Intro to World Politics Bundle [Globalization to Human Rights]
Intro to World Politics Bundle [Globalization to Human Rights] PSCI 2054
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This 35 page Bundle was uploaded by John Vazquez on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSCI 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Thomas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to World Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Globalization Monday, January 25, 2016 9:21 AM Current Events: • Zika Virus in Latin America • Turkey Stuff ○ Monopolyon Violence - Only Sovereign States can maintain a military ○ Turkey is having a "Brain Drain," smartest people leave the country • Important Vocabulary ○ Theory: Simplifying Devicethat allows you to decide which facts matterand which facts do not Tied to notion of "The Exclusionary Principle" • International Relations • Interactions between and among states : Trade, Diplomacy,and Conflict ○ Sovereignty : No Actor above the state that can compel it to act in a certain way External vs. Internal legitimacy ○ Very complexidea when you take into account puppet states, human rights, and legitimacy conflicts • World Politics • Issues that play out on World Stage • Role of Non-State Actors • Links back to International Relations • Bigger than domestic and international relations • Globalization • Transnationalism - Events across national boundaries • Interdependence - Countries dependent on each other, world economy,etc. • Supranationality (and subnationalism) • Hyperglobalists v. Skeptics • Overstated? Primordialism Wednesday, January 27, 2016 9:01 AM Current Events : • Zeka Virus - First Cases reported in the U.S. • Iran military progression, western markets investing vs not investing • Vietnam Elections • UN Iran PeaceTreaties • DoomsdayClock movesup 2 minutes • Nations in 30 minutes • Neolithic Revolutionin 8000B.C. ○ Leads to Mesopotamia European History Time Friday, January 29, 2016 9:04 AM Current Events: • Japan introduces a negative interest rate, charging you to hold money • Genetically modified mosquito may have caused Zeka Virus outbreak • Europe • State-Building • Nation-Building • Treaties of Westphalia (1648) • A series of treaties marking end of the 30 years war in the Holy Roman Empire, and the 80 years war between Spain and the Dutch Republic ○ Began history of sovereignstates and began policies of non-intervention ○ Included citizenship and religious rights • Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) • An extension of the French Revolution • First use of conscription based on nationalism ○ Soldiers willing to die in the name of France • Defeat after rebellion in Haiti and invasion of Russia • Led to collapse of the Spanish Empire in the New World (French Occupied Spain) ○ By 1850,most of Latin America rebels against the French and becomeindependent • DissolvedHoly Roman Empire • Peace of Vienna (1815) • Leaders of Europe convene at the Congress of Vienna to re-establish order ○ Initiated Age of Metternich • 100 year period of relative peace due to the "Great PowerSystem" • Europe reestablished Monarchies and countries maintain peace through diplomacy, balance of power, and luck • Bismarck • Prussia seeks to unite Germany under the leadership of Bismark ○ Austro-PrussianWar (1866) ○ Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) Bavaria was very nationalistic ○ German Unification (1871) • They take Alsace-Lorraine which is Europe's Industrial power, filled with iron and coal • Age of Metternich (1815-1914) • World War I marked the end of the age of peace (1914) • WWI (1914-1918) • Treaty of Versaille (1918) • Not based on Wilson's 14 points • Designed to cripple Germany from outbreak of future war • War Guilt Clause, Reparations, Lost Territory • Fueled Germany's motivationsfor WWII • Inter-War Peace (1918-1939) • Great Depression • Rise of Fascism • US Isolationism ○ Dawes Plan - US loan to Germany • Appeasement • France and Germany give into some of Germany's demands ○ Annexed Sudetenland Anschluss with Austria ○ Anschluss with Austria ○ Remilitarization • War • WWII (1939 - 1945) • Early wins by the Nazis • Invasion of USSR • Pearl Harbor and American involvement • Atomic Bomb • End of WWII • Allies determined not to make same mistakes • Focus would shape next phase in international history, The Cold War • End of Colonialism,emergence of the EU and the UN Cold War Monday, February 1, 2016 9:28 AM • Why the Cold War? • Ideological differences, Capitalism vs Communism • US Aid to the Whites during Russian civil war (Reds Won) • Self -DeterminationVS Vision of World-Wide Socialism • 1946 crisis in Iran • The Bomb • The Role of the Bomb • Atomic weapons fundamentally change warfare • Gave possibly for wars of Annihilation • Deterrence : Soviets realized that deterrence was the only thing that could check US Nuclear Monopoly • Three C's - Communication,Capability, and Credibility • The Arms Race and M.A.D. • One bomb is destabilizing, many nukes are stabilizing • Mutually Assured Destruction • Need multiple strike capability, leads to arms race • The Triad Bombs, Land Based Missiles, Submarine Missiles • The Iron Curtain • Europe becomesdivided into East and West ○ Article 5 • NATO vs Warsaw Pact • 1st, 2nd, an 3rd World • Berlin Crises • Berlin became the Flashpoint of the Cold War ○ West Berlin was a NATO Enclave deep inside East Germany ○ 1st Crisis (1948-1949)- Soviets Cut off NATO Access Leads to Berlin Airlift ○ 2nd Crisis (1961)Cut off Access again Kennedy Runs the Blockade Construction of the Berlin Wall • Cuban Missile Crisis • 1961,US places missiles in Turkey so we could hit Moscow • Soviets put missiles in Cuba ○ Bay of Pigs - Failure to overthrowFidel • Soviets plan to put Nuke's in Cuba • 13 days of scariness • Solution - Quarantine and exchange for Turkey • Adlai Stevenson II • Détente • More diplomacy and cooperationbetween US and SovietUnion ○ Actively committedthemselvesto avoiding war • Proxy Wars • The Cold War got hot in a series of proxy wars ○ Korean War: US and USSR/US and China ○ Vietnam: The US and China ○ Afghanistan: The US and the USSR ○ Latin America: US and Soviet backed forces • Containment Proxy wars based on the idea that Soviet Socialism had to expand or die ○ Proxy wars based on the idea that Soviet Socialism had to expand or die ○ Influenced Truman Doctrine and Containment • Rapprochement • Détentebrought an end to active hostilities btwn US and USSR ○ From the 70s to the 80s, we moved towards active cooperationbetween 70s and 80s Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (SALT and SALT II) ○ Also mending US-Chinese relations after 1972 • End of the War • Two Schools of thought ○ US's rhetoric and spending drove the USSR into an economicdeath spiral Fostered Rebellion ○ Death Spiral mainly caused by Gorbachev's Glasnost and Perestroikaplans ○ Berlin Wall Collapses in 1989 ○ USSR collapses on December25, 1991 Cold War ends Post War Friday, February 5, 2016 9:05 AM • Post War Predicament • Industrial Capacities damaged • Infrastructure destruction • Cities and Population centers devastated • European Economiestoo small to promotecompetitiveeconomicgrowth • European States didn’t trust each other • Soviet threat made cooperationnecessary • Aftermath of WWII • Recognition of the mistakes of the Interwar Period and Treaty of Versailles • Western Commitmentto self-determinationand sovereignequality but also to new institutions, frameworks,and international relations ○ Partially captured by the UN ○ Underpinned commitmentsat Nuremburg ○ Framed de-colonizationefforts ○ Exemplified in formationof a new, United Europe • Post-WarVision • US General George Marshall was a student of former President WoodrowWilson ○ Both committedto an IR Perspectivecalled functionalism ○ Understood that a United Europe was in the Interest of both Europe and the US ○ Proposedthe European RecoveryPlan (Marshall Plan) to rebuild Europe's Economy(Used Tax Dollars) But the funds came with a catch, France and Germany could never go to war again • Marshall Plan • UK gets the most, than France, then Italy and West Germany ○ Japan also had a relief plan • The Catch : ○ US would rebuild Europe, but, Europe had to build a system of institutionalized international economicand political cooperationto prevent future wars Resonated with two Leaders - Jean Monnet and Robert Schumann - who had a similar vision for post War Europe □ Would take coal and steel resources and store them in an institution that required countries to get approval for those resources ○ European Coal and Steel Community Combined Coal and Steel resources of membercountries under authority of this corporation □ Established with the Treaty of Paris (1952)with six members: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands • Voluntary Surrender of Sovereignty • Participants in the ECSC voluntarily relinquish a degree of national sovereignty ○ First in right to wage war, then in terms of citizenship, currency, immigration,and other policies • European EconomicCommunity • Treaty of Rome (1957)established European EconomicCommunity ○ Freedom of movementfor goods, people, capital, and services ○ Established commoninternal and external policies ○ Encouraged deeper cooperation and integration ○ Survived the 1979Cassis de Dijon debacle leading a push for a single market by 1992 Cassis de Dijon caused by a fight between German beer and French Schnapps Cassis de Dijon caused by a fight between German beer and French Schnapps • End of the Cold War • Berlin Wall comesdown in 1989 ○ Germany reunited and resumed its own currency with Eastern Germany • Impact on the EEC • Since 1991 • Eu has accomplished: ○ Lasting Peace between France and Germany ○ CommonCurrency ○ European government ○ Voluntary surrender of national sovereignty to a supranational institution ○ Expansion into Eastern Europe • But since 1992integration has slowed ○ Failure of the European Constitutionin 2007 ○ Limited nature of the treaty of Lisbon Realism Monday, February 8, 2016 9:06 AM • 1990-1991(USSR Collapse) • Collapse • 1991-1993 • 1st Gulf War • End of Apartheid • Black Hawk Down in 1993 ○ Somalia, US attemptsto give aid, Helicopter is shot down, bad things happen • First World Trade Center Bombing in 1993 • Balkanization of Yugoslavia • War Crimes in Croatia (1991-1995) • Genocide in Bosnia (1992) • Ethnic Cleansing Kosovo • 1994-1995 • Rwandan Genocide • WTO • Japan Subway Gas Attack • 1998-1999 • Nukes in India • Kenya and Tanzania - Attack on the US Embassies • 2000-2001 • Attack on the USS Cole 2000 • September 11 • Liberalization of the Chinese Economy • Economicdevelopmentand environmentalconcerns • Baltic Time: • 1940,Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Invaded by Soviets ○ Germany then invaded and took over, Estonians were happy cuz they were less mean ○ 1945,Russians recapture, continue to occupy US never recognized this occupation • 1989 - Singing Revolutionin Estonia ○ People protested by singing Estonian folk songs • Baltics becomepart of NATO ○ Many are ethnic Russians • Foundations of Realism • State Centric Perspectiveof IR • Poweris Military and only military • Poweris a zero sum game ○ Finite amount of power • Sovereignty is absolute • Competitionamong states • Peace through strength • Hostile International System • States seek Security • Anarchical international systems • States are unitary actors • States Behaviors • Competitions,war, fear, aggression ,etc. • Biological drive for survival • States can trust each other only to act in their self-interest • States can trust each other only to act in their self-interest • Ethics • Realists reject the idea of Ethics • States should never sacrifice their own survival in the name of Ethics • States should distance themselvesfrom traditional moral values Liberalism Monday, February 22, 2016 1:35 PM Problem with Realism o Realism’s strength is its ability to explain conflict o HOWEVER, realism is reductionist and thus can’t explain cooperation, integration, and many of the elements associated with globalization (transnationalism) o Realism assumptions stand in opposition to the kinds of interdependence that have come to dominate the international system Foundations of Liberalism o Self-restraint o Compromise o Peace o Progress o Individualism o Tolerance o Freedom o Constitutionalism o Self-determination The Liberal Tradition o All citizens are equal and possess basic rights to education, a free press, and religious tolerance o The legislative assembly of the state possesses the authority invested in it by the people o A key part of liberty is the right to own property Open markets promote efficiency at both national and international levels The State and the Individual o Like individuals, states bear natural rights The right to non-intervention or sovereignty o Like individuals within states, states within the international realm must submit to the rule of law as defined by the community of states and enforced by international institutions Functionalism o A liberal theory o Emerged before WWI o Assumed that world peace would grow naturally out of economic cooperation Free trade stops war o Economic interdependence would make war against the nations’ interests o Disputes would be adjudicated by international institutions o Early Successes Early institutions seem to validate functionalist assumptions WWI was seen as an opportunity to implement a functionalist solution (Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points) o Interwar Period and WWII demonstrated that functionalists were right and wrong Economic interdependence can transform national interests, but functionalism requires interdependence in leading econ sectors Neo-Functionalism o Understood that for economic interdependence to lead to peace Leading sectors of economics must become integrated in ways that require the establishment and legitimacy of supranational institutions Openness must be carefully implemented by states and institutions to prevent the outbreak of war This is the foundational logic behind the European Coal and Steel Community This is the foundational logic behind the European Coal and Steel Community The Role of Institutions o Liberals of all types point to the indispensability of international institutions to promote peace and prosperity UN, IMF, NATO, etc. Strengths of Liberalism o Considers more structures and agents than realism o Can explain cooperation, globalization, and the emerging role of NGOs, international institutions, and supranational authorities o More optimistic view of humanity and the international system Weaknesses of Liberalism o Does not explain the prevalence of war, defection, aggression, and other “realist” qualities o Is often more concerned with what “could be” and what “is” o Requires trust among survival-seeking states to function o States that adhere to liberal traditions are vulnerable to defection Neo-Liberalism o Separate from liberalism o Emerged in the later 20 century o Built on: Privatization Deregulation Unhindered trade o Problems come to light with “banana republics” If your state relies on one export that is controlled by a single foreign business, are you sovereign, or will you do whatever that business says? Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism Monday, February 22, 2016 1:35 PM Neo-Realism o Kenneth Waltz’s Theory of International Politics o Structural approach to international relations o Based upon the notion of polarity, balance of power, and polar powers o Closely related to Great Powers and Super Powers o Identifies even more agents, structures, and dynamics as “irrelevant” than Classical Realism o Power defined as the combined capabilities of a state o Power determines policy Polarity in the International System o Structure defined by polar powers Often called ‘Great Powers’ Military, economic, political, and social power o Structures change only when polar powers are added or eliminated—very rare o Structures change slowly and infrequently Multipolarity o From 1648 to the Cold War the world was multipolar Numerous polar powers Frequent changes in the structure of the system Relatively unstable o The Age of Metternich The most stable multipolar system has five Great Powers France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria Opportunities for defection, secret alliances, and instability are limited Maintained by a 2-2-1 split o Conflict arises with a 3-2 split Bipolarity o Two super powers A super power has the military capability to completely annihilate its enemy. Cold War o Most stable structural system Deterrence and MAD Decreased likelihood of structural change Powers work together to deter structural change Tripolarity o Most dangerous and unstable structural system o Two weaker powers ally against a stronger power The stronger engages in a preemptory strike Post-Cold War o Uni-polarity Is Russia still a super power? o Is neo-realism applicable to the post-Cold War world? Many Great Powers AND at least two super powers Problems with Waltz o Even more reductionist than classical realism o Waltz was a student of history and he generalized from what he saw to what was possible in the international system Ex: a five polar system is stable because of a 2-2-1 split, but would it always split that Ex: a five polar system is stable because of a 2-2-1 split, but would it always split that way o Was the Age of Metternich about polarity or about Britain’s role as hegemon and its economic interests in international peace and stability? o Waltz treats the Cold War staying cold as inevitable, when that isn’t necessarily true. Constructivism Wednesday, February 24, 2016 9:07 AM • The Construction • Social Construction of Reality • Agents are produced and created by cultural environment • Nurture not nature • State Desires vs State Needs • Epistemologyshapes ontology ○ Knowledge such as symbols, rules, concepts, etc. shape how agents construct the world • Social Facts ○ Exist because we agree upon them (sovereignty,human rights, currency, etc.) • The Charge • Question everything - anything naturalized in the discourse of international relations ○ "age old hatred" ○ "Natural Rights" ○ "Citizenship" ○ "Nation" and "state" All human constructions • Things we take for granted as natural are social constructions ○ De-constructionis an attempt to trace these social constructionsto their creation • Focus on contingencies, on history, not nature • Key Assertions • Alexander Wendt: "Anarchy is what states make of it" ○ The system exists through a series of recursive constitutiveactions and interactions among agents Rivalries, Friendships, Enmity • Max Weber: "We are cultural being with the capacity and the will to take a deliberate attitude towards the world and to lend it significance" ○ Culture and Politics are intertwined • Role of Power • Meanings becomefixed through international relations and/or politics ○ Once fixed, these meanings have a wide array of consequences Marxism Friday, February 26, 20169:14 AM • Wealth Owners = Bourgeoisie • Labour Owners = Proletariat • Communism - Feudalism - Capitalism - Socialism - Communism Welfare State/Social Democracy • Continuing Relevance • Many assume that the end of the cold war meant the end of Marxism ○ Cold war had more to do with realism, totalitarianism, and commandeconomies ○ Leninism/Stalinism/=/ Marxism • Marx remains a useful and relevant perspective for analyzing capitalism ○ Now Market Economieshave become more widespread • World Systems Theory • Developedby Immanuel Wallerstein • World is Divided into a two-tier structure ○ The Core (Bourgeoisie) ○ The Periphery (Working Class) • Workers World-Wide becomedivided against each other ○ Bourgeoisie in the core use profits derived from exploiting periphery to "Buy off" the proletariat • Declining terms of trade perpetuate system • Semi-Periphery • IntermediateRole • Penetratedby core economicinterests • Possessesan indigenously owned industrial based • Limits upward wage pressure on the core • Provide an environmentfor low-end manufacturing and other uncompetitiveindustries Feminist IR Theory Monday, February 29, 2016 9:25 AM • Critical Theories • Analyze • Feminist Theory • IR from a gendered perspective • Masculine vs Feminine • What are the differences, why do they matter,how are relations gendered? • Impacts • Who is included in IR, who is excluded, who is effected • How do IR effect men and women differently • What does It look like? • Cares about different issues: • Poverty,War Rape, DomesticAbuse, honor killings, human trafficking, refugee crises, child brides, etc. • Values Feminine attributes : Compassion,Empathy, Compromise,forgiveness • The Benefits • Encourages us to consider people who are routinely invisible to IR, but very much effected by it • Forces us to confront the impacts of policies on people without voices in making them • The Problem • Tends to praise femininity and criticize masculinity without considering the negative implications of the former or the positive implications of the latter ○ Grudges? Decisiveness? Agents of IR and WP Monday, March 14, 2016 9:41 AM • Approx. 200 governments • 77,200transnational corporations • Lots of other stuff that aren't states • State Centrism • Predominanttheories of IR are state centric ○ Realism, neo-Realism • But although this simplifies the study of IR, it creates problems ○ Ambiguity between meaning of state • Corporations • Transnational corporations have branches or subsidiaries outside their home country ○ Transnational economicactors import/export ○ Transnational political actor lobby governmentsabout trade • TNC's diminish sovereignty ○ Control over trade and over currency • TNC's create transnational interdependence • "Non-Legitimate Groups" • Transnational criminals can destabilize international political and economicorder ○ Arms/drugs/humantrafficking ○ Terrorists, guerillas, national liberation movements • What support do they get? What legitimacydo they have? • Who holds governmentsaccountable? • Need for supranational/transnational/internationalgovernance • NGO's • Interest/pressuregroups/civil society ○ Non-profit ○ Non-violent ○ Not established by treaty or national government • Organizations/institutions • Founding documents, rules of procedure, executive bodies, precedents ○ UN ○ NATO • Hybrids ○ Red Cross • Epistemic Communities • WAR Wednesday, March 16, 2016 9:44 AM • Clausewitz - War is not just the outbreak of conflict, but the political breakdown that lead to it • War to Peace • 14,400wars throughout history ○ 3.5 Billion Deaths • Decline in war since the end of the Cold War • DemocraticPeace Argument: democracieswill go to war, but not against other democracies ○ Will fight to democratizenon democraticstates ○ Find two democraciesthat went to war with each other in the 20th century Cyber Warfare Monday, March 21, 2016 9:13 AM • Digital Devicestouch every aspect of our lives • No one person or company knows how any digital system works • Targets are limited by the attacker's budget far more often than feasibility • Real Hackers Wear Suits • The NSA employs 40,000people with a $10 billion budget • It is 10 years ahead of the rest of the cyber security industry • Today, the DOD considered cyberspace to be a primary battleground • Anatomy of a Cyberweapon • A campaign that may combine multiple malicious programs for espionage, data theft, or sabotage • A stealth capability that enables undetected operation within the target system over an extended time • An attacker with intimate knowledge of details for the workings of the targeted systems • Special type of computer code to bypass protectivecybersecurity technology • 0-Days and Vulnerability • The quintessential tools of cyber-war • Issues with specific software • Responsible Disclosure • Most Threatening when kept secret • Strategic Stockpile • Using an 0-Day exposesit to the world • Newly discovered0-Days are stockpiled like strategic weapons • 0-Days evaporate • Vulnerabilities may remain un-fixed for years • Stuxnet • US/Israel Collaboration • Targeted against Iranian Enrichment Program • First Major use of a cyber weapon • Four 0-Days ○ USB Key spread ○ Infects MicrosoftWindows ○ Scans Internal Network ○ Seeks Siemens Step7 PLCs ○ Modifies centrifuge values • Lloyd's American Attack • Coordinated attack on US Power Grid • Firmware Base • No Discernible Source • Consequences: ○ 3 days to 50% Recovery ○ 6 months of Rolling Blackouts ○ 225 Billion in direct damages ○ 1 trillion in projected GDP loss • The Nightmare Scenario • National Scale Attack • The Dark Start Problem • Major cities without power for weeks • Butterfly effect consequences International Law Wednesday, March 23, 2016 9:13 AM • Skepticism and International Law • Realists will tell us that international law doesn't matter • In a world dominated by stated, law perpetuates power of dominant states, or is ignored completely • But states take great strides to develop international law, complianceis high ○ Most states, most of the time, follow law • International Law Defined • International Law is a core international institution, set of norms, rules and practices (Institutionv Organization) Created by states and other actors to facilitate diverse social goals Institutio International Law, a norm, a rule, a practice, bedrock principle that exists ○ n because we like it Constitutional Institutions : Primaryrules and norms of international society without which society among states could not exist (ex. Sovereignty,Legitimacy,States) Fundamental Institutions : Allow states to interact with each other, rules to facilitate coexistenceand cooperationamong states (ex. Trade, Currency, Borders, Diplomacy) Issue Specific Institutions: Sets of rules, norms, and decision making procedures that states use to define legitimateactors and actions (Nuclear Non-Proliferation,Geneva Accords) • Codified War Laws • Jus-Ad-Bellum vs Jus-In-Bello (Going to war vs In War) • Just War Theory (ThomasAquinas) ○ Sovereign Authority ○ Just Cause ○ Right Intention • Lieber Code In 1863 ○ Laws for Union Troops, forbade killing of POWs, no poisons, no torture, etc. Basis of Hague Conventions • Geneva Conventions ○ First Geneva - 1864 Treatmentof wounded and sick in the field ○ Second Geneva - 1906 Same as above, but also shipwrecked people ○ Third Geneva - 1929 Treatmentof POWs ○ Fourth Geneva - 1949 Treatmentand protection of civilians • Hague Conventionsof 1907 ○ Governs declaring war, laws of land warfare, neutrality, discharging projectiles from balloons, etc. • Three Principlesof Jus in Bello ○ Military Necessity Must be aimed at defeating the enemy Legitimatemilitary target ○ Distinction Belligerents must distinguish between combatants and civilians ○ Proportionality Must make sure harm to civilians or their property is not excessivein relation to the Must make sure harm to civilians or their property is not excessivein relation to the advantage gained by an attack on a legitimate target • Consent and Legal Obligation • Consent is treated as the primary source of international legal obligation • States are bound by rules to which they have not formally consented including customary international law • Problem of Prior Consent ○ USSR v. Russia • Created Successor States, states could absorb past states benefits if they accept treaties (Russia Succeeded Soviet Union) • Four Characteristicsuntil 1980 • States were the primary subjects of international law ○ Principal bearers of rights and obligations • States were the primary agents of international law ○ The only actors empoweredto formulate,enact, and enforce international law NOT a communityof humankind • A New Approach • Beyond International order to global Governance ○ Individuals, groups, and organizaitons are increasingly recognized as subjects of international law Human Rights ○ Non-State Actors are important agents in the international legal process ○ Increasingly focused on glabal rather than international regulation ○ Rules, norms and principles no longer. UN Shit Wednesday, March 30, 2016 5:38 PM The Failure of the League of Nations o The League of Nations was established after WWI to make future wars impossible BUT it lacked power Both bodies—the League Assembly and the League Council—could make recommendations but no binding resolutions All recommendations had to be unanimous No mechanism for coordinating military or economic action against states Lack of participation by Great Powers (US) The United Nations o Established after WWII o Legitimacy derived from universal membership All sovereign states are invited to join o Mandate includes: The UN Charter o A treaty ratified by all members o 4 purposes: To maintain international peace and security To develop friendly relations among states To cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights To be a center for harmonizing the actions of states Primary Challenge: o The UN is made up of sovereign, independent states The tension between sovereignty and individual rights has been a matter of debate and disagreement Sovereignty therefore often limits UN actions Article 2(7): “Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.” BUT the UN has a moral standing in the international community—UN support for a program, action, or intervention often provides legitimacy. UN Organs o The Security Council Designed to promote international peace and security 5 permanent members (P5) with veto power: US, France, Great Britain, Russia, China Many calls for reform o Add new permanent powers o Eliminate the veto power and/or permanent membership o 10 non-permanent members Measures are binding and must be passed by a 9 vote majority Range of options Principles for settlement Mediation Peacekeeping mission Economic sanctions/arms embargo “All necessary means” o General Assembly o “Parliament of nations” Each state has one vote 2/3 majority required for major recommendations (admission of new members/budget) Majority required for most recommendations May tackle any issue: Blood diamonds Space race Sustainable development Migration Opinion leader in international relations/world politics o The Secretariat Led by the Secretary General The administrative/executive body of the UN Research functions Management functions Bureaucratic body—lacks o Economic and Social Council Coordinates o UN Organizations The UN is comprised of a o The Trusteeship Council Established to provide supervision for the 11 Trust Territories Transition them to independence and self-governance, done by 1994 o The International Court of Justice 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council UN Wednesday, March 30, 2016 9:08 AM • UN Peacekeeping • UN can send a UN peacekeeping force under their commandto stand between parties in a dispute after ceasefire ○ Can only use weapons in self defense ○ Established with the consent of the host state ○ Does not include forces from major powers • UN can also send a peace enforcementdesigned to achieve humanitarian ends ○ Deployed when order has collapsed within states (civil war) and international conflicts • Events within states • UN increasingly responds to events within sovereignstates ○ Political and civil rights ○ Food, water, health care, shelter ○ Ethnic cleansing/Genocide ○ Civil War/Unrest • Justification : Lack of internal justice endangers international orders ○ Hotly contested ○ UN's primary mission is still to defer to sovereignty of independent states ○ But is statehood conditional upon respect for human rights. • Other side • Globalization offers solutions to environmentalissues ○ Economicdevelopmentand population control ○ Incentives to price externalities into the cost of goods • Tragedy of the commons • Resources that are held in commonin the absence of governmentand regulation are often abused and exploited ○ Oceans, space, air, forests • No global governmentbut global governance ○ Enforcement ○ Funding ○ Free Riders ○ State Actors • Wake-up calls • Bhopal Chemical • Chernobyl • Acid Rain • DDT • Exxon oil Spill • Policy Frameworks • Prior to 1972 - few international conventions ○ International whaling convention • 1972 onwards - More ngo's and environmentalprograms ○ Un conferenceon Human Environmentand EnvironmentProgramme ○ Establishment of environmentalagencies by numerous national gov'ts • Sustainable development • During 90s and 00s poverty eradication was a big thing ○ But clean water, sanitation, agricultural improvements,and developmentoften bring concerns about sustainability • How would the global communityeradicate poverty while promoting environmentalstuff • How would the global communityeradicate poverty while promoting environmentalstuff ○ Two approaches: bottom-up and top-down Terrorist Things Monday, April 4, 2014:21 PM Terrorism Defined o The use of violence by sub-state groups to inspire fear by attacking civilians and/or symbolic targets for purposes such as drawing widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe response, or wearing down their opponent’s moral resolve to affect political change Whose Terrorist o Terrorism is a strategy undertaken by structurally weak minorities against structurally more powerful political agents and institutions Often in the name of an extremist ideology o Groups resort to terrorism rather than other forms of political violence because their objectives lack broad appeal o Goal is political change o Terrorists often disregard the “rules” of war Use of violence against non-combatants and “soft” targets Legitimacy o Often considered more legitimate if tactics conform to the rules of the “just war” o Challenges the notion that states hold a monopoly of violence o BUT groups that use terrorist tactics often reject the legitimacy of the state or its government Sub-National to Global o Terrorism has been around for centuries o Early terrorists operated against domestic targets Their impact was limited to a single o Transnational terrorism emerged in the mid-1900s The expansion of commercial air travel makes travel quick and easy The availability of televised news coverage gives them their soapbox Linkages to Globalization o The technologies associated with globalization are also associated with terrorism Communication Organization Propaganda Transportation Banking Role of Air Travel o Air travel allowed terrorists from one country to attack in another Lack of airport security measures o Hijacking was both effective and easy States gave in to demands, which encouraged others to try Often demanded money, release of prisoners, etc. Learned from one another o Led to the implementation of numerous security measures DECADES before the US put their own in place These people are not messing around—portacaths, teddy bears, etc. o Pan Am flight 103 A bomb detonated in the plane over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988 Killed all 270 people First time terrorism was really brought home for Americans Role of Television TV provided o TV provided Decade of Terrorism (1980-1990) o Suicide bombings o Hijackings o 3 trends: Fewer attacks Types of Terror Groups o Left-wing o Right-wing o Ethno-nationalist/separist o Religious/sacred Ethno-Nationalist: Tamil Tigers o An ethno-nationalist movement in Sri Lanka that used terror to fight against the government o Recognized as terrorists by many governments BUT as a liberation movement by many others o The tactics used by the government against the Tigers gave the movement legitimacy o Pioneered suicide bombing o Accused of ethnic cleansing, use of child soldiers, arms dealing, piracy, and other atrocities o Tigers were defeated in 2009 Right Wing: Oklahoma City o 1995 domestic terrorist attack in the US that killed 168 people o A right-wing terrorist attack on the government of the US o Questioned the legitimacy of the US government Upset about Waco and Ruby Ridge o Role of The Turner Diaries inspired this A blueprint for a second American Revolution written as a novel America’s Mein Kampf o Threshold of violence—when a terrorist goes too far The deaths of children Left Wing: Ecoterrorism o Left-wing movement o Many groups: Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, etc. o Violence and sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, and animal rights goals o Primarily property damage Fighting Terrorism o National measures: Airport security Anti-terror laws Special counter-terrorism task forces and LEOs o International measures More difficult because it requires cooperation • Nuclear Things Monday, April 4, 2016 9:11 AM • Nuclear States • China, France, Russia, the UK, and the US are acknowledged nuclear powers by the Treaty of Non- Proliferation. ○ In 1998 India and Pakistan joined the nuclear club ○ Other members? Israel? North Korea? • Vertical vs Horizontal proliferation ○ Horizontal: Country that didn’t have Nukes, suddenly has Nukes ○ Vertical: Acknowledged Nuclear states increase nuclear capabilities, first strike capabilities, etc. • Trends are regional ○ Nuclearization : N. Korea, Iran ○ Denuclearization : Former soviet states ○ Nuclear Weapon Free Zones: Latin America, Africa • From Ashes of World War 2 • Nuclear weapons have been controversialsince their inception • Truman's Regret • Nuclear weapons changed dynamics of warfare and international politics • DestructiveCapabilities • Blast Heat or Thermal Radiation Nuclear Radiation ElectromagneticPulse • Early Concerns • US Nuclear capacity was a destabilizing in the absence of a second nuclear state ○ The USSR became a nuclear power in 1949 • During Cold War two concerns emerged ○ First, the US and the USSR were going to destroyus all ○ Second, Nuclear accidents (Chernobyl in 1986)represented a secondary but no less terrifying threat • Global Level Governance • Attempt to regulate nukes at a global level 1946 : UN Atomic Made proposals for the elimination of nuclear weapons Energy Commission 1953 : Atoms for Not disarmamentbut an initiative to open benefits of nuclear energy. • Peace International organization for atomic energy Cold War Treaties Nukes are centerpiece Partial Test Ban, Strategic Arms Reductions Treaties, Nuclear Non- ProliferationTreaties, Missile TechnologyControl Regime. Proposals for Hague code of Conduct • Post-Cold War • Fall of the Soviet Union ○ Many sovietweapons were stored in states that have becomesovereign and independent ○ They are now technically nuclear states • Many formersoviet states have denuclearized ○ 2-3% of the Soviet Arsenal went missing 900 weapons unaccounted for, where are they? • More is Better? • Waltz argues that more nukes = a safer world Deterrenceguaranteed stability ○ Deterrenceguaranteed stability • Why proliferation? Cold War: Defense, Deterrence,NON-use • Today Legitimacy,Intimidation, Desperation, Influence, USE? • Spread and Proliferation • Non-nuclear powers can get nukes by purchase, theft, or acquisition of technology for productions ○ Espionage has always been at the forefrontof nuclear programmes ○ Infrastructural, human, technological, and scientific capital necessarycan be developedover time ○ Used to be limited to state actors but widespread availability increase non-state risk • Non Proliferation Treaty • Unilateral, bilateral, multilateral, and global measures ○ Treaties ○ Export Controls ○ International Safeguards • Nuclear Supplier agreements ○ But can relics of the first nuclear age operate effectivelyin the second nuclear age? • Problems • Security dilemmadrives weapon acquisition • Existing treaties require disarmament in good faith but all other parties must forgo acquisition all together • Bombs v. Missiles Techie Nuke Things Wednesday, April 6, 2016 9:09 AM • Race for the bomb • 1938 - Fission Discoveredby Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman (Free University of Berlin) USA-1945 USSR-1949 ○ UK-1952 France-1960 The Problem Fissionable Material Sufficient Quantity Super critical configuration • Doesn’t Destroyitself Delivered Sub-Critical No second chances • Little Boy - 9,700lbs , 15kt , Uranium • Fat Man - 10.300 lbs, 21kt, Plutonium Nationalism Wednesday, April 13, 2016 9:06 AM • What is Nationalism • Extremepride and exceptionalism in one's country • Strong use of propaganda • Becomesexclusionary and supremacist • Ideas of national purity, ideas of US vs THEM • Patriotism More innocent, strictly pride in one's country • Understand a nation • Nations are imagined communitiesof people who believe they belong together and that they should be rules by a single government ○ Not homogenous Different religions, races, ethnicities, etc. ○ Not necessarily contained within the boundaries of a sovereign state Nation-States Sub-State Nations Transnational Nations • Three perspectiveson Nationalism • Civic (dedication to state and its values) v. Ethnic (commitmentto group of commondescent) • Elite v. Mass • State-Strengthening (purification, extending power) v. state-subverting(separatist, create new state) • History of Nations • Luther, Napoleon • Age of Metternich • World War I • World War II • Cold War • Post-ColdWar • Three Problems • State gov'ts deny citizenship based on race and ethnicity • Stateless nations seek self-determination • Nationless States • Germany and the Turks • Late unification of German state causes issues • Turks are largest minority ○ Often considered temporaryor foreign settlers • Germany is citizenship based on blood, not land (Turks based on Land) • In 2000,German recognized citizenship by soil • Turks still face discrimination as no efforts were made to integrate them • Chechnya • Federal republic of Russia • After fall of the USSR, Chechnya demanded independence ○ But they have oil, so Russia maintained control • Chechen independence fighters have been fighting Russian gov't and people since early 90s • In the 2000s,they began using terrorist tactics ○ But the Russian governmentwas accused of framing the Chechens • Kenyans • Kenya was a British possession • Kenya was a British possession • British choose Kikuyu as their clients • But relationship between British and the kikuyu was not always pleasant--Mau Mau • After independence, Kenya was seen by many as the great hope of Africa • Election of 2007 creates tensions • Yugoslavia • Carved out of the Austro-Hungarian empire after a series of revolts • Part of Soviet Sphere during cold war • Serbia begins ethnic cleansing Fascism Friday, April 15, 2016 9:11 AM • Strong Charismatic Leader • Mixed economywith goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies • Fascist and Neo-Fascist Party • NSDAP (Nazi) • National Fascist Party (Italy) • Falange (Spain) • National Front (French and UK) • Nationalist Socialist? • Nazi gave economiccontrol to capitalist monopolies • Would provide for people as long as they have everything to the nation • Spanish Fascism • Francisco Franco • Hero of Spanish Civil War • Wanted Spain to be a fascist totalitarian regime • Defeat of Axis powers meant isolation of Spain • Italian Fascism • Fascismo's symbol is a bundle of rods, a symbolof strength • German Fascism • Emerged from German Nationalist, racist, and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture • Originally anti-big business and anti-marxist Human Rights and Security Wednesday, April 20, 2016 9:57 AM Human Security o an attempt to redefine “security” in IR theory and world politics o Beyond the protectionof sovereignty and the territorial integrity of states o Beyond military capability and deterrence o Beyond the state as the central unit in IR o Human security is about the existential security of the person Economicsecurity o An assured basic incomefor individual from productive work as well as publicly financed safety nuts o Social facts are things because we agree on them o PerformativeSpeech Act Theory - Tries to define that line where Action is needed, but it want stop focus on the words, on the speech to talk about it. It may be unrealistic, but it at least gives a first step. How we take action also matters too Food Security o Ensuring that all people at all times have physical and economicaccess to food. o Food Desert - Where food access is not available, like 20 miles from Blacksburg Health Security o Guaranteeing a minimum protection from disease and unhealthy lifestyles o Vaccination rates and disease outbreaks have a direct correlation o Catholic countries (South america) have low outbreaks because of their high vaccinationrates EnvironmentalSecurity o Protectingpeople from the short and long term ravages of nature, man made threats in nature and the deteriorationof the natural environment Personal Security o protecting people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domesticabuse, and from predatory adults CommunitySecurity o Protectingpeople from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence o This is rough because female contraceptivewith the sowing of the vaginal shut is a crime against humanity, but yet it’s part of many cultures Political Security o Ensuring that pop alive in a societythat honors basic human right san censure the freedom o individuals and groups from governmentattempts to exercisecontrol over ideas and information
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