Biopsychology Days 22 and 23
Biopsychology Days 22 and 23 Bios 373
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bios 373 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Leger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see BIOPSYCHOLOGY in Biological Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Section 4 Study Guide: Day 22 (4/14): Born to Talk Lecture: Instinct and Learning Instinct: a behavior is instinctive to the extent that it develops without specific, individual experience o Need not be present at birth Learning: modification of behavior due to specific, individual experience Instinct works with learning o Basic behavior is instinctive, but not fully functional o Learning “tunes” the instinctive form (i.e. flight in birds) o Instinct vs. learning: false dichotomy Experience and communication Pure instinct: insects, amphibians, and most primates o Eastern phoebe song: even deafened/isolated phoebes sing perfectly well Experience: o Experience used, but not required: Brownheaded cowbird instinctive song works, but punished by other males. Final song: learned variant of instinctive form (less attractive, less aggression promoting) o Experience required: Whitecrowned sparrow no exposure to song simple abnormal “song” (not functional) Females do not find attractive experience required for successful mating o Human language nonexposure to language simplified, grunt like sounds (due to deafness) o Instinctbiased learning Instinctive attention and imitation o Whitecrowned sparrows (WCS) again: Can learn any WCS song, but won’t learn other species’ songs even when interspersed them o Similar to human language development o On the other hand, some species will learn almost anything (lyrebird) Instinctive adaptation for speech o Perception babies can take spectrum of sounds (continuum) and break into distinct sounds o Phonetic contrasts: i.e. /l/ vs. /r/ /letter/ doesn’t mean letter, means sound made o Hear it or lost it! (difficult to recognize slight differences in other languages) o Helping mother nature: moms talking to their babies Universal vowels: /a/ (not), /i/ (feet), /u/ (food) Only vowels found in all human languages Hyperarticulation: lengthen the vowel and increase pitch (when saying universal vowels) o Production o Babbling typical repetitive sequencing of sounds /dadada/ comes early o Hearing is not necessary, but helps maintain babbling (eventually stops) o Parents “reward” more maturesounding babbles o Manual babbling: found in all babies, but especially in deaf babies Very similar to vocal babbling: number of units, repeated o Perception and production o Perception facilitate production, but does not guarantee it o Perception of others’ speech is often better than one’s own i.e. /t/ vs/ /k/ “otay” vs. “okay” and “stool” vs. “school” /t/ develops before /k/ o Sensitive periods o Of sparrows and people: 3 weeks vs. 1214 years o Compensatory development sensitive period present, development doesn’t start at beginning of sensitive period (deaf) but can later (surgical correction) development occurs faster than normal Readings: Modules of language: speaking, comprehension Speaking o Selecting words lexical retrieval accessing words from memory Proximal parts of the brain are responsible for retrieval of a group (people, animals) Can lose one set of words, but retain others (i.e. lose nouns, retain verbs) o Saying words clearly articulation problems speech apraxias o Problems with word sequencing and grammar o Broca’s aphasia damage to left frontal lobe (damage to same are in right did not produce symptom) Comprehension o Receptive aphasia fluency and pronunciation are okay, content is problematic Dyslexia problems taking visual stimuli (letters) and associating them with language sounds o Partial genetic link, concordance rates are higher in identical twins o Symptoms can be reduced with practice When deaf people have a stroke, they experience similar damage to people who can hear Structures in the left hemisphere are responsible for production or comprehension of language Day 23 (4/19): Language and Brain Research Techniques Neuropsychology assessment assess symptoms and link with sites of brain damage Electrical stimulation during brain surgery, individual differences in size and location of languagecontrol regions Brain imaging allow visualization of brain in action, location shifts with language task Functional MRI sex differences in laterality (males more lateralized then females) o Language mostly on left of brain, some in right for women o Distinct areas for native vs. 2 language in “late bilinguals”, 1 area in “early bilinguals” Language Disorders and Neuropsychology Temporal lobe comprehension. Frontal lobe production Broca’s aphasia Paul Broca of “big brain” fame o Due to damage of front lobe in left hemisphere, comprehension fine, but can only speak one word o Four symptoms: Anomia trouble recalling certain words Ex. Nouns (common or proper only), verbs, and adjectives Agrammatism “telegraphic” speech, bare minimum amount of words, only nouns and verbs No use of conjunctions (and, but, or) Grammatical word endings often dropped (ing, s) Articulation problems Speech apraxias slow, labored speech, more mispronunciations than normal Could this be due to damage to the motor cortex? NO o Retain motor abilities of mouth/tongue for everything but language o Ex. Blowing out candles, make nonlinguistic sounds Comprehension problems Difficulty deciphering some grammatical forms unless words are unambiguous “The girl ate the ice cream.” Easy “The girl chasing the body.” Tough Wernicke’s aphasia o Damage usually of temporal lobe in left hemisphere o Three symptoms: Impaired comprehension suddenly native language seems foreign Hearing is fine, can’t recognize end of sentence cues Can’t respond to simple commands Sometimes limited to specific linguistic categories (nouns, verbs) Fluent, but meaningless speech (unlike slow, labored Broca’s aphasia) Rate, rhythm, and intonation patterns are fine Ex. “This year the last three years, or perhaps a little more, I didn’t know how to do me any able to.” Selfcomprehension is poor No self corrections Conduction aphasia o No production or comprehension difficulties o Problem is repeating what was heard, odd answers to questions “What time is your appointment?” “My dentist is Dr. Howard. Do you know her?” o Due to damage of arcuate fasciculus a band of axons that connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas Dyslexia reading impairment without sensory, motor, or IQ deficits o Synonyms: developmental dyslexia, congenital word blindness o Not alexia (loss of reading skills due to brain injury) o Not just a reading disorder, also Slowed naming of pictured objects Difficulty manipulating phonemes Adding of deleting phenomes “prot” without /r/ “pot” Problems constructing “Spoonerisms” o “I need to shake a tower” “Brocked by Neblaska” Swap first sounds of “catsad” : “satcad” Problems making word blends “trapped” and “captured” “traptured” Reading problems: o 2 types of reading: Phonemic reading sounding out Whole word reading needed for words that violate pronunciation rules (yacht, knife) o Some dyslexics have one problem, but most have both Conclusions Extensive brain tissue is devoted to language processes Distinct systems for different language processes (lose 1 and not others) Next time: are these symptoms unique to humans? Readings: Modules of language: speaking, comprehension Speaking o Selecting words lexical retrieval accessing words from memory Proximal parts of the brain are responsible for retrieval of a group (people, animals) Can lose one set of words, but retain others (i.e. lose nouns, retain verbs) o Saying words clearly articulation problems speech apraxias o Problems with word sequencing and grammar o Broca’s aphasia damage to left frontal lobe (damage to same are in right did not produce symptom) Comprehension o Receptive aphasia fluency and pronunciation are okay, content is problematic Dyslexia problems taking visual stimuli (letters) and associating them with language sounds o Partial genetic link, concordance rates are higher in identical twins o Symptoms can be reduced with practice When deaf people have a stroke, they experience similar damage to people who can hear Structures in the left hemisphere are responsible for production or comprehension of language
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