Soc 101 Lecture Notes
Soc 101 Lecture Notes 101
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HIST 3013: Civil War Reconstruction
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by tiffany.sakamoto Notetaker on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 101 at Washington State University taught by Mandy Clayson Anaya in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Soc 101 Lecture Notes Social communication and sustaining relationships Sociology scienti c study of social world 0 Collect data and test out hypotheses 0 Train people to be skeptical of social actions 0 Study family political labor market social networks religion gender medicine relationships affect health environment human interactions affect on environment crime 0 Focus on social factors of actions Sociological perspective of sociology Psychology vs Sociology 0 Psychology focuses on mind sociology focuses on social relationships affect on people s actions Imagination ability to think differently about things than the way we usually think about them creative new perspective Sociological imagination different perspective that analyzes the social factors affecting one s actions or thoughts 0 Coined in 1950 by C Wright Mills Individualism focus is on the individual and their actions What are you doing here Why are you in school 0 Reasons job successful life experience and knowledge 0 41 in 2012 from 1824 yrs enrolled in college Hernando Washington 19705 0 Commited murder in Chicago 0 Victim Sarah Golda 0 First intentions for robbing but ended up raping and killing her 0 No consequences for rape sister and murder brother no understanding of serious consequences of his actions 0 Social factors lack of law enforcement Social fact idea that has been tested is accepted by society 0 Emile Durkhein French social theorist Ferdinand Tonnies German Social theorist o Gemeinshchaft intimate relationships end to themselves 0 Gesellschaft impersonal associations personal gain and means to an end 0 Relationship type de nes rules Manifest function intended or obvious consequence 0 Ex going to a football game Latent function unintended or accidental consequence 0 Ex getting too drunk and going to the hospital Inconvenient fact something that contradicts something that you think is true in the social world 0 Max Weber German Ethnocentrism when one thinks their culture is the best Cultural relativism observing others in their own culture Na39ive observer a person that has a awed logic l awed conclusions Fallacies of presumption o Hasty generalization Base conclusion on little informationexperience 0 False bifurcation this or that argument 0 False cause Timing cause before effect Association relationship between cause and effect No nonspurious factors third factor in uencing both cause and effect Relevance fallacies 0 Appeal to one someone that does not have relevant authority to the desired topic 0 Appeal to many going along with the crowd 0 Appeal to select few belong to a special group preys on desire to feel special 0 Appeal to tradition following tradition customs Fallacies of wrong level 0 Move back and forth between units of analysis go from individual to group of individual 0 Ex juror vs jury o What is the unit of analysis Functionalism o Outlined by Talcott Parsons 193019705 0 Society is made up of interrelated parts Economy Religion Government Families All of these work together for society s survival Con ict Theory 0 Originated from Karl Marx 18405 reemerged 19705 0 Con ict between Haves and Have Nots 0 There has to be resource desire Symbolic lnteractionism 0 19305 Herbert Blummer 0 Give meaning to everyday interactions Little Mermaid Fork used for eating but Ariel uses it as a brush 0 Depending on the meaning we respond different ways 0 Learn interpretation from experiences with others Variables in uenced by or in uences something else vary Hypothesis specifies the relationship you think exists between variables X Y 0 Ex Different jobs based on education Independent variables 0 Cause 0 lst 0 Ex Age gender race Dependent variables 0 Effect 0 2nd Operationalize list attributes of variable that can be measured or observed Exhaustive each person can t into one category Mutually exclusive categories or attributes don t overlap General or specify 0 Education years of schooling degrees earned Directionality direct of relationship between variables 0 Positive vary in same direction or DD 0 Negative vary in opposite direction or DD 0 Curvilinear different variables result in curve Determines type what kind of question are you trying to answer Quantitative Research 0 How many 0 Counts and statistics Qualitative Research 0 Why something happening 0 Stories and personal accounts 0 Meaning Survey questionnaire to get information Observational research 0 Complete participant not aware of research 0 Complete observer 0 Participant observer researcher that participates in experiment 0 Hawthorne effect social desirability l looking good for experiment 0 Ethnography stay for a long time forget about researcher Unobtrusive research 0 Looking at artifacts and media 0 Garbage what people leave behind Experiments 0 Lab setting and try to control environment 0 Random assignment 0 Games to observe participants actions Triangulation multiple kinds of research to enhance the argument 0 Culture is big and everywhere 0 Material Culture artifacts are objects that are given meaning by humans Durable artifacts something that lasts overtime Ephemeral artifacts meals matches 0 Nonmaterial Culture symbols are something that represents something else 2 or more people agree on the meaning Language words gesture grammar and syntax 5 functions of language 0 Organizes the way we think about the world different perceptions o Allows experience to be cumulative learn from others 0 Allows complex goaloriented behavior Identi es your place in society geographic location in society or social standing in society 0 A woman without her man is nothing A woman without her man is nothing l grammar has different meaning Norms rules for behavior Folkway casual or gentle norms Mores important rules should be doing greater reaction from society Taboos so deeply held that even thought of breaking upsets people cannilbalism Sanctions responses for breaking or keeping norms Formal sanctions organizations 0 lnformal sanctions individuals 0 Positive good response for keeping or going beyond expectations 0 Negative breaking norm Formal Making honor roll Jail Sentence Medal of Honor Parking Ticket lnformal Thank you note Being ignored Applause Booing Dirty Look Values ideas about what is good and bad Cultural beliefs ideas about what is real amp what is not real Action by humans creating culture 0 0 Different societies speci c geographic area have different culture Once problem is solved in an acceptable way we typically keep solving it the same way Change in culture future culture action 0 O Reify regard something that s human made as natural or inevitable Observe something that seems natural due to repetition Institutions sets of ideas about how societal problems should be handled Cultural Diffusion take aspects from other society s cultures and blendingadopting them into ours Meaning doesn t always transfer Cultural leveling similar to each other ex social media Different categories of culture 0 Microcosm smaller group that epitomizes the larger society Ex girl scouts l society pays taxes girl scouts pay dues Subcultures distinct values norms artifacts etc culture that set them apart from society Ex Nunnery special clothing different customs Counterculture distinct cultural aspects but these are at odds with larger society Ex Ku Klux Klan l don t believe in beliefs but ppl in that association do ldioculture any group that interacts overtime develops own culture Group interact in speci c experience Aggregate same place same time no interaction Ex marching band Functions of culture 0 Simpli es life patterns how we do things doing the norms o Promotes solidarityunity group identity Dysfunction of culture 0 Culture shock removed from own culture don t know how to handle new culture 0 Ethnocentrism thinking one culture is better than others Humor 0 Creating friendship amp promoting solidarity ingroup or out group 0 Deal with social anxiety to deal with bad events 0 Form of social control Culturally standardized unreason unreason l different unique strange Culture or Biology sleep eat drink sex both 0 False bifurcation 0 Both in uence one s actions and thoughts Social structure a set of relatively stable relationships connecting different statuses position we occupy in society in a group 0 Example I am a student I am a person stressing about midterms I am female 0 I achieved status do something to acquireearn the status can be negative Ex convicted criminal college graduate marriedpartner o Ascribed status put on you by society typically at birth without you doing anything Ex age race gender 0 Situational status hod status based on current situationevent Ex customer 0 Transitional status serve as bridges to more permanent statuses Ex engaged student 0 Status symbols objects that give away our position or status in society Ex wedding ring l engaged backpackbooks student Every statuses have a role 0 Role what is expected of amp by person occupying a status 0 Rights expect of other people 0 Obligations others expect of you 0 Role can vary depending on culture Tricky situations for roles 0 Role strain so much required by 1 role that it is difficult to ful ll obligations 0 Status inconsistency 2 statuses are inconsistent with social expectations Ex female mechanic male makeup rep 14 yr old professor Ascribed status con icts with achieved status 0 Role con ict can t ful ll the obligations of 2 roles at the same time Ex single parent futime employee and futime student Master status most important status to society 0 Cut across all other statuses 0 Lens through which all other statuses are judged judge differently according to gender Movie Questions Stanford Prison Experiment 0 How did the statuses and accompanying roles affect the individuals in the experiment The individuals were not fully conscious of their actions and were just following the role they were given The prisoners had mental breakdowns o What made individuals feel they were not personally responsible They didn t feel responsible because they believed that was the behavior that was associated with their roles Roles give us scripts to follow 0 Status vs role status is the position that one occupies and a role is what one does in that position Roles in uence our behavior To prevent status inconsistency roe con ict and role strain 0 Choose statuses that don t con ict each other 0 Abandon a status not always an easy choice Role distancing remove themselves from status as much as possible but still under that status if you can t completely abandon it not top priority 0 Comply most with the parts of role that have biggest consequence 0 Role segregation try to separate roles apart from each other so they don t con ict Establishedpatterned networks of relationships connecting statuses within the group Diagram social structure of your family 0 Names Byron joy Taylor and Sebastian 0 Status Byron Dad joy Mom Taylor Younger sister Sebastian Dog 0 Role Byron Authority nancial provider joy Authority house chores nancial provider Taylor friendship support Sebastian provide happiness Microsociology sociology of small scale interactions Macrosociology sociology of large scale processes Society totality of individuals and their relationship in a given geography o De nite geographic territory 0 Recruitment of members typically originates from sexual reproduction 0 Comprehensive culture and social structures to meet the desires of people 0 Fairly politically independent may sometimes rely on other societies for help 0 Long life meet all the needs of society Institution a solution to a societal problem 0 Set of ideas about how to solve a problem about how it ought to be done Ought to be done not all about efficiency but the values that society holds Ex how to build a house a blueprint for the structure of the hosue blueprint is an institution since it s a set of ideas to build a house 0 Societal Needs Food and water Shelter Reproductionl family Communication socialize memebers family educann Medicall medicine limits disease Heiarchy selecting occupations labor market Control members justice system law Defense against enemies military Creating new knowledge science philosophy Providing goods and services economy Promote unity religion Answer questions about purposel religion Nature of Institutions 0 Generally unplanned and develop gradually Try different things work continue doing it habitualized Over generations habit becomes accepted habitualized institutionalized 0 Slow changing inherently conservative Change ideas of family not typical parents and child but unmarried couples having kids gay marriage married couples without kids 0 Institutions are interdependent connected to each other OOOOO Famiy women stays home changed to women working lchange of diversity in economy change of law to protect women from sexual harassment at work Bare little resemblance to institutions in another society Respond to societal needs Set expectations Guide individuals as they set up new structures Standard to judge existing social structures
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