources Russia stands to capitalize on natural gas that is trapped in the Arctic As So not only can the gas be freed but the arctic would be more navigable Also Russia wants the arctic pass thing UNCLOS Exclusive Economic Zone State has rights over resources on surface in water on sea oor and under sea oor Resource exploitation and exploration Other state may not exploit without permission of state 200 nm out from baseline or the continental shelf argument Russia and Norway Reached an agreement last year about their disputed quotsea borderquot Major international dispute STlL EXISTS regarding the artic quotGlobal Commonsquot Russia Norway Denmark Greenland Canada use Most of the population in Russia is concentrated in the western third Some transportation through south center Soviet Legacy Centralized planning lack of geographic logic and inef cienes in production resource use jobs quotSeemingly odd forced migration Heavy concentration of Russian people in the Crimean peninsula Factories were not placed in areas where the logical maximum of production could occur incredibly inef cient quotRusso cationquot contemporary ethnonational issues A lot of republic of the USSR had their own culture but Russia tried or impose their language and ag Also people literally the imposition of people and culture on nonRussian places to at least eatables has signi cant Russian minority USSR disintegration lack of good economic planning Gorbachev s reforms open door policies Economic reforms Afghanistan was incredibly costly in terms of political capital resulted US and Cold War Russian Federation Russia and all of its internal republics ClS Commonwealth of Indecent States Not a supranational identity Not a confederation Not a federal entity Georgia withdrawal Belarus Russian Federation NO But a Russian Federation Until recently Belarus was a satellite Oilgas relations create tension Russia sup olives 14 of Europe s energy Russia still holds some control over economy But it is technically independent Caspian Sea Landlocked sea in a major depression Resource rich Does not have a natural outlet Becomes very salty as a result Lots of discord over resource exploitation Kazakhstan Russia Azerbaijan Turkmenistan lran Freshwater input is more northern than southern Highly productive sheries s Sturgeon world s primary habitat Caviar Ma a Organized cartels Violence and terrorism as a result of the attempt to control and manipulate sturgeon sheries Black market caviar Russia tries to restrict shing but no caviar Oil and Natural gas No outlet or the world marine systems So either rivercanal links are used or overland transport think Lack of transport infrastructure Regional border disputes Ethnonationalist tension Pipelines to Russia port of Novorossiysk Black Sea Trying to increase connections to Paci c and Artic coasts TUrkey Bosporus strait Center of Istanbul Mediterranean access Ships literally crashed into buildings Turkey wants to be counterweight to Russia and wants to be a key player BTC pipeline Baku Azerbaijan Tbilisi Georgia Ceyhan Turkey Caucus Mountains Very rugged terrain Steep slopes Many peaks over 15000 feet Numerous isolated valley Human settle in the valleys all isolated D very diverse Georgia Ossetia North Russia South Georgia Separated by mountains if Russia could get the southern part it could have much more in uence Border of Russia and Georgios is the most rugged part of the Cause Kura River 941 miles long Cities on the river Very polluted Terminates in the Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan Rioni River Silt lled Swampy delta Great agricultural land most signi cant agricultural zone in Georgia Black Sea Coast The reason why Crimea is important quotThe Florida of the Soviet Unionquot Oil Resources Timber Over lumbered some of its timber Active geology zone Hydroelectric power not signi cant yet Most energy is still imported Armenia splits Azerbaijan in two piece in Azerbaijan wants to be Armenia Abkhazia Wanted independence gt50 of Ortho Christian 13 Sunni Oppression and cultural suppression in Stalin year Adjara About 400 k Ethnically Georgia Linguistic speak a dialect of Georgia Religion is the difference Almost exclusively Sunni Muslim South Ossetia Albans Possibly from Caspian Sea Migrated from farther east Mostly orthodox East lranian South Ossetia as its own independent region Not Russia in George Became Georgia when Georgia left the USSR Georgia is cozying up to NATO Believes it will destabilize their authority in the region Wants to build its consumer l f TI base Potential instability within its inner region Dagestan Republic Russia Plains the North Mountains in the south More people in the south r g g Found better local areas in the A south Natural fortitude in the south r 39 Z Kilometers 27 different languages H n Flat area but swampy in the zoo Milesquot North also dry No people Destabilization Sunni Muslims Terrorism Islamic terrorism like boson bombers have come out of Dagestan caucus reign Many tend to move there areas such Saudi Arabia Chapter 4 Commonwealth of Independent States CIS once included all 12 countries of the Soviet Bloc Also includes Eurasian Economic Community Collective Security Treaty Organization Organization for Democracy and Economic Development Focus either on maintain the trade ows established during Soviet Times or on collective security Continentally very hot in the summer very cold in the winter The warmest climates of the region are around hot Black and Caspian Sea and in the Central Asian countries Greatest contrast of climates is in Eastern Siberia January 30 degrees Celsius July 16 degrees Celsius Mountains in the spring provide considerable meltwater for streams owing their ghee dry areas of southern Russia and ancestral Asia Plains and low plateaus dominate most of the landscape of this region In the west the Don River system ows into the Black Sea and the Volga into the Caspian Sea While the rivers in western Russia rare used intensively for transportation generating hydroelectricity and as sources of industrial and domestic water Those in the east except for Angara River are less exploited Hot deserts in the south change northward to the steppe grassland to deciduous and coniferous Forest and to turner on the shores of the Arctic Ocean The steppe grasslands grow on fertile black soil Farther north the trees can grow when linked to black soil Northern coniferous forest taiga dominate vas areas of land from Moscow northward and across most of Siberia Tundra around the shores of the Arctic Ocean where it is underlain by errantly frozen ground permafrost Communism preached that nature should be transformed to eve human needs Oil Frequent oil pipeline breaks leakages and spills are a major problem In 2009 the Shushenskaya collapsed in Siberia which houses 15 of Russia hydroelectric power and it created an oil slick 80 miles long Pollution at Norilsk Mining began there in the 19305 Help from gulags forced labor camps Killed 12 million acres of trees Recently entrepreneurs have learned to earn money by scooping up tons of the pollutants and selling the mot the factories to process into metal Nuclear Pollution Chernobyl in 1986 nuclear fallout around north of Kiev Preceded by the Kitty incident in 1957 500000 people exposed to harmful radiation Chernobyl is now a tourist destination Mountains to the east melts in spring providing water to such rivers as the am and the Sir Darya The Soviet Union wanted to use the water for irrigation on cotton farms but they extracts 0 much hat theta the river stopped owing into the Aral Sea Now less than half of its size The practice of putting industry before environment occurs in the other ve countries bordering get Black Sea Russia Georgia Turkey Bulgaria and Romania And in the 17 countries whose rivers drain into that sea Russian Federation ranks as the 2nd greatest carbon emitter behind the US By 2008 the Russian Federation s carbon dioxide emissions were almost 33 percent lower than they had been in 1990 Calculations are controversial Russia and its neighbors cover more than 4x as much land surface as the European world region Armenia is the size of Maryland and Delaware combined Over the last 2 millennia three major invading in uences 1 Christianity rom the southwest 2 Islam entering form the south 3 Mongol culture from the east Eastern Slavs 1500 BC Land between Vistula and Dnieper Rivers Subdivided into Russians Belarussians and Ukrainians Russians Traded amber beeswax fur and precious metals With lands acquired near Byzantium Eastern Slavs mingled with Vikings Belts and FinnoUgric people They became Russ both the people and the land Novgorod and Kiev Kieran Russ reached its zenith in 900s 10005 Prince Vladimir brought eastern orthodoxy to Kiev 1200 Mongol Attack Muscovy It was an insigni cant trait post at the time of Mongol invasion isolate Isolation protected them from the Mongols Eventually conquered the Russ principalities In 1480 Muscovy was so powerful and the Mongols so weak that Ivan III just stopped paying the Mongols tribute In 1453 with the fall of Constantinople Ivan was seen as its inheritor called himself Tsar Russia Empire 1613 Mikhail Romanov ascended to the throne Anastasia No D Greatest territorial expansion was made under Peter the Great Alexander I was the savior of Europe By the early 19005 Russia achieved its greatest extent Justi cation poIiticizes to force Russia s memories to become more Russian Soviet Union WWI put a lot of stress on the mire 1917 food shortages Finland declared independence as did Estonia Latvia and Lithuania Belarus and Ukraine Polish lands of Russia joined with the Polish lands of Germany By late 1917 the Bolsheviks group of Communists Reds overthrew the government gt Civil war In 1922 under the leadership of Lenin the Bolsheviks established the USSR Fiver Year Plans Implemented by Stalin after death of Lenin in 1924 quotWorker s paradisequot Collectivization and industrialization Small family farms were merged to create large farms with thousands of acres Perestroika and GIasnost Gorbachev 1985 Perestroika economic restructuring GIasnost informal openness Bureaucrats fought Gorbachev on this Economic policies ran opposite of what they have been in the 1920 Crisis Good war expansive Cash was in short supply Ex before the USSR sent machinery to Cuba for sugar but now they needed cash not sugar Same problem with COMECON GIasnost was providing open information to the citizens Was supposed to empower people with knowledge Let everyone be aware of all the corruption and abuse Russians complained that the government was suppressing Russian culture And those that wanted independence were able to speak out Human Rights Tsars killed people Bolsheviks banished their opponents In 1921 they had a nal extermination camp gulag 30000 in 1928 to 600000 by 1930 Great Terror purges of Stalin after 1934 East Asia Includes Mongolia China Taiwan Koreas Japan Tibet Asia Too large Too diverse to encompass as one region Meaningless geographically middle East the quotStan s South East Asia East Asia The term quotAsianquot does not apply equally to Saudis and Indians and Chinese Paci c Rim Geology Three plates coming together near Tokyo But even the North American plate the fourth plate factors in Eurasian plate Moving south And moving east and west against the Indian plate Philippine Plate Growing east and west Paci c Moving west North American plate is coming south And eastsoutheast technically moving west but when you are looking at the other side of the globe that same movement is seen as moving eastsouth east Incredibly active volcanoes here Mountains Plateau of Tibet quotHeight of the worldquot Tallest place Mt Everest and K2 Orographic lift Water coming from Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean in India giant sea breeze and land breeze It reaches the most people probably the most important mountain range because the water is melts into reaches more people than any other source The Himalayas are still growing active mountain building River Rivers created ood plains the Yangzi and the Yellow river Yellow River is 3 395 miles long ll You have irrigated agriculture you have industry and you have dams None of that compares to what they have at the Yangtze Yangtze gtgt Yellow River Yangtze River Origin is in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau Around 400 million people live along this river More than the United States 3900 miles long It s a deeper river than the Yellow River more navigable better for boats and ships Tourism at the Yangtze River Great Wall of China Pandas Locations of ancient kingdoms Lots of history Rice is mainly grown by the Yangtze Chongqing Three Gorges Dam In Yangtze Flood control Increase tourism Energy Renewable energy In theory it should increase water supply for aggregation Displaced a lot of people Historical sites are gone Like Atlantis the history was buried underwater Changed ecosystem GRANT THINKS HE WILL MENTION PITTSBURGH 20 TIMES NOTE THAT SO FAR HE IS 120 Aquatic life plant and animal is prevented from its regular movement Some stuff is stuck below the dam Sediment can also not move The land isn t built to hold that much water The weight is so phenomenal that we are changing the seismology Temperature Huge continental interior rain shadow Desert Hot summer temperatures but it can also be very cold in the Gobi Desert Great seasonal changes Burial climate like in Russia towards Mongolia High latitude Very short growing season Typhoon Hurricane but in the paci c Iike a cyclone in the Indian Ocean Western paci c season is the longest season for tropical storms Almost every month Storms that develop in south East Asia affect East Asia Population Chain s population problems Used to need population to have an army Wanted resources and people Fed the military expansionist dynasty Han Family centered culture Children are expected to take care of older generations Tradition for large families male children are considered a connection to your ancestry Mao Wanted a huge population Wanted large families Wanted lots of Chinese communists PRC Policy Strictcontroversial policies dramatic impact One child policy Population Today Growth rates are done India WILL surpass china Have we gone too far Materials Ore Iron Copper Tin Manganese Tungsten Lots of variety and lots of supply for industry Synthetics textiles Heavy metals steel synthetics etc Green Undercutting American products Cheap solar panels Massive debt relationship with China So when China gets heat we can t convince them to do otherwise But they also need us Rapidly creating costeffective green technology But are still creating environmentally unfriendly industry Rare Earth Metals Lots of lithium We think we can produce these synthetically Hong Kong Taiwan Series of dynasties Shang 1570 1045 Han 206 BC 220 AD Largest single community in contemporary China are Han Chinese Increasing territorial extent people and resources grew exponential the centuries throughout the subsequent dynasties Ming right before the Manchu dynasty Ming asked Manu for help for the beau racy Qing Manchu Dynasty people of Manchuria established Opium War 1839 1842 Hong Kong Island 1856 1860 Part of Kowloon Henry Pu Yi the last emperor of the Manchu dynasty Also known as Xuan tong Was forced to abdicate after Revolution 1911 Silk Road major trade route from east to west 1997 Britain gave back Hong Kong Revolution and PRC Nationalist First leader was Sun YetSen died in 1925 and ended Manchudynastic rule 1911 Second leader Chiang KaiShek Dynastic rule had been degraded throughout the 19th century Dual Economic Systems Coastal area which is more developed and service oriented Mainly agricultural island Special economic zones that allow for capitalism Ex Hong Kong On coast only not on interior Fears that people are moving to cities and getting incorporated into capitalist Fear that capitalism spreads into the rest of the country Substantial wealth gap between industrial cities and coast cities a signi cant out of migration to capitalist areas Internal migrating is bigger deal than external Rapid City growth in the last decade Food and energy consumption is crazy Taiwan Case Study Geographic Stats Broad costal play net west Tall mountains in the east Typhoon season almost year round spring summer and fall Drainage stricter that controls runoff and ash ooding Generally a warm and human wt locate On the tropic of cancer 160 inches of rainfall a year People Most of the people are ethnic Han Cines Only 2 native Japan explored rst in the 1100s 1590 Portuguese came When the Manchu took over Ming dynasty they drove off the Dutch and any other foreigners No of cial dynastic claim until the Min From then on the Chinese people present on Taiwan Languages Natives speak some sort of Austro language Han Chinese speak Mandarin Religions Buddhism Daoism Economy Taiwan was industrialized by the Japanese e Modernized by the ROC republic of China just Taiwan Mutually bene cial in terms of trade Capitalist economy One of the most equal income distributions of anyone in the world ENT repot take other materials and sell them middle man Imports about 80 of their energy Finance business retail tourism Key service industry Still manufacturing headquarters High tech electronics chemicals synthetics petrochemical production steel and iron Government Decades of very strict rule by the nationalist Ma blbw 1520 past year s youth were trying to challenge Tons of political parties Chapter 5 East Asia Climate Subtropical rainy Lots of typhoons hurricanes East Asian coast comparable to East Coast USA Arid in west by Gobi and Mongolia Urban vs Rural populations in China By 2015 Beijing Shanghai and Tianjin over 15 million people each Over 100 cities with populations over 1 million pandas Massive urbanization during Mao era 49 million to 106 million from 19491960 Decline during Cultural Revolution After Cultural Revolution rapid urbanization in ports and interior Now about half total population urban China s Population Dynamics 1953583 million to 13 billion in 2010 1965 2010 fertility rate fell from 64 to 15 With a 3 child policy China s population would rise to over 4 billion by 2080 Increased life expectancy from 35 in 1945 to 74 in 2010 Population Policies in China BOX READ IT BECAUSE JOE LIKES BOXES Two not so successful birth control policies in 505 and 605 Disrupted by Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution Song Jian nuclear scientist projected 1 billion population by 2000 with 1 child policy in 1979 1 child policy lasted 30 years Bene ts for those who followed disincentives for those who didn t Stricter enforcement in urban areas Lots of misreporting so that populations have ended up much higher than of cially reported Japanese Tsunami 90 earthquake and tsunami March 11 2011 Displaced over 136000 and killed 14000 Caused Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant problems and explosions radiation Tokyo Stock exchange lost 700 billion in three days Taiwan Kuomintang forces escape China 1949 and create ROC Hightech export industries in Taiwan and investor in Chinese industries Growing servicecentered economy with lots of industrial Half Taiwan s population support Hong Kong like system China 3rd largest trading partner Economy Rice based in 1949 but surplus led to other crops like tea and sugar Mid 19605 focus on manufacturing for exports Switch to hightech in 19805 Leaders in circuits laptops biotech etc One of the largest trade surpluses in world by 19905 Increased unemployment a5 industries move to mainland China forcheaplabor China Most people are Han Encouraged spread of Han culture Tibet is not happy with the Chinese Terrorism in Xinjiang occasionally because it is closer to Central Asia but China was reasserting control in 1949 and moving Han there Collectivization and communes 1952 300 million landless peasants get land to farm for free 1954 Halfjoin mutual team aids for pooled labor Land pooled under central management with income based on labor inputs Collectivization Government established communes combining agriculture industry trade education and militia


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