Weeks 1-10 Psych 002
Popular in Psychology 002
Popular in Psychlogy
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Psychology: Study of behavior and mental processes I/O Psychology: Branch of psychology is concerned with the study of behavior in work settings and the application of psychology principles to change work behavior I/O Psychologists are scienttpractitioners Dual Focus ›Efficiency/productivity of organizations ›Health/well-being of employees Scientific Management – Frank Taylor › Determine the most efficient methods for performing any work-relatedtask › Time and motion studies › Assembly lines › Selection and recruitment of military recruits Ergonomics / Human Factors › Intersection of engineering and psychology › Focuses on safety and efficiency of human - machine interactions › Perception, attention, cognition, learning, social, and environmental psychology › Applied psychology Hawthorne Studies (1927-1932) ›How work conditions influence productivity The Hawthorne Effect ›Individual productivity increases when workers are singled out and made to feel important ›Performance is subject to social pressures and group norms Human Relations Approach Emphasis on how to use human resources to increase efficiency and productivity › Job analysis and evaluation › Employee selection › Training › Performance appraisal Job Analysis ›Generating a detailed job description Followa systematic procedure Break the job into small units Create an employeemanual ›Job-oriented description ›Person-oriented description ›KSAOs Job Evaluation ›Compensable factors Recruitment Testing › Integrity tests and biographical inventories Interviews › Interviewer illusion › Structured interviews Work Samples and Exercises Orientation ›Acquaint employees with the organization and with other employees Formal Training ›Overlearning – making the task “automatic” ›Employee development Mentoring ›“Natural” mentoring relationships Evaluating a person’s success at their job Sources of Bias ›Halo effect ›Distributional error Leniencyerrors Severity errors Central tendencyerrors 360-Degree Feedback Emphasis on research and practice involving human relations: › A management approach emphasizing the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, stressing the importance of such factors as morale, attitudes, values, and humane treatment of workers. Management Approaches Job Satisfaction Employee Commitment Meaning of Work Leadership Styles The “Japanese” Management Style Theory X and Theory Y › Theory X managers motivate by exerting control and threatening punishment › Theory Y managers motivate by allowing workers to participate in problem solving Strengths-Based Management Measuring Work Attitudes Important Factors ›Fairness of compensation ›Personality characteristics of individuals ›Cultural influences Long-term happiness is related to › Financial independence › Occupationalattainment › Favorable evaluations Job Withdrawal Organizational Spontaneity Affective Commitment › Emotional attachmentto the organization Continuance Commitment › Perception of economic and social costs of leaving the organization Normative Commitment › Sense of obligation to the organization Jobs, Careers, and Callings ›Job – No training, personal control, freedom ›Career – Work as opportunity for advancement ›Calling – Work has value beyond economics Relationship to Psychological Well-Being Job Crafting ›Physical and cognitive changes that individuals make within existing task constraints Transformational Leadership › Emphasizes vision for an organization › Four key elements 1. Providing idealized influence 2. Inspiring others to achieve 3. Intellectually stimulating employees 4. Showing concernfor employee’s well-being › Promotes organizational identity Genetic Contributions to Leadership › Personality traits and twin studies › Extraversion and achievement motivation › Transactional and transformational leadership Big 5 Personality Traits and Leadership › High extraversion › High conscientiousness › Low neuroticism Leaders have beliefs/prototypes of what followers are suppose to be like Six key factors of LIFT: › Prototype: Industry, Enthusiasm, Good Citizen › Antiprototype: Insubordination, Incompetence, Conformity Health Psychology investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems Stress ›Stimulus-based definition: Characterize stress as a stimulus that causes certain reactions ›Response-based definition: describe stress as a response to environmental conditions Process of perceiving and responding to events that threaten or challenge a person’s wellbeing When encountering a stressor, a person judges its potential threat (primary appraisal) and then determines if effective options are available to manage the situation. Stress is likelyto result if a stressor is perceived as extremely threatening or threatening with few or no effective copingoptions available. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) a theory that suggests that a person’s response to a stressor consists of the following three stages Alarm and mobilization stage Become aware of the presence of a stressor Resistance stage Adaptationto fight the stressor Exhaustion stage Negative consequences of the stress appear Chronic (continuous) vs. Acute (3aks continuous) Traumatic Events Events or situations in which a person is exposed to actual or threatened death or serious injury (earthquakes) Life Changes Events or situations that require us to make changes in our ongoing lives and require time as we adjust to those changes (require you to adapt)[marriage/divorce] Background stressors (daily hassles) Minor irritations of life that we all face time and time again (waiting, traffic) Uplifts Minor positive events that make one feel good (smiling at a stranger, random compliments) Job Strain Work situation in which a person experiences excessive job demands and workload with little discretion or control Job Burnout A condition where a person experience emotional exhaustion and cynicism about one’s job The Nature of Stressors: My Stress is Your Pleasure The High Cost of Stress ›Psychophysiological disorders (psychosomatic disorders) Actual medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties 7 Following Medical Advice Noncompliance ›Result of reactance Negative emotionaland cognitive reaction that results from the restricti’s of one freedom Creative Nonadherence ›Adjusting a treatment prescribed by a physician, relying on their own medical judgment and experience 9 Following Medical Advice Increasing Compliance with Advice › Provide clear instructions to patients regarding drug regimens › Honesty about nature of medical problems and treatments › Positively framed messages Change in behavior will lead to a gain › Negatively framed messages Highlight what can be lost by not perform10g a behavior Coping : The efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Emotion-focused coping Method of managing emotion in the face of stress by seeking to change the way they feel or perceive a problem Problem-focused coping Attempts to modify the stressful Hardiness Personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress -related illness consisting of three components. Commitment Challenge Control Social support A mutual network of caring, interested others A state when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled A view of the the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances Turn threat into challenge Make a threatening situation less threatening. Change your goals Take physical action Prepare for stress before it happens An enduring state of mind consisting of joy, contentment,and other positive emotions,plus the sense that one’s life has meaning and value People have a”set point” for happiness that is relatively high and remains stable. Characteristics of happy people › High self-esteem › Sense of control › Optimism › Sociable Well-Being and Happiness Does Money Buy Happiness? › Research shows that winning the lottery brings an initial surge to one’s level of happiness, but then it returns to its set point. 16 Counting your blessings Cultivating optimism Avoiding overthinking and social comparison Practicing acts of kindness Nurturing Relationships Doing more activities that truly engage you Replaying and savoring life ’s joys Committing to your goals Developing strategies for coping Learning to forgive Practicing religion and spirituality Taking care of your body Abnormality ›a deviation from the average Statistically-based approach ›a deviation from the ideal Majority standard ›a sense of personal discomfort › the inability to function effectively Unable to adjust to societal demands ›a legal concept Medical perspective Symptoms rooted in physiological causes Psychoanalytic perspective Stems from childhoodconflictsover opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression Behavioral perspective Viewed as Learned response Cognitive perspective Assumes that cognitions(people ’s thoughts and beliefs) are central to a p’s abnormal behavior Humanistic Perspective Emphasizes responsibility that people have over their own behavior even if the behavior is seen as abnormal. Sociocultural Perspective Shaped by family, group, society, and culture. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM -IV) is the standard system used in the United States to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior devised by the American Psychiatric Association › Primarily descriptive and avoids suggesting underlying cause for an individual ’s behavior and problems st › Disorders reflects turn-of-the-21 centuryWestern cultures › Includes 237 disorders › Considers the importance of gender and cultural difference in the expression of various symptoms › Diagnostic criteria have been loosened (since DSM -IV) Anxiety occurs without external justification and begins to affect a person’s daily functioning Phobic disorder Intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations Panic disorder Anxiety that is not triggered by any identifiable stimulus and last from a few seconds to several hours Generalized anxiety disorder Experience long term persistent anxiety Obsessive -Compulsive Disorder › Obsession persistent, unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring › Compulsion Urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable, even to the individual who Psychological difficulties characterized by physical (somatic) forms,but for which there is no medical cause Hypochondrias is Constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health Conversion disorder Involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to see or hear, or to move an arm or leg whose cause is purely psychological Characterized by the separation of different facets of a perso’s personality that are normally integrated and work together Dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)ndividual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities Amnesia a disorder in which a significant selective memory loss occurs Fugue an amnesiac condition where and individual leaves home and sometimes assume a new identity. Disturbances in emotion strong enough to intrude on everyday life. Major depression is a severe form of depression that interfereswith concentration,decision making, and sociability. Worthless feelings Loneliness Crying Sleep disturbance Suicide Bipolar disorder A disorder in which a person alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression. Class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs ›Decline from a previous level of functioning ›Disturbances of thought and language ›actually false regardless of the evidence true when its ›Hallucinations- experience sensory stimuli that is absent (visual or auditory) ›Emotional disturbances Disorders characterized by inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that do not permit the person to function appropriately as members of society Narcissisticpersonality disorder Exaggerated sense of self-importance Antisocial personality disorder (sociopath) Characterizedby no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others Borderline personality disorder Characterizedby their difficultyin developing a secure sense of who they are Childhood Disorders Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ›Marked by inattention, impulsiveness, low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity Autism ›Severe developmental disability that impairs children’s ability to communicate and relate to others 11 Psychotherapy Treatment in which a trained professional – a therapist – uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disordertalk therapy Biomedical therapy Relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning drugs, shock therapy,sometimes surgery (neuro) Psychodynamic therapy Bring past conflicts/unacceptable impulses from unconscious to the conscious where patient can deal with them more effectively frueidian (bringing the unconcious to the present Seek to bring unresolved past conflictsand unacceptable impulses fromthe unconsciousinto the conscious Psychoanalysis consists of frequent sessions that often lasts for many years. Free association sitting on t-bedandtalkaboutanything Dream interpretation subcounciousmind supressesintodreams Resistance client ‘forgets’ or changes subject Transference client starts to see the counceloras mayberepresentinga significant other from the past that is causing their problemsandissuesof thepresent Make the fundamental assumption: ›Both abnormal behavior and normal behavior are learned therefore, it can beunlearned Classical Conditioning Treatments (videogameptsd) ›Aversive conditioning used to reducefear ›Systematic desensitization ›Exposure treatments Operant Conditioning Techniques ›Token system ›Contingency contracting ›Observational learning All forms of therapy share assumption: Dysfunction due to maladaptive thinking Teach people to think in more adaptive way by changing maladaptive thinking Attempts to restructure a person ’s belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views The Humanistic Approach, assumes: › people control their own behavior, › can make choices about the kinds of life they want to lead, › are responsible for solving their own problems. Person/Client-centered therapy › The goal is to enable people to reach their potential for self-actualization Group Therapy ›Unrelated people meet with therapist to discuss common difficulty Family Therapy ›Involves two or more family members, one (or more) of whose problems led to treatment Self-Help Therapy ›People with similar problems get together to discuss their shared feelings and experiences Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Psychotherapy › Is effectivefor most people › Doesn’t work for everyone › Certain specifictypes of treatments are somewhat, although not invariably, better for specifictypes of problems › No single form of therapy works best › Spontaneous remission: Recovery without treatment Therapythat focuses on brain chemistry and other neurological factors DrugTherapy Antipsychotic Drug: Reduce severe symptoms of disturbance, e.g., as loss of touch with reality and agitation Antidepressant Drug: In cases of severe depression, improve the moodsof patients Mood Stabilizers: Treats mood disorders Antianxiety Drugs:Reduce the level of anxiety and increasefeelingsof well - being Electroconvulsive therapy is a procedure in which an electric current of 70 to 150 volts is briefly administered to a patient’s head, causing a loss of consciousness and often seizures. Transcranial magnetic stimulation(MS) is a depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain. Brain surgery in which the object is to reduce symptoms of mental disorder – used only rarely today Prefrontal lobotomy Surgically destroying or removing parts of a patient’s frontal lobes that were thought to control emotionality You should be comfortable with your therapist. Therapist should have the proper training and credentials and be licensed by the appropriate agencies. › Therapist should demonstrate cultural competence An individual should feel that they are making progress after therapy has begun. Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior The Subfields of Psychology Understanding change and individual differences n Developmental psychology Changes in behavior over the life span (womb to tomb) n Personality psychology Examines consistencies in ’s behavior over time and traits that differentiate us from one another The Subfields of Psychology Sensation, perception, learning and thinking n Cognitive psychology Emphasis on higher mental processes: Cognitions, thoughts and relationship to experiencesand behaviors n Forensic Psychology Deals with questions related to the justice system The Subfields of Psychology Physical health n Biological Psychology/Neuroscience Specializes in the biological bases of behavior n Health Psychology focuses on how health is affected by the interaction of biological, psychological, and socioculturalfactors The Subfields of Psychology Understanding our social networks n Social psychology Studies how people are affected by others n Cross-cultural psychology Focuses on the similarities and differences in psychological functioning across cultures and ethnic groups The Subfields of Psychology Applied Psychology n Clinical psychology Investigates diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders n Industrial Organizational psychology appliespsychological theories, principles, and research findings in theworkplace n Sport and Exercise Psychology Focuses on psychologicalaspects of sport perfoemanc, including motivation and performance anxiety, and the effects of sport on mental and emotional wellbeing The Subfields of Psychology New Frontiers n Clinical neuropsychology Focuses on relationships between biological factors and psychological disorders n Behavioral genetics Focuses on how we might inherit genes and how the environment influences whether we will display traits. n Evolutionary psychology Examines influence of our genetic heritage and our behavior Educating Psychologists n Doctoral Degrees 5-6 years past a (Ph.D. & Psy.D.) bachelors degree n Master’s Degree 2 - 3 years past a bachelors degree n Bachelor’s Degree 4 year degree Portrait of a Psychologist n ~300,000 psychologists work in the United States. n In the United States women outnumber men in the field. n Today ~¾ of doctoratesare given to women. n V ast majority of psychologists in the United States are white. n 6% are membersof racialminority groups. Where U.S. Psychologists Work Perspectives n Neuroscience Biological bases of behavior: the brain, the nervous system n Humanistic – Free will n Psychodynamic Behavioral influences – Natural tendency to of inner forces lives control of our Freudian slips n Cognitive n Behavioral How people think, Focus on observable understand, and know events about the world Psychology’s Key Issues n Nature versus nurture n Environment or Heredity? n Observable behavior versus internal mental processes n Should psychology only focus on what it can see? n Conscious versus unconscious n How much of our behavior is produced by forces of which we are fully aware? n Free will versus determinism How much of behavior is a result of choices made freely by the individual or is behavior determinedprimarily by factors outside a person’s willful control? n Individualdifferences versus universal principles n How much of our behavior is a consequence of our unique and special qualities and how much reflects culture and society? Psychology’s Future n Psychology will become increasingly specialized and new perspectives will evolve n Neuroscientific approaches will likely influence other branches of psychology n Influence on issues of public interest will grow n Issues of diversity will become more important to psychologists providing services and doing research The Scientific Method The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest Scientific Method 1. Identify questions of intereststemming from • requiring explanationon 3. Carry out research Operationalize hypothesis • Prior research findings • Curiosity,creativity, insight Select a research method Collect the data Analyze the data 2. Formulate an explanation Specify a theory Develop a hypothesis 4. Communicate the findings Scientific Method: Developing Explanations § Theories Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest § Hypothesis A prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested § Operationalization - The process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed - Example: Intelligent people are more successful Descriptive Research § Archival research Use of existing data in order to test a hypothesis n Naturalistic observation Observation of naturally occurring behavior without intervention n Survey research A sample of people are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, and attitudes in order to represent a larger population n Case study An in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people Correlation Research Correlational research The relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associate“correlated” •Correlation does not mean “causation” •Ranges from +1 to-1 Experimental Research The relationship betweentwo (or more) variables is investigated by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation Experimental Research n Random assignment to condition Participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “conditions” on the basis of chance and chance alone n Variable Behavior, event, or other characteristic that can change or vary in some way n Independent variable The variable that is manipulated by the experiment n Dependent variable The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the the experimenter’s manipulation of the independent variable Experimental Research n Significantoutcome Use ofstatistical procedures in order to determine whether or not differences between groups are large enough to be significant n Replication Repetition of findings using other procedures in other setting CHAPTER EIGHT: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 1 Motivation:The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms Instinct Approaches: Born to Be Motivated Instincts ›Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned Examples: Baby rooting or sucking, mother protection of baby, etc. Psychologistsdo not agree on what, or how many, primary instincts exist 3 Drive-Reduction Approaches: Satisfying Our Needs Suggest that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement ›Drive Motivation tension, or arousal, that energized behavior to fulfill a need Primary drive - Basic drives related to biological needs of the body or the species as a whole Secondary drives - Needs are brought 4 Drive-Reduction Approaches: Satisfying Our Needs Homeostasis › A basic motivational phenomena that underlies primary drives and involves the body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state Arousal Approaches: Seek to explain behavior in which the goal is to maintain or increase excitement ›People vary widely in the optimal level of arousal they seek out 6 Cognitive Approaches: The Thoughts Behind Motivation Suggest that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts, expectations, and goals › Intrinsic motivation › Extrinsic motivation 7 Maslow’s Hierarchy: Ordering Motivational Needs Suggests that before more sophisticated, higher-order needs can be met, certain primary needs must be satisfied 8 The Need for Achievement, Affiliation and Power Need for achievement A stable, learned characteristic in which satisfaction is obtained by striving for and attaining a level of excellence Measuring achievementmotiThematic Apperception Test (TAT) Need for affiliation An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people Need for power Tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual Emotions Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior 10 The Functions of Emotions Preparing us for action Shaping our future behavior Helping us interact more effectively with others 11 Determining the Range of Emotions: Labeling Our Feelings There are various ways of categorizing emotions Most researchers suggest that basic emotions include: ›Happiness ›Anger ›Fear ›Sadness ›Disgust 12 Theories of Emotion 13 Theories of Emotion 14 The Roots of Emotions Making Sense of the Multiple Perspectives on Emotion ›Emotions are such complex phenomena, encompassing both biological and cognitive aspects, that no single theory has been able to explain fully all the facets of emotional experience 15 Do People in All Cultures Express Emotion Similarly? Facial-affect program › Assumed to be universallypresent at birth › Analogous to a computer program that is turned on when a particular emotionis experienced Displays an appropriate expression Facial-feedback hypothesis › Not only reflectsemotionalexperience,but also helps determinehow people experienceand label emotions Some theoreticianshave suggested that facia16 expressions are necessary for an emotionto be experienced Long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. The pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiate people – those behaviors that make each of us unique. Psychoanalytic theory Freud’s theory that our behavior is triggered by forces within personality of which we are not aware Unconscious Part of the personality that contains memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which one is not aware Motivates much of our behavior Id › Raw, unorganized, inborn part of the personality › Holds primitive drives › Pleasure principle Immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction Ego › Strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective, outside world › Reality principle Instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society Superego › Represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals › Includes “Conscience” Prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way › Ego-ideal Represents the “perfect person” we wish we were Well acceptedconcepts: › Unconscious › Defense mechanism: Unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others (e.g., repression › Childhoold roots of adult psychological difficulties Criticisms › Lack of compelling scientific data •Conceptions of personality built on unobservable abstractconcepts Jung’s Collective Unconscious A set of influences we inherit from our own relatives, the whole human race, and even nonhuman animal ancestors from the distant past Adler’s inferiority complex Situations in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they developed as children Trait Theory › Seeks to explain, in a straightforward way, the consistencies in individuals ’ behavior Traits Consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations Cardinal trait A single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities Central trait The major characteristic of an individual Secondary trait Characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than central or cardinal traits Cattell › Factor analysis: A method of summarizing the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns Factors : Combinations of traits › Source traits Represent the basic dimensions of personality Hans Eysenck: Extraversion, neuroticism, & B.F. Skinner’s Behaviorist Approach › States that personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns 13 Social cognitive approaches Emphasizes the influence of a person’s cognitions – thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values– in determining personality Self-efficacy Belief in one’s personal capabilities Self-esteem Component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative evaluations Important components of personality are inherited Emphasize people’s basic goodness and their tendency to grow to higher levels of functioning Unconditional positive regard An attitude of acceptanceand respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does Self-actualization A state of self-fulfillment in which Psychological tests Standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively Self-report measures MMPI-2 A test used to differentiate people with specific sorts of psychological difficulties as well as predicting a variety of other behaviors Direct measures of an individua’s behavior used to describe characteristics indicative of personality Projective personality test A test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it. Rorschach test TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) CARD 8BM CARD 7GF CHAPTER SEVEN: INTELLIGENCE 1 Intelligence Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges G-factor ›Generalfactor for mental ability ›Was thought to underlie performance in every aspect of intelligence ›Recent theories view intelligence as a multidimensional concept 2 Theories of Intelligence: Are There Different Kinds of Intelligence? Fluid Intelligence ›Reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory Crystallized Intelligence ›Accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people learn through experience 3 Theories of Intelligence: Are There Different Kinds of Intelligence? 4 Theories of Intelligence: Are There Different Kinds of Intelligence? Information Processing as Intelligence › Informatio-processing approach Way people store material in memory and use that material to solve intellectual tasks Speed of processing Practical Intelligence › Relatedto overall success in living Emotional Intelligence › Set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression,and regulation of 5 emotions Assessing Intelligence Intelligence Tests ›Quantify and measure intelligence in an objective manner Stanford-Binet IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (WAIS-III) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III) Adaptive Testing: Using Computers to Assess Performance ›Adaptive in the sense that the computer 6 individualizesthe test to the test -taker Assessing Intelligence 7 Assessing Intelligence Contemporary IQ Tests: Gauging Intelligence › Achievement test Designed to determine a person’s level of knowledge in a specific subject area › Aptitude test Designed to predict a person’s ability in a particular area or line of work 8 Assessing Intelligence Reliability and Validity: Taking the Measure of Tests › Reliability Tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure › Validity Tests actually measure what they are supposed to measure › Norms Standards of test performance that permit t9e comparison of oneperson ’s score on a test to scores of others Variations in Intellectual Ability Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disabilities) › Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills Mildwith an IQ of 55 to 69 Moderate with an IQ of 40 to 54 Severewith an IQ of 25 to 39 Profound with an IQ below 25 10 Variations in Intellectual Ability Identifying the Roots of Mental Retardation › Fetal alcohol syndrome Caused by a mother ’s use of alcohol while pregnant › Familial retardation No apparent biologicaldefect exists but there is a history of retardation in the family 11 Variations in Intellectual Ability The Intellectually Gifted › Have IQ scores greater than 130 › Programs for the gifted are designed to provide enrichment that allows participants ’ talents to flourish 12 The Relative Influence of Genetics and Environment: Nature, Nurture, and IQ Culture-fair IQ Test ›One that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group Heritability ›Measure of the degree to which a characteristic can be attributedto genetic, inherited factors 13 CHAPTER NINE: LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT 1 Lifespan Development Study of the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life › Nature-nurtureissue Developmental psychologists typically take an interactionist position Key question: How and to what degree do environmentand heredity both produce their effects? 2 Development of Social Behavior Attachment The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particularindividual Lorenz and imprinting Harlow and infant monkeys Father’s role The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle Childhood Assessing Attachment ›Mary Ainsworth Ainsworth strange situation Securely attached Avoidant Ambivalent Disorganized-disoriented 4 The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle Childhood 5 The Growing Child: Infancy Through Middle Childhood CognitiveDevelopment:Children ’s Thinking About the World › Piaget’s Theory ofCognitiveDevelopment Sensorimotor stage(birth to 2) Object permanence Preoperational stage(2 to 7) Egocentric thought Principle of conservation Concrete operational stage (7 to 12) Reversibility 6 Formaloperational stage (12 to adulthood) Abstract, formal, and logicalthinking Adolescence The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood Puberty The period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, begins at about age 11 or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for boys Social Development: Finding Oneself in a Social World Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development: The Search for Identity › Identity-versus-role-confusionstage Identity › Intimacy-versus-isolation stage Early adulthood Focuses on developing closerelationships with others 8 Social Development: Finding Oneself in a Social World Stormy Adolescence: Myth or Reality? › Research shows that adolescence is not a period fraught with stress and unhappiness as once thought, but nevertheless does have some strife Adolescentegocentrism State of self-absorptionin which a teenager views the world from his own point of view Personal fables Belief that one’s experience is unique,9exceptional, and shared by no one else Adulthood: Social Development -Working at Life People typically launch themselves into careers, marriage, and families Midlife transition ›Period when people may begin to question their lives Midlife crisis 10 The Later Years of Life: Growing Old Physical Changes in Late Adulthood: The Aging Body ›Genetic Preprogramming Theories of Aging Suggest that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction ›Wear-and-Tear Theories of Aging Suggest that the mechanicalfunctionsof the body simply work less efficientlyas people age 11 The Later Years of Life: Growing Old Cognitive Changes: Thinking in Late Adulthood › Memory Changes in Late Adulthood: Are Older Adults Forgetful? › Fluid intelligence declines over time › Crystallized intelligence remain steady and in some cases improve 12 The Later Years of Life: Growing Old The Social World of Late Adulthood: Old but Not Alone › Disengagement Theory of Aging Aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels Life review › Activity Theory of Aging Late adulthood should reflect a continuation, as much as possible, of the activities in which people participated during the earlier part of their 13 lives
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