Popular in HIST 120 - History of the U.S. through Reconstruction
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verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 02/19/15
13015 ChristopherColumbus wanted obsessed to find a water route to China he was brutal to the Indians he encountered Thought days were 12 hours long south ofthe Hemisphere thought the world was goingto end king salemJewish king stocked the kingdom with silver and gold Columbus thought there were mines on the Island of Hispaniola each village had to meet a certain amount of gold a quota every month if not the soldiers would chop of the Indians right hands Europeans impacted Indians and vice versa they got a lot of metals like gold 0 El Dorado quotthe golden onemanquot Legend of El Dorado a prince would sleep and people would bring him flakes of gold the conqisdores looked for him but neverfound him because isn39t actually true Incas and Aztecs had gold but used itfor decoration houses and gardens Francisco Pizzaro conquered the king ofthe Incas Atahualpa Pizzaro demanded a room of gold and the village did that and while thistime Pizzaro taught them Chess and one day Atahualpa beat him and so Pizzaro stabbed and killed him and then Atahualpa39s people hid the gold and it was neverfound 15001615 took 200 tons of gold to Europe they took silver more important changed European society before you wouldjust trade they produced money with little silvercoins 16000 tons of silverwentfrom South America to Spain With the America39s Europeans didn39t need the sales ofAfrica so then they started to sell slaves o Potosi Mountain of SilverOre modern day Bolivia 6000 slaves to getthe silver but most of them died due to high altitudes 14000 ft above sea level 4 out of 5 miners died duringtheirfirst year Spain eventually went Bankrupt had an enormous empire for about 200 years More silverin Mexico ofthe English colonies Industrialization Communism o Kahl Germany on Kahl river people here were dull and boring wheat farmers made bread for about 2000 years 1700 people stopped growing wheat mills reopened to make cloth and textiles swept up in Industrialization revolution spurred on due to potatoes they are now eating potatoes they used cotton from America an inch long can weave with it make fibers into thread had to separated seed from fiber need dyesfor clothing and America made types of dye Native Americans were using cotton before 0 Cochineal interesting type of dye little bugs live on the cactus grows in the valley of Mexico and the female bugs once crushed they produce a red dye Aztecs figured out that you need 70000 of these bugs to create 1 pound of dye and so they grew the cacti to harvest the bugs technica know how that the Europeans didn t have 20000 people living in Mexico City used rivers as sewage deposal Primary color distinguished people Incas found and used rubber waterproof stuff Incas were growing 3000 types of potatoes changed the balance of powerin Europe towards Russia population grew in Ireland because ofthe potatoes 32 million to 1845 82 million European leaders forced people peasants to grow potatoes because a field of potatoes had a lot more nutrition benefits good source ofvitamin C versus anything else and they are really easy to grow peasants of Europe hated the potato didn39t like root plants put taxes on mills and bakers Native Americans grew over300 things that Europeans have not seen before first to domesticate peanuts plains Indians sunflowerseeds corn was a descriptive word forgrains used to feed animals but not humans then they found out corn itselftastes good Native Americans gave us this What Native Americans Gave Us 20215 they gave us different ways to grow things guanoseagul droppings used forfe rti lizer Incas used death penalty for people who killed seagulls Chocoate produced by Aztecs it was a drink Vanila bean comes from Native Americans Hominy and Gritts maple syrupsticking tube into maple syrup dry meatjerky mints and peppers Marco Polo brought back pasta from China tomatoes from CC and thus Italian food o Malaria blood born disease carried by mosquitos great killerthroughout Europe and Asia Inca had a cure quina today known as quinine o Quinine drink quinine watereveryday you wont get malaria controls all the symptoms 0 Countess of Chinchona noble woman suffered from malaria and decided to go on a world cruise and stopped off in Peru got quinine waterand thought she was cured and brought it back to Europe and Incas were happy so they named the bush of Chinchona o Scurvy Vitamin C deficiency affected Sailors that s didn39t get enough vegetables not contagious red blotches on skin 0 Jacques Cartier 1535 70 years before English came to America riverfreezes overin Canada local Native Americans come by to trade like animal skins then he notices one ofthe Indians has Scurvy and think its spread so tellsthe Indians to leave and 100 out of 110 of his men got scurvy because mid winter in Canada 25 died broth of pinecones full ofvitamin Cand cures Scurvy and all men are cured in 8 days by drinking the pinecone tea Springtime he kidnapped the Indian king 1815 303 years later British doctorthat came up with the cure to Scurvy by readingJacquesjournal 1500 ifyou got sick in Europe they said there39s something wrong with your blood and bleed you out in Africa put hot coals on chest and hope evil spirits leave Cascara Sagrada mild laxative Willow tree bark to heal headaches Aztecs were good at brain surgery drilled holes in skull to have the blood escape so you don t suffer from internal bleeding Native Americans made cast for broken bones and took baths everyday Europeans every 6 month breed lap dogs for flees tojump ofhumans onto the dogs Coco leaf chew the leaf it reliefs pain and soothes body opens lungs and then later refined and converted into Cocaine o Mariana39s Coca Wine mixed cocaine and wine 1886 coca nut and without wine 40 of Bolivia39s natural product Coffee and Marijuanafrom quotAmericaquot but really came from Persian Empire and middle east Smoking wasa rare pleasure Europeans wanted the high feeling Europeans were not technologically advanced o Conquest Myth Puritans thought they had a wilderness ifso they would39ve died on the coast people have been living there and cleared out a lot ofthe wilderness native Americans had burned a lot so its easierto hunt and left a lot so the animals could have a safe place to breed Europeans brought many diseases to the Americas went through a series of plagues 25 survived 90 of Indians died of during the fi rst 100 years of the conquest due to the diseases took 300 years for Europeans to conquerAfrica o Widowed Land vs Virgin Land a land that was untouched think ofamerica as a Widowed Land people have been living on the land and married to the land 020415 0 American Paradox o thetwoarepolaropposites how can we be founded on this idea paradox America is most famousfor freedom and equality quotall men are created equalquot ThomasJefferson Deceleration of Independence but he was a slave ownerso contradicts that English felt they were inferior so they could enslave Africans so Racism came first then slavery 160039s Spain was very powerful because who finds itfirst get to keep the entire land technically Spain automatically got North and South America Europeans England moved in and planted colonies because they claimed Spain was abusing the Indians 0 Sir Francis Drake 0 he was pirate wanted to get rich the method ofwhich he got rich made him unique Every year Spain would load up a ship Manilla Galleon250000 pesos a yearworth of trade Drake wanted to hit the Manilla he made an alliance with Cimmarrons located in modern day Colombia 1572 sent out spy39s and found out when Manilla would land and what route it would take and then got all the treasures from the ship split the money 5050 with Cimmarrons and Drake offered queen of England 10 so she made him a knight Simarons were dark skins Drake was very white aiance never evolved because the Spanish we re very hard 0 Roanoke Island 0 Sir Walter Raleigh39s Lost Colony very specialfriend to Queen Mary 0 Raleigh isin England 0 Ralph Lane 0 soldiers are led by Ralph to Roanoke military operation they didn39t bring women but they were here to build a colony 0 local Indians showed them how to crop showed them good places to go fishing the colonist never really knew how to feed themselves Roanoke Indians had a lot more mouths to feed 1586 rations were tight 0 Wingina o Leaderofthe Roanoke Indians planned to get rid ofthe English men Ralph captures some of Winginas men because he thinks they are plotting against him so he tortures them ndians stop feeding the English Ralph sets up an ambush and kills Wingina gathe rs his men and go back to England 0 Jonathon White 0 110 real settlers go back to colonies in August of 1587 its to late plant crops 0 He leaves in 1587 because he needs suppliesfood and comes back in 1590 because Spanish declaringwar 0 when he gets back the island is deserted no one on the island No one knows what happened to the quotLost Colonyquot no documents no bodies nothingjust the word Croatoan carved in a tree 0 Jamestown Fiasco o Established in May 14 1607 KingJames took oversince his cousin Queen Elizabeth died in 1602 and that s why its called Jamestown Virginia named afterthe Virgin Queen she was never married Powhatten the Indian leaderwho owned the land that the English had settled on 1609 winter 3 planting seasons plenty oftime for crops they have guns near wilderness and could39ve been hunting animals could39ve been fishing 500 people in Jamestown and all ofthem are starving to death First documented Cannibalism only 60 people make it through the winter August of 1610 the corn is about right Gov John Smith Some of his people ran off to live with Indians Powhatten didn39t give them back so they attack one of the villages loyal to him and captured the quotqueenquot and herchildren but the men are angry they are alive so they throw the children over board and shoot them in the head They burn the villages incl uding the crops Stab the queen and attack another Indian village 1612 problem with his own men burned at stake broken at the wheel the crime they committed was that they have run offto live with the Indians 0 CaptChristopherNewport 020615 Jamestown continued 16071617 starving people complete disaster some ran offand then brutally killed attack Indians WhL 0 they had one big garden and everyone had to work in order to eat 0 the people they sent overweren39t prepared for it and use to plant food 0 Virginia Company sent people overto the new world and it cost a lot of money sent silk dressers gold amp silver makers 2 brick layers 1 blacksmith 4carpenters 36 where classified as wealthy men Think that the Natives will be amazed at the English men because theyfeel superior since they have guns and a king and god but the Natives were really laughing atthem tried to plantTobacco to make money laborintense crop used slaves and indentured servants o ndentured Servitude after7 years of working who will have the o then when you got to Jamestown they would sell that contract so you would work for someone else was a terrible deal mistreated abused and most peoplewere dying England had certain protections in court ifsomeone was abusing you then you could sew them Virginia there was no court colonial elites which were in favor ofthe wealthy slaves for 30 for his life 15 for servantfor 7 years everyone bought the indentured servants Virginia was a death trap 16201645 5 out of6 people died within theirfirst yearin Virginia 0 quotSeasoningquot everyone lacked seasoning which was immunity against diseases dying onyphoid after 1645 people startlivingalotlonger ruins the soil because they suck up the nutritious and move West where there is betterwater for bettersoil started drinking applejuice worms in the rivers ofVirginia would eat up the bottoms ofthe ships and then you would have to plug up the holes so people started sailing in the winter slaves start being more costly servants will eventually get land 3 choicesforindentured servants after3years of work 1 go out to forest chop down trees and plant tobacco 2 go work for a wealthy guy and pay rent with tobacco 3 or hang out in colony and do nothing most people did this 20915 0 Tribes ofVirginia Doegs Susquehannocks Piscattaway Occaneechees o Bacon39s Rebellion start off as an Indian war then spread out 1675 Indians stole hogs from Thomas Matthews because he did not pay them but he stole them back and killedbeat people Indians fought back and killed indentured servant and then he informed others in town andform a group and ask for a parlie Indians come out and then before they could say something they killed 10 quotDoegquot Indians but they discovered it was the wrong tri pvillage it was the Susquehannocks theirfriends so then Susquehannocksjoin the Doegs amp Piscattaways and start raiding Englishmen Sept 1675 makes a 1000 men army with Native village surrounded the Indian fort and weren39t good at protecting it 1 night sneak out and kill 10 Englishmen o Gov William Berkeley 30 year governor ofVirginia 5 major rivers that lead toJamestown build 5forts by each rivers 500 men in each fort forts were useless because Indians weren39t attacking central Jamestown so it didn39t happen 0 Nathanial Bacon Leads some of the Englishmen to attack the Natives apart ofthe colonial elites cousin to governor like to hang with frontier men Be rkeleydoesn39t give permission tells the governor to have the servants take theirangerout on Indians FallWinter 1675 rally39s people and try39s to find Indians to kill and finally they found a village the Occaneechees they hate the susquehannocks meet with Bacon and the leaders give him susquehannocks war prisons and then they are killed by Bacon39s men and then they go afterand kill most of the Occaneechees returns to Jamestownhero but Berkeley charges him with treason and locks him up for disobeying his orders 1676 then apologizes and lets him go leavesJamestown gathers 500 man army w guns and ask Berkeley to fight offthe Indian but denies again then Bacon states he isn39t the enemy the Indians are Berkeley leavesfeeling threatened by Bacon Bacon now feels he leadsJamestown declared himself governor and burn down the court 1676 October26 1676 Bacon dies by Bloody Flux ships arrive from England Berkeley is now back in control colonial eliteslearn importantlessonr 1650 80 indentured se rvants easier to work with 1680 45 were slaves from Africa 15 servants Caribbean sugar coloniesworst place forthe slaves kind of like the Holocaust slavery was disgusting using slaves to grow Tobacco and produce sugar slaves from Africa fought back and couldn39t break so sold to Jamestown ifa woman became pregnant during hertime as an indentured servant she wasjust added with more years to serve and the baby was hers 1662 the child39s motherstatus was the status ofthe child so ifchild was born from a slave then the baby is alsoa slave rapist were white plantation owners awarded the law was made because they didn39t want the child of rape to have ownership oftheir property if indentured servants were lazy they would be added more years if slaves were lazy they would be whipped but ifto death it doesn39t matter because they were boughtyour property doesn39t go the otherway 0 Parish Poor feW free blacks did not want to see whites workingfor blacks 1680 30 lasses ifany slave or black lift his hand against any white man makes poor whites feel superior 1691 0 Ham39s Punishment 0 Puritans Created byJohn Calvin 1000 people show up in 1630 they take over new England led myJohn Winthrop believe they were going to create a perfect society everything that God wanted and then he would give blessings o 1620 Pilgrim give usThanksgiving 021615 0 City on a hill 0 RogerWilliams 1633 ministerargued against the government ofthe Puritans 1 we cannot conform the Anglin church we have to separate it 2 church should not be involved in the government church should be kept as pure as possible government was dirty 3 the Indians were usingtheirland Puritans thoughtthey couldjusttake the Indian land 1635 was kicked out of Massachusetts to live in Rhode Island 0 Anne Hutchinson unusual women because she could read and write read the bible for herself who was going to heaven or hell nothing to do aboutpredetermined Anne thought predestination was wrong and that you could convince God to get into heaven taught this to women in the colony opposing to Puritan religion she got banished to Rhode Island 0 Pequot War 1637 Pequot lived in Connecticut west of Puritans were in the way ofexpansion and had really good land plenty of corn Puritans thought Indians were worshipers ofSatan tried to convert them to praise God 0 John Stone Started when he went up riverto see what was happening with the Pequot He liked had to have improper relations with other men39s wives the Dutch kidnapped Pequot leader and killed them and right afteris when John comes then Indians killed John Stone and then he became Captain Puritans askfor the men who killed John and 6000 feet Wampum kind oflike Indian money also wanted Pequot children so ifthey did anything wrong they wouldjust kill the kids Pequot39s said no and English declared war evenly matched war they had guns but took about a minute to reload o Narragansetts then they got involved in the war joined the Puritans because they didn39t want trouble with them and led them to Fort Mystic 0 Fort Mystic deep in the forest well fortified only 2ways in and out of the village Pequot39s stored women and children in there Puritans surrounded it and during night snuck in and burned a few of the houses in the village 600700 menwomenchildren were killed and some were kidnapped and sold as slaves Basically the end ofthe Pequot39s 0 Second Generation you had to go to heaven tojoin the Puritans join the churchexperience ofgrace you would feel God39s presence and that s how you know you amp kids could be baptized and could vote first generation got this experience pretty easily second generation this experience wasn39t happening 1662 Halfway Covenant ifyour parents were baptized you could be baptizedeven by the second generation the Puritans were falling down 0 Quake rs aka Friends of God Pennsylvania known as QuakerState founded by Quake rs religion that started in 165039s in England founded by Beliefs that got them in trouble botherthe King of England 1 they always told the truth they would swore to the bible that everyone ofwhatever race had an inner light all peoplewere basically good refused to serve an English Army didn t want anyone else tojoin the Army P P PWP 7 8 always wore black because wealthy people could afford color 0 William PennJr Powerful Quaker born in 1644 supported Charles 1 in his eyes kept screwing upthe family was excelled to live in Ireland until Charles 2came to rule then family is basically setforlife king owes them money gets into the royal court PennJr goes to Oxford duringthistime 3 types of people at Oxford 1 Cavaliers sons of noble men picked on everyone Penn Jr shou ld39ve been one 2 Puritans running the show 3 Quakers puritans picked on them dean of oxford was fired because was encouraging rational thought using your mind instead of religious thought PennJr stands upfor Dean gets in trouble Oxford mandated going to church every morning Penn refused so he got expelled His mothersends him offto Paris lives there for4years serves in French royal court comes back in 1664 mature young man then dad sends him to law school 1665 Great Plague hits England people didn39t understand germs so peoplewho got sick where shunned Quakers helped and took care ofthe sick people blamed the sickness on the Quakers 1666 Great Fire strikes London also blamed Quakers Penn Jr goes home to Ireland starts attending Qua kerservices declares himselfa Quaker Penn Sr disowns Penn Jr kicks him out ofthe family and so he lived among the Quakers wrote about their religion Gets arrested for publishing without permit 1668 spent 8 months in solitary confinement for publishing a pamphlet Before Penn Sr dies he restores him to the family don39t let anything violate your beliefs went to Charles 2 and makes sure his son is taken care of PennJr now controlled the family money then he went to Charles and asked fora grant of land in North America instead of paying my dad39s debt in cash and he39ll take all the Quakers with him he called it Sylvania then named afterthe family 021815 0 Delaware Indians Penn Jr learned how to speak the Delaware language sends leaderof Indians lettersaying that he will live as friendly neighbors and will only take half ofthe land grant and paid them for it regulated the furtrade 1682 arrived in his colony and lived there for 30 years and lived in peace and Harmony with Natives the land was started to get crowed Natives were filling up there 1712 Penn suffered a stroke returned to England died in 1718 heirs of Penn take overand didn39t manage the money well and slipped in debt especially toJames Logan 0 James Logan took over runningthe colony 1735 created a fake deed forged Penn Jr signature it said that the sons of Penn could move the line as far as they walked in a day in a half if it got too crowded o The Walking Purchase 1737 hired people to blaze the forest and walkers and managed to move the line offrontiers 70 miles became properties of Penn then soon toJames Logan because they had to pay offthe debt 0 Paxton Boys Series ofwar that lead to Paxton Boys Massacre very small tribe owned a small chunk of land December 14 1763 group ofwhite men called the Paxton Boys 70 surrounded the Indian town and slaughtered the 6ndians that were in the village and then burned it down So the other 14 Indians went to live in Lancaster but then on December 1763 Paxton Boys completely wiped out the good story and turns tragic when Penn Jr was alive they builta great trust and pact with Natives so they moved into the more English side and when things got bad they got really bad 0 Queen Elizabeth 1558 to 1602 0 Jamesl 1627 0 Chadesl Problems with puritans and dissolved the parliament 1640 Civil warin England Puritans vs King lostthe war he is beheaded o OliverCromwell came to power rules till 1662 when he dies 0 ChadesZ Becomes king in 1660 had the most trouble with the Quakers declared a law that claimed it illegal to be a Quaker
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