lecture 8-11 HY104
Popular in History beyond 1865
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Date Created: 02/20/15
2915 History 104 Lecture 8 Key terms Theodore Roosevelt Square Deal America s First National Bank Gospel of Efficiency US Forest Service Gifford Pinchot John Muir Hetch Hetchy PONP SJ39erSNNtquot Central Questions 1 What did environmental conservation mean to progressive reformers Nature s Nation The conservation Movement and Progressive National Politics 1900 1914 I National Progressive Politics beyond the city a Teddy Roosevelt i 1901 Becomes president because McKinley was assassinated ii 19011909 US President iii One of the first celebrity presidents and he represented the many tough men in America 1 Tough aggressive outdoorsman iv He believed in a strenuous life v Was a sickly kid with asthma vi Born in 1858 to a very wealthy family and wanted to fight for progressive causes throughout his life vii He moved to the Dakotas after his wife died to become a cowboy viii He was a radical in a way that he did not care about his actions he was a pure badass b The three C s Corporate control i Square deal 1 Corporate control fighting the monopolies standard oil and railroad tycoons a He doesn t want companies to exploit middle class 2 Consumer protection a Pure food and drug act 3 Conservation a Fighting to preserve the environmental and the beautiful places in the world 11 The Birth of the Conservation Movement a The Gospel of Efficiency Roosevelt believes in it i The government should be involved in overseeing the use of natural resources so that they do not run out ii Natural resources should be used to succeed and help in every day life iii America s First National Park 1 Yellowstone National Park b Yellowstone National Park 1872 i Idea where the national park would bring the union and everything together that had been fractured by the war ii National P Langford iii Ferdinand Hayden iv Yellowstone will generate revenue and get people to come to the northern pacific region sand it will generate tourism v Yellowstone is the first national park in the world vi By the end of 1900s there will be 4 other national parks III The Preservationists vs The Conservationists a The Conservationists Teddy Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot i Basically sets aside a country to preserve over 200 some million acres ii Grand Canyon National Movement 1908 iii 1905 Roosevelt creates Forest Service Department of Agriculture iv Gifford Pinchot 1 1St chief of US forest service ivy league graduate 2 Believes in using mass resources for the benefit of the people 3 First principle is development to help with the benefit of the people b John Muir and the Sierra Club 1892 i Needed to do more to protect and preserve ii More of preservationists iii John Muir Scottish came to Wisconsin in 1911 working with a metal file in his late teens and it popped into his eyes 1 Walks form Wisconsin to orida to see the land 1867 1868 2 Contracted Malaria more than likely from a cemetery in Savannah GA Goes to California and goes to the Park 4 Helps find Sierra Club and is one of the first organizations to help the preservation 5 Was really close to Teddy Roosevelt 6 Was considered to be in the world and of it he though engagement was important c The battle over Hetch Hetchy Valley i 1908 the city of San Francisco wants to dam the valley 9 ii 1906 earthquake hits San Francisco 21115 History 104 Lecture 9 Key terms Northern Securities Case William Howard Taft PinchotBallinger Affair Progressive Party Socialist Party New Freedom Roosevelt Corollary Franz Ferdinand Sussex Pledge Zimmerman Telegram QWNQWrPSNNt Central Questions 1 What caused the US to enter World War 1 Making the World Safe for Democracy America During World War I 1 President William Howard Taft a Deviations from Roosevelt i Promised a square deal ii Northern Securities Company vs United States 1904 1 Roosevelt urges that they take up this project 2 This Northern Security company had to be broken up and they were trying to take over Railroads 3 Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 prevents Northern Securities Company from existing any monopoly that contributes to anticompetitive behavior should be broken up iii Roosevelt did not want to seek a third term but eventually does do a third term 1 Roosevelt hand selects his next president iv William Howard Taft wins election of 1908 1 Is hand selected by Roosevelt 2 TAFT AND TEDDY ROOSEVELT WERE VERY DIFFERENT b PinchotBallinger Affair i Richard Ballinger was secretary of interior appointed by Taft he had the power to control land and whether or not it could be used for good or bad ii Pinchot upset with Ballinger because he keeps opening lands in Alaska and stuff and he is mad 11 Election of 1912 a New Nationalism Roosevelt vs New Freedom Wilson i Teddy Roosevelt is furious and he tries to overthrow and try to take Taft s seat ii Roosevelt creates the Progressive Party BullMoose Partyquot he did it because no other party wanted him really plus he was trying to overtake Taft iii New nationalism wants to do more for the economy fights for 8 hour work days social security insurance for unemployed he wants to help 1 Roosevelt supports this iv Woodrow Wilson Democratic Party Nominee 1 Argues for New freedom 2 Belief that government should create freedom and allow competition in the economic market that would help people 3 Wants to use government to create freedom in the market 4 Governor of New Jersey 5 Studies PolySci b Eugene V Debs and the Socialist Party i Socialist party founded in 1901 ii Push for FREE college education improved labor conditions nationalizing railroad so exploitation cannot happen c Why Wilson won 111 A Shaky Democracy Ventures Overseas 19001914 a The Roosevelt Corollary i Commissions 16 new battleships ii US becomes involved with a lot of different con icts in South America b Dollar Diplomacy i Creates networks of partnerships and in uence change in the western hemisphere ii More involved in the world and foreign policy c Woodrow Wilson s Initial Con icts i Defined by international con icts ii it would be an irony of after if my administration had to deal with chiefs of foreign affairsquot Wilson IV Wilson Faces War 19171919 a Preserving Neutrality i June 28 1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated 1914 Serbian Nationalist kill him was an attempt to deal with aggression ii AustriaHungary said they were going to invade Serbia iii Russia defends Serbia ottoman empire is allied with Hungary Central Empires fighting with Russia Great Britain 1 This all starts because of the assassination iv Wilson wants to stay out of the war 1 Types of people that live in the US a Germany is going to war when the US was already in a war with them Over 3 million Irish c Germany invades Belgium to get to Paris d German UBoats are destroying battleships and merchant vessels 2 May 7 1915 sinking of the Lusitania off the coast of Ireland over 128 US passenger were on board a Wilson still wants to stay out the war i He doesn t want to allie with Russia ii Germany continues to sink ships despite threats to end diplomatic v Sussex pledge 1916 1 Germany s plan to abandon unoccupied German vessels and stop sinking ships 2 Yet they still continue attacks b Election of 1916 He kept us out of the war i He was the peace person ii He wins the election iii Of Jan 1917 Germany engages in Southern warfare V The United States Declares War on Germany April 6 1917 a Zimmerman Telegram i Was trying to encourage Mexico to join Central powers and attack the USpromised Texas and Arizona ii Making the world safe for democracyquot History 104 Lecture 10 last lecture before midterm Keywords 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 21615 Making the World Safe for Democracy Bolshevik Revolution Wilson s 14 Points Treaty of Versailles League of Nations Fordism Margaret Sanger 19th Amendment Harlem Renaissance 0 Marcus Garvey Central Questions 1 How did WWI spark new expressions of freedom and what was the conservative response to these social changes America at War America at War 19171919 a an Going to Battle spring 1917 i Making the world safe for democracy ii America declared war on Germany April 6 1917 iii France and Great Britain have already been at war iv 116000 Americans were killed v 17 million Russians were killed before the US even joined Modern Warfare i Trench warfare ii Tanks iii Machine guns 600 rounds a minute iv Chemical weapons 1 Causes half the casualties v 65000 aircrafts France lost half of the male population between the ages 20 and 32 It was referred to as the great war until WWII Commander John I Pershing i Trained the American Expeditionary Forces AEF in France during the summer of 1917 WE MATTER Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 closes the eastern front i Communist revolution ii Russia wanted to pull out of the war iii Lead by Vladimir Lenin iv Completely pulled out by March 1918 1 Causes 1 million German soldiers to move to the western front against the allied forces 11 Brokering Peace 19181919 a Wilson s 14 points i He called for an international organization to preserve peace b League of Nations i Wilson signs Armistice November 11 1918 ii Versailles Treaty is signed July 28 1919 1 Germany was not invited 2 Italy France US and Great Britain were there 3 No one was happy with the treaty 4 Especially Wilson because of clause 231 because it says Germany caused the whole war and they have to pay everyone who was involved a Afraid this would lead to another war iii Congress did not approve the league of nations 1 Wilson then went on to tour the US promoting the league to convince people so that congress would sign it 2 Wilson had a stroke during one of his speeches a He could not function for the remainder of his term b His wife then did a lot of work behind the scene c The war creates a pessimistic feel in the US d The progressive era began to fade III The Roaring 20s a The post war economy roars after a brief postwar depression b Unemployment rates drop from 11 to 2 c Fordism i Believed you had to pay workers a higher wage so they can buy stuff ii Workers at for made 3x more than other auto companies d General Electric soared i Electrical appliances radios and the movies ii General electric allowed people to pay in installment credits e Tons of jobs were created f Brought people to cities i Urban Nation ii More people live in cities than country side for the first time g Changes in Culture i Dancing ii Women s liberation iii Prohibition iv Speakeasy s h 19th Amendment i Women are given the right to vote in 1920 ii 9 states allowed women to vote by 1912 i Female liberation in the 1920 s i Margaret Sanger 1 Advocate for sexual liberation 2 American Birth Control league founded in 1921 21815 History 104 Lecture 11 Key Terms 1 Marcus Garvey 2 18th Amendment 3 Red Scare 4 Return to Normalcy 5 Calvin Coolidge 6 Herbert Hoover 7 Black Tuesday 8 Great Depression Central Questions 1 What caused the great depression The Economy on a Downward Spiral 1 African Americans Challenge traditional America a Harlem Renissance i Millions of blacks left the south and moved north b African American Freedom Fighters i Marcus Garvey 1 Moved to Harlem in 1916 2 Created the UNIA in Jamaica a Wanted a panAfrican movement b Didn t want to integrate with whites c Unite all blacks internationally d Black pride create their own identity 3 Garvey Movement a Created Black Star shipping line with UNIA i Ships goods only produced by blacks ii Return blacks back to Africa if they wanted b Created the Negro Factories corporation with UNIA i Provided loans to black businesses 4 He was arrested and deported to Jamaica for financial fraud 1 Conservative Backlash a 18th Amendment Prohibition 1919 i AntiGerman vibe in uenced and antibeer vide contributing to prohibition laws ii Underground speakeasy s were formed iii Alcohol lead to violent crime iv Al Capone b The Red Scare 19191920 i Fear that Russian spies in the US were trying to convert people to communism ii US congress limited immigration from Europe to 600000 in 1920 1 Down to 150000 by 1921 iii The act of mail bombs was thought to be a communist threat iv There was widespread hysteria even though there were only 70000 communists in the US v 1 Edgar Hoover 1 Head ofthe FBI 2 Arrested all who were suspected to be communist 3 Deported 300 who were believed to participate in communist activity III Problems Fester in the American Economy a Warren G Harding i Says he wants a Return to Normalcy in his presidential elect speech 1 There would be no more rations America would be more relaxed 2 He looked to reduce tax rates from 77 to 58 1922 to 52 1923 3 He was the fun president 4 He loved whiskey a Threw parties in the white house during prohibition 5 Had a child out of wed lock 6 Died of a heart attack a Speculation his wife poisoned him b Calvin Coolidge i Took over after Harding s death ii Worked to continue reducing taxes 1 25 by 1926 iii Reduced government involvement iv Silent and standoff ish 1 Big proponent of using the radio to communicate with citizens c Herbert Hoover republican i Low tax politics ii Business man mining industry 1 Made millions by age 30 iii Secretary of commerce under Coolidge iv Claimed we conquered poverty in 1928 v Stock Market crashed 7 months after he took office vi Black Tuesday October 29 1929 dow jones drops 100 points 1 Reduced taxes allow people to put more into the stock market 2 Rise in upper middle class people 3 Marginal Trading a Banks loan money to invest in stocks b Stock market is surging 1928 early 1929 c People rushed to sell all their stocks after Black Tuesday d People could not pay back their loans had to sell their stuff cars 4 No government regulation in the stock market 5 75 of American households didn t own stocks vii Run on Banks 1 Banks use deposited money to give out loans a Left people without money when there was nothing left to withdraw 2 Banks failed 3 Federal Reserve act of 1913 a Regional and national bank system that was supposed to manage the banks and loan money to failing banks b They did not bail out any of the failing banks like they were supposed to viii Deeper Problems 1 Too many goods not enough consumers 2 5 of the nation held 1 3 of the nations wealth in 1929 3 Wealth gaps began to form ix Herbert Hoover Wanted to stay out 1 Let volunteer associations take care of America
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