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Comparative Government and Politics [Week 1 until now]

by: John Vazquez

Comparative Government and Politics [Week 1 until now] PSCI 1024

Marketplace > Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University > Political Science > PSCI 1024 > Comparative Government and Politics Week 1 until now
John Vazquez
Virginia Tech

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Notes that take you from the beginning of the class, to the British Electoral System notes
Comparative Government and Politics
Dr. Taylor
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by John Vazquez on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSCI 1024 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Taylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
The State and Its Policies Tuesday, January 26, 2016 1:59 PM The State: • Has territoryand population • Sovereignty ○ Internal Sovereignty:Legal power to make and enforce law within its boundaries ○ External Sovereignty:The country is recognized by other states and can make binding agreementswith them • State's Historic Role • National Defense • DomesticTranquility • General Welfare ○ All of these aspects change over time, depending on circumstances(From the Whiskey Rebellion to Gun People today) ○ Medicare and Medicaid • United States Constitution • Items Stated Above ○ Behind it all • To provide legitimacy for the state • National identity and Civic Pride • Trust and respect, not a rule through force alone • Expansion of Roles ○ Reagan and Margaret Thatcher • Prosperityand EconomicGrowth • Inflation and Unemployment(Limiting vs Encouraging, Relationships, Reform, etc.) • Redistribution (Taxes and Reform) • Nation • People with a strong psychological sense of unity based on a commonhistory, culture, territory, law, etc.  Nation Vs State □ Sociological vs Legal • Islamic State: Effort to redefine or replace the state into a whole world view • World united under Islam • Nation-State : One State, One Nation • Civil Society and the State • Civil Society has organizations that competewith one another, people have different viewpoints, free o' speech • The state is the Governmentand the Bureaucracy • The European Union • States give up somepowers to the EU, but retain others ○ British are pushing to revise agreementsto return certain powers to the states • Governing Structures: ○ The Council ○ The Council of Europe - Group of Prime Ministers ○ The Commission - The bureaucracy ○ The European Parliament - Made up of reps from each of the states decided via population ○ European Court of Justice - Judicial Review • CommonMarket ○ No barriers when it comesto trade and the movementof goods btwn member states Commonexternal trade policies ○ Commonexternal trade policies ○ Commonanti-trust policy ○ Commonagricultural policy • Schengen Agreement  Schengen is a tiny place between Germany and Luxembourg ○ EU people came together to agree on no barriers on movementbetween the areas, no passports needed  Not every memberof the EU is a part of this agreement □ Agreement shaky thanks the Syria crisis • MonetaryUnion ○ CommonCurrency (Euro) ○ Central Bank ○ Integrated Financial and EconomicPolicies Economics Justice Effectiveness Thursday, January 28, 2016 1:52 PM • Political Systems: ○ Politics is how people receive what they want within a system of gov't • Democracy • Dictatorship • Economic Systems: ○ Economicsis how the market is controlled • Capitalism ○ Private Owners working for profit ○ Market System  Produces commongoods for the whole society ○ Laissez-faire (Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand)  Minimal intervention by gov't in economy  "Night-Watchman state" • Socialism ○ Commonownership for commonwelfare (Karl Marx) ○ Private Property is the cause of injustice ○ From those who have to those who need ○ Idea of a "PlannedEconomy"  Plan exactly what you need and produce only those items • Communism (aka super socialism) ○ Ideology that does not distinguish political and economic  Capitalism - Incentives for growth  Socialism - Equality of income Winston Churchill - "Capitalism creates unequal distribution of wealth; socialism creates the equality of poverty" • Collapse of Socialism : • Central Planning and commonownership not effective • Search for alternate means for the same goals • Soros' Thesis : • Unless self-interest is temperedby commoninterest, democracyis likely to break down • Night-Watchman State or Regulatory State • Philosophical Liberalism: ○ Radical Individualism ○ American Conservatives • Communitarian Values ○ Welfare State ○ American Liberals • Constitutionalism • Only reason to limit liberty is self-protection • What is constitutional? ○ Judicial Review  US, Germany ○ Sovereignty of Parliament  UK ○ Decision by the people  Switzerland • Distribution of Wealth • Distribution of Wealth • Always a political question, no science • Driven by Fairness and Greed • Rich to Poor, Young to Old, etc. • Government'sModern Role • Education, transport, other services • Social and Econ. Well being • Prosperity and EconomicGrowth ○ Inflation and unemploymentcontrol • Redistribution (Taxes and reform) • Regulatory State • Sanctions and Rewards • Extraction - ○ Direct Taxes ○ Indirect Taxes ○ Borrowing Holding Society Together Tuesday, February 2, 2016 2:01 PM • Legitimacy • People's acceptance of a state's rule ○ Putin Is the man • Democracyis one of many ways to accrue Legitimacy • Authority • The Right to make decisions and create policy/law • Governmentsmust have legitimacy to survive, regimes can lose legitimacyand a new regime will arise • PoliticalCulture • Broadly shared ways of thinking ○ Cognitive Orientations ○ Affective Orientations • PoliticalSocialization • How we get our ideas and feelings ○ Schools, family, media, etc. • Popular Sovereignty • Direct Participation • Accountable Elites (Representatives/ElectoralCollege) • Equality vs Equity • Equal Opportunity • Problem of resources • Results • Consultation • Civil Society • Open Government • Majority Rule • Winner Take All • Consensual decisions • Social Capital • Network of activitiesthat ordinary people are engaged in • Reservoirof trust and expectation of positive outcomes Designing Government Thursday, February 4, 2016 2:04 PM • Constitutions • Define the fundamental rules of the state • Reflect the consensus underlying the regime • Define structures of Gov't • Embody sovereignty of the whole community • Madisonian Democracy • Tyranny of the Minority • Tyranny of the Majority • Control of the factions • Separation of powers • Ministerial Responsibility • Federalism • National and regional gov'ts supreme in their own spheres • Regional gov't not independent • Nat'l Gov't still sovereign • Unitary Gov't • Delegated but not shared powers • All Ultimate power remains with central gov' t Electoral Process Thursday, February 11, 2016 2:08 PM • First Past the Post • Run-Off • Preferential (Australia) • ProportionalRepresentation • Consiglio Di Stato ○ Executivecouncil has 5 members ○ Candidates from 11 parties ○ Voter get 5 votes,one per member of council • Gran Consiglio ○ 90 members ○ 11 parties ○ Each voter gets one party vote, 90 candidate votes ○ Uses Hare Method  Total votes divided by total seats • German Stimmzettel ○ Each of the 16 states has elections, half party list, half first past the post ○ State Legislatures choose representatives • MajorityVote VS ProportionalRepresentation Two Party Multi-PartySystems • Stable Gov'ts Fairer Representation Political Parties Tuesday, February 16, 2016 2:10 PM • Means for making interests known • Interest Groups • Political Parties • Social Movements • Interest groups and Social movements • Attempt to effect policy • PoliticalParty • Mobilize masses • Nominate candidates • Source of political identity • Missionary: Ideological • Parties with clear set of ideals and focus as to what their goals are • Communist(USSR) • Labour (Britain before 1997) • SPD (Germanybefore 1959) • Broker: Pragmatic • Tailor ideals to what the people want • Conservative(Britain) • Democratic(USA) • Liberal Democrats(Japan) • Bases for Parties • Economic • Religious • Urban/Rural • Ethnic or Linguistic • Modern/post-modern • Party Discipline • Wisdom of the representative • Listening to the constituents • The party as representative • Party Fractionalization • One Party - Authoritarian • Two Party - Majoritarian • More Parties - require coalitions • Types of Coalitions • MajorityCabinets • Minority Cabinets • Grand Coalitions • One Party System • Monoparty(Communist) -Only Ever One Party • Hegemonic (Socialist Unity Party) - There are several parties, but only one is going to win • Dominant Party (Liberal DemocraticParty and Institutional RevolutionaryParty) Who Gets What, When , and How? Tuesday, February 16, 2016 2:57 PM • Interest Articulation • Expressing needs and demands to the Government • ProtestDemonstrations: ○ More Likely the choice of the educated and wealthy ○ Less likely the route of less educated and poor • Interest Aggregation - Interest Groups and or people creating coalitions among groups • Interest Groups • Institutional ○ Group built around existing group, like around a church or military • Sectorial ○ Purpose is not public policy, but public education. Have political views. Represent a sector of the economy,combine lots of money with little actual concerns. Have other purposes besides politics  AFL, University Professors • Promotional ○ Particular idea of what they would like to do, NRA. Organized around an idea or view. Specific Values, pressures government • Anomic ○ Not very clear on what it wants, or the solutions, but very concerned anyways  Trump supporting groups, likes what he says, no policy attached. • American has very high percentage of Interest Group Membership • Success in Competition • Resources • Skills • Diverse Membership • Mobilization of Members • Coalitions among groups • Efficacy • Belief that one has power to get shit done • Confidence that a difference can be made by one person • Social Movement • Informally organized • But with purpose on someissue • And frames a perspective • Violence as politics • Spontaneous violence - Riots • Tactical Violence - Coup d' etat • Dilemma for PluralistDemocracies • People must have freedom to further their interest • People may injure others when they succeed • Consultation • Pluralist - Arrangement of groups deciding who they want in or out, freedom of people deciding what they want • Corporatist - Organized by other ways of thinking, forced organization based off religion, class, etc. Less individualistic Presidential VS. Parliamentary Systems Tuesday, February 23, 2016 2:13 PM • Locke's three functions of Government • A known and settled law • Powerto execute that law • Processto adjudicate that law • Presidential Model • Separation of Powers(Branches) • Checks and Balances • Independent Branches (Can't be a memberof more than one) • Parliamentary Model • Fusion Model • Vote of (no)Confidence • Powerof Dissolution(PM can dissolve parliament) • Impeachment • Can take place in either Presidential or parliamentary systems • Attempt to bring charges against a public official • Not what is meant by responsible government • LegislativeControl in a Parliamentary System • Vote of no confidence - Legislature no longer supports PM ○ Cabinet must resign ○ New Election follows unless parliament agrees on new cabinet • Executive Control in a Parliamentary System • Dissolution : Executivecan dissolve the legislature ○ New election is called • Responsible Government • Refers to the power of the legislature to removethe executivefor political reasons • House of Commons • Head of State: Queen Elizabeth • Head of Gov't : Prime Minister Trudeau • Responsible Government • Strict Party Discipline • Control in a Presidential System • Checks and Balances • Designed to keep governmentfrom moving too fast • Can create deadlock (filibusters, super majorityrequirements, etc.) • Role of the Legislature • Presidential : President is not responsible (not accountable to legislature) • Parliamentary: PM and Cabinet are responsible (accountable to legislature) • Organization of Powers • Presidential : no person can serve in more than one branch • Parliamentary: persons are expected to serve in multiple capacities • Coalitions • Agreements between parties, a partnership • Mixed Systems • France ○ A President with real power  CeremonialRole and Policy Role (France and Russia) ○ A Premierwith real power  Appointed by the President  Takes instruction from the President  Takes instruction from the President  Must have confidence of the national assembly ○ Working Together  Not a problem when President and the assembly are In agreement  When they aren't, Assembly can throw out Premier,but President chooses replacement Cohabitation  • Switzerland ○ Collegial executiveof seven members ○ Elected by the legislature ○ But Cannot be removedby the legislature (No Vote of Confidence option) ○ Executivecannot dismiss the legislature ○ Council government  Each member of the executiveheads a department of gov't  Together they form collective executive  Chair rotatesamong each of them each year and act as ceremonialhead of state The Courts Thursday, February 25, 2016 2:05 PM • Common Law • Used in most English speaking countries • Grew out of judicial decisions in early England • Stare Decisis - Let previous decision stand (precedents) • Equity • Legal decision based upon what is just and fair • Systems of Law CommonLaw Developedin England • Code Law Survived on the European Continent • Code Law • Organized by coded law • Created by statutes • Relies on Variants of Roman Law • Not Made by judges • CivilLaw • Governs interactions among individuals and groups • Defines legal rights in civil relationships • "You must stop at red lights" • CriminalLaw • Governs relationships between individuals and the state • Defines crimes against the public order • "You Cannot Murder" • Adversarial • Prosecutionvs Defendant (Criminal Trial) • Plaintiff vs Defendant (Civil Trial • Each side represented by counsel • Innocent until proven guilty • Judge as umpire • Guilt or innocence decided by jury • Inquisitorial • Judges as representativesof the state ○ Seek to determine the truth • Implicit assumption of guilt • Significant evidence presented by prosecutor • Accused must testify • Verdict by panel of judges Soviet Russia Tuesday, March 22, 202:05 PM  The Soviet Union o Was an authoritarian political system o Was ruled by the Communist party o Existed for 74 years o Was an empire spanning many demographics (185) nationalities, of which Russians made up the majority  Most of these groups split off and became independent when the USSR collapsed  Models of Authoritarianism o Oppressive structures o Non-accountability of elites o Subversion of democratic forms o Directed participation  Karl Marx o Labor theory of value  The only way to produce value is through labor o Owners exploit workers  They steal the value of your labor  Marxism-Leninism o Dictatorship of the proletariat o The party as vanguard of the proletariat  Democratic Centralism o The Communist Party must be highly disciplined o Discussion until decision o Obey the decision absolutely afterwards  Parallel Authorities o There is a party structure working within every level of government  The Ideology Provides the Truth o Only the Communist Party contains the truth o Multiple parties confuse the situation with lies  Totalitarianism o Independent political life is eliminated o Bureaucracies directed everything  “Here is what you must do, here is what you must not do”  “You are one cog in a machine”  Results o Political oppression o Economic stagnation o Individuals need the opportunity to decide so that they can explore multiple solutions, and therefore have a better chance of finding the correct solution  Reforms o Gorbachev proposed restructuring in order to overcome these problems o Perestroika: restructuring the economy o Glasnost: openness as a democracy  Transition from a Communist State o National identity  There are 185 different nationalities in the USSR Privatization of the economy o Privatization of the economy  How do you do this? Do you sell them? If so, to who? o Creation of political structures  The Russians borrowed from the French  Economic Transition o 2 options:  Shock therapy: do it suddenly; this hurts the people, especially the poor, but should balance out well in the long term  Gradualism: hopefully, this should avoid the hurt of shock therapy, though it is slow  Russians o Alienated from politics  Feel no need to participate o Intensely concerned about the future regardless o Wanted democracy o Wished for strong leadership  Adaptation of the Elite o The nomenklatura (bureaucracy) continues, often as the new capitalist entrepreneurs o Some turnover  Political Culture o Trust and distrust o Very low social capital  Russians don’t think that they can make a difference o Recruiting new elite o From statism to pluralism o Interest groups being censored • Whither Russia? Thursday, March 17, 2016 2:07 PM 1990 - 2016 - •Superpower •Weak Country •Relative Peace •Plagued with Violence •Desire for Democracy •Undemocratic •Desire for Capitalism •Failing Economy •Friendly with the West •Antagonistic to the west • Two kinds of Russian conservatives • Old style communists • Traditionalists, nationalists ○ Both Argue :  Anti-Privatization  Anti-Western  Anti-Democratic □ Value Hierarchy, some people should be in charge ○ Orthodox Catholics  Roots of the East West conflict lie in the Great Schism • The Other Side • The classical liberals • For market economy,not state ownership • For democratization,not authoritarianism • Parties of Power • Designed to support a particular candidate ○ United Russia = Putin's Party • More interested in power rather than ideology • Goal is to gain a majorityin the Duma • Executive • President • Prime Minister and Government • Security and Defense Councils • Legislature • Council of the Federation • State Duma • Judiciary • The courts • The Procuracy ○ Organization of governmentthat examine cases and determine the truth • The Constitutional Court • Federal Structure • Various kinds of units ○ Ethnic national territories ○ Russian Territories  Comparable to US territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.) • Represented in the National Legislature • Transition to Democracy • From statist to pluralism (emphasis on the importance of people) • Rise and fall of a party system • Enduring presence of the secret police • Enduring presence of the secret police • Bureaucratic State • Control of Media • Efforts to Create Legitimacy • Putin's exhibition of how awesomehe is • Developmentof the economy • Show of power in Syria • Reliance upon Orthodox Church and Russia's history • Opposition: A Dying Species • Mikhael Gorbachev • Boris Yeltsin • Vladimir Putin, followed by Putin • Dmtirii Medvedev • Putin again • Manipulation of the Democratic Structures • Dismissal of the governors • From Prime Minister to President then back again • Working the courts - Trials of Mikhail Khodorkovsky • Rigging Elections ○ Making up results ○ Control all Media ○ Bureaucratic attacks • Foreign Policy • Intervention in Syria • Support of authority • Removalof Bombing Mission Iran Monday, March 21, 2016 9:13 AM • What is authoritarian gov't and how do you get it? • Persia • Very long history • Zoroastrianism • Language - Farsi ○ More like western language than Arabic • Pride in their culture • Cult of Personality ○ Particular people have more of a right to respect than others • Shi'ism • Islam • Political order and the religious order are one ○ Theocratic • Politics is judged by religious principles • Shari'a • Rulers do not need to make new laws • Nor Do the need to repeal old law • All laws in the Qur'an are final • Four Main Sources of Shari'a • The Qur'an - Main Source of Law • Sunnah of the prophet (the Hadith) - Speaking's of Mohammed • Consensus of Scholars (Mullah) • Oiyas - Interpretation not clearly coveredby the Qur'an or the Sunnah ○ Last two differ from school to school • Two Branches of Islam • Sunni - Party of Abu Bakr • Shi'ite - Party of Ali • Sunni Islam • Religion under the domain of the state • Ulama's work under aegis of state ○ Ulema = Islamic Scholars who interpret Qur'an • Shi'ite Islam • Religion skeptical of the state • Ulama not traditionally identified with political power • Iran • Center of Shi'I islam • Unlikely grounds for religious effort to reform the political system • Shi'ite religiousleaders historicallyoutside politics • Developeddistinct corporate identity • Became independent political force • Took over state in 1979 ○ Iran Hostage Crisis • The Ulama • Clerical establishment ○ Primarily Shi'ite ○ Not always united politically ○ Supportive of the current regime • PoliticalCulture • Authoritarian • Authoritarian • Conspiratorial view of politics • Islamic desire for egalitarianism ○ Easy for fundamentalists to gain legitimacy among uma • Revolt • Rejection of the liberal nationalism of Mossedeq • Rejection of the authoritarian developmentplans of the Shah • Insistence on rule of the Shari'a • Ayatollah Khomeini • Divine mission to create an Islamic State • A gov't of eternal and absolute laws • A Faqih, knowledgable about Islamic laws, to rule • No Secular monarch needed • Velayat-e Faqih • Absolute authority derived from Allah • Veto power over all political and economicdecisions • Morality and spirituality, not commerceand liberty • Alms giving as a doctrine (Like Tithes) • Theocracy • State governed by divine guidance • Rejection of modern civil and penal laws • Reversionto the direct rule of the Shari'a • The Shah's Wealth for the disinherited • PoliticalDecisions • Made by the Ulema, but ultimately by the Faqih • State w/in the state for religious control • Armed committeeas police • Revolutionaryguards as army • Revolutionarycourts to maintain Islamic Order South Africa Tuesday, March 29, 2016 2:25 PM • Authoritarianism • Authority - reliable, right to decide • Authoritarianism - Unquestioned Obedience • Authoritarian personality - rectitude obedience to those above, domination of those below • A Dark Past • Multiple Ethnicities ○ Many Tribes ○ Early Dutch Settlers (Afrikaans) ○ Later British Settlers ○ Even Later Indian Settlers ○ Subsequent Mixed People • Boer War • Dutch Settlers in Transvaal and Orange Free state • English settlers in Natal and Cape Colony • British Annexation at end of war • 1910 - Union of South Africa as Dominionof British Empire • Union of South Africa • Dominatedby english speakers • Afrikaner National Party dominant from 1948 • African National Congress banned in 1960 • Apartheid Afrikaner Policy • Afrikaner party response to many cultures living together • Strict separation of races • Discriminatorylegislation • Forced migration to native homelands • Enormousinequality and segregation • Rising Opposition • Identity Politics • Nelson Mandela • Potential Civil War • • Negotiation • 1990-93 • President F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela talk • A managed revolution • New constitution was written • Slow movementtowards new constitution • New Regime • Multiple racial Election • ANC majority • Several parties, still ANC dominant Building State and Nation (South Africa Cont.) Thursday, March 31, 2016 2:12 PM • New Regime • Full civil and political rights for all • Rule of Law • Mending the Inequities • Importance of EconomicGrowth • Protectionof minorities • Legitimacy • New Regime ○ Black middle class Support ○ Less support from other groups • Government • National Assembly: ○ Represents the people ○ "Lower"house ○ Has morepower • National Council of Provinces ○ Represents the districts ○ Kinda sort of not really like the US Senate • Provinces ○ Limited Powers ○ Not a federal system • Proportional Representation • Whole country as a single district for lower house • Nine districts for representation from nine provinces • Five year terms for each house • Nelson Mandela's Presidency • Initial power sharing, guarantees • Rights to private property • Restraints upon radical blacks • Truth and justice commission • Archbishop Desmond Tutu • To document the crimes committedby all sides during apartheid • To use the truth for healing the wounds of a dark era • Partial reconciliation • Presidency • Head of State • Chief of Gov't • Can be dismissed by a voteof no confidence by the National Assembly ○ President Thabo Mbeki was declared unfit to serve • Cry, the Beloved Country • Jacob Zuma - Corrupt and incompetent • Since his election in 1909,public debt increased from 26 to 50% • Debt almostto junk bond status • Zuma dimly aware of the situation • ANC adopted goals of open marketand fiscal discipline, but Zuma junked it • ANC social programs endangered • Presided over much corruption • Constitutional Court • All eleven justices ruled that Jacob Zuma failed to uphold the Constitution and failed as a • Constitutional Court • All eleven justices ruled that Jacob Zuma failed to uphold the Constitution and failed as a watchdog on corruption • Used 23 million dollars of public funds to build his own palace • Demanded partial repayment within 45 days • Current Debate • DemocraticAlliance is insisting that Zuma be removed • The ANC is divided, concerned about best option for the upcoming election Early Mexico Thursday, April 7, 2:29 PM  Pre-Columbian Civilizations o Temple-pyramids o They were very skilled with mathematics and astronomy o A rich culture with the fine arts o Advanced agriculture and engineering  Early Settlers o Small groups of hunter-gatherers in the north (the US) o Larger tribes of farmers in Central America and South (Meso-America) o Developed civilizations with urban centers for religion  Major Civilizations o Olmecs—2300 BCE o Teotihuacan—300-150BCE  The Spaniards Arrive o Aztecs: militaristic and bureaucratic o Conquered other tribes and demanded tribute and service from the defeated o 1519—Hernando Cortez with 200 men and a few horses o 1521—The Spanish return and overthrow the Aztecs  Spanish Colony o Religious institutions (missionaries) o Royal land titles for Spaniards o Haciendas (plantations) with Indian labor o Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in Spain  Authoritarian Political Control o Catholic Church is central to Mexican identity o Foreign investment and modernization depended on the government o Land grants:  95% of rural farm owners became landless o Liberals opposed the dictatorship  Nueva Espana o Absolutist victory o Symbiosis of church and state o Hierarchy and sharp class distinctions o State direction of economy  Mexican War of Independence o 9/16/1810: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest of Spain initiated the war o Mexico at the time included Mexico, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California  Northern Neighbor o US-Mexico War: 1845-1848 o Mexico lost over half its territory o Afterwards the French tried to assume control, but the Mexicans defeated them  Mexican Revolution (1910-1915) o Removed the corrupt dictators of the feudal system o The revolution was both a political and cultural movement o Driven by socialists, nationalists, and anarchists o Ended feudalism o Even afterwards, violence continued, with 1,000,000+ deaths  New Governments  New Governments o Strong, central military governments (1920s-1940s) o Six-year monarchy (1929-1997)  President serves a single 6-year term, and chooses his successor who is then “voted” in  Political Culture o State is dominant over civil society  The institutions have a great deal to say in what happens in your life  Statism, as opposed to individualism o The people have little respect for the inefficient government o Charismatic leaders and camarillas are loved by the people o Low personal and political trust o Authoritarianism and intolerance  Major Conflicts in Mexico o Church v state issues  This was a conflict before there was an independent Mexico o Indians and Mestizos v Spanish descendants o Richer v poorer regions  Difference in political pull seems based on wealth o Center v periphery  Constitution of 1917 o Driven by nationalism o Explicit in regards to social justice o Statism o Political liberalism o Military was placed under the control of civil power  Not always the case, but more so now  Statism o You are a part of something bigger than yourself (the state) and the president is the embodiment of the state (captain of the state) o Interest groups work with the executive o State and the president as omnipotent Mexico Thursday, April 7, 20162:08 PM • Presidency • Elected by simple majority • 6 year terms • Unchecked powers • No Vice President • No Reelection • Appoint and dismiss cabinet officials and almostall employeesof executiveBranch • Presidency falls vacant • During the first two years of a sexenio ○ Congress designates interim president ○ Call a special election • Last four years ○ Congress provides provisional election • Legislative • Bicameral legislature ○ Upper: Chamber of Deputies ○ Lower : Senate • Congress can pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, and approve national budget • Permanentcommitteeconsisting of 37 members • Senate • Addresses all matters of foreign policy • 64 members ○ 6 year term ○ 4 members from each state and district ○ 1 seat to second party • Chamber of Deputies • Addresses all matters of budget and public spending • 500 members ○ 200 elected by proportional representationsfrom large multi member districts ○ 300 from small single memberdistricts ○ 3 year terms • Impeachment • House of Deputies prosecutes • Senate acts as jury • Deputies elect provisional president • Judicial Branch • Based on Spanish law ○ CommonLaw ○ Strict legal codes, little jurisprudence • Independent from the Pres • Supreme Court • Powerof judicial review • No use until recently • Under influence of dominant political party • Federal Republic • 31 States and a federal district • President may dismiss a governor • Increasing trends of federalism • Increasing trends of federalism • State Government • Divided into 31 states • Led by governors elected by majority for 6 terms and one term limit • Each state has its own constitution, modeled on national charter, with right to tax and pass law. • State legislature is unicameral • State gov'ts depend on Mexico city for revenue • Municipalities • Municipal governmentsheaded by a mayoror municipal president and a municipal council are popularly elected for three year terms • Public services, including water and sewage • Three Major Parties • National Action Party (PAN) ○ Liberal Party, favors private enterprise • Institutional revolutionaryparty (PRI) ○ Most Powerful, ruled for 71 consecutiveyears ○ Party of revolution and very centrist • Party of the DemocraticRevolution(PRD) ○ Favors a populist, state-led economy • Statism • Statism is dominance of the state • In Mexico,Business Leaders are closely identified with the state. State officials work very closely with businesses in return for cash money. ○ Corruption is a thing • Statism can be a tool for reform ○ PRD wants to use statism to impose changes, in favor of the people • My boy Enrique Pena Nieto • Brought PRI back in power, which somepeople like, others fear • Lots of grassroots politics UK of Great Britain Thursday, April 14, 2016 2:21 PM • UK of Great Britainand Northern Ireland • Great Britain is made up of ○ England ○ Scotland ○ Wales ○ Northern Ireland • Timeline: 1707 Scotland united with England ○ 1800 UK Annexes Ireland 1922 Irish Republic Established • English Beginnings • Saxons lad foundations of the English gov't • Divided England into "Shires" • Each shire was further divided into regions called "hundreds" • Each shire was ruled by a noble called an "Elder man" • Middle Ages • King Ruled by divine right • Warriors who fought successfully were awarded by the monarchy and nobility • For legitimacy and resources,king relied on the rich and the church • When King John ignored feudal law to extort money,sell offices, and increase taxes, the nobles rebelled • In June 1215,King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in order to stop the abuses • Magna Carta • Kings could not rule arbitrarily, they had to obey rules of English Law • Traditional rights and privileges of the church and aristocracyto be protected • Free men could be arrested without lawful judgement by his peers ○ Fair trial by jury of your peers • Gradual Growth of Democratic Power • From 13th century on, Parliament is in power • To raise money for war, king called a parliament of nobles and knights and burgesses • Many towns given charters that gave town people rights • 17th century • Parliament vs the Monarchy • King James I and the divine right of kings • Charles I was more insistent on control • In a civil war, Charles was captured, and beheaded. • Glorious Revolution • King James II insisted upon remaining catholic and Britain insisted upon being protestant • Parliament declared the throne vacant and appointed William and Mary s joint monarchs • The Bill of Rights (1689)states :No Monarch • Parliament was now ultimate authority ○ No tax law without parliament consent • Unitary Gov't • State with a supreme central gov't • Sub-units exercise only powers granted from the center • In the UK, some powers are devolved Scottish Parliament, Assemblies in Wales and N. Ireland ○ Scottish Parliament, Assemblies in Wales and N. Ireland • Fusion of gov't • The monarch • Prime Minister • Cabinet • House of Commons • House of Lords  No Branches • Prime Minister • Most senior minister in the cabinet ○ Responsible for cabinet meetings, selecting cabinet ministers, making gov't policies • Performsother Executive Functions • Leader of the MajorityParty in Casa de Commons • Increasingly like an American President • Gov't VS Parliaments • The gov't runs the country, has responsibility for developing and implementing policy and drafting laws • Parliament is legislative authority in the UK, has responsibility for checking the work of the Gov't ○ Vote of Confidence, Powerof Dissolution • Political party that wins majority in the House of Commonsforms new governmentand its leader becomesthe PM • If no party wins a majority,then the largest party may form a minoritygov't, or a coalition will be formed • PM appoints ministers who work in various governmentaldepartments, mostsenior is that of the Cabinet • BritishGov't • PM • Cabinet Ministers • Junior Ministers • MajorityParty • Opposition Party • Policy Making • Initiaties from the civil service • Ministers in the cabinet ○ Loyaltyamong ministers and the PM • Increasing role of committees • Party Discipline • Whips ensure votesin Parliament for their Party • One Line ○ Be nice to vote, get along • Two lines ○ Important, get there • Three Lines ○ If you die, vote first • Supremacy of Parliament - 1688 • No judicial Review • Parliamentsinterprets constitution • Now European Law ○ Supreme Court advises Parliament • Supreme Court • More limited that high courts in most countries • Historically House of Lords was the Highest Court • From Oct 1, 2009:Supreme Court of the UK British Electoral Systems Tuesday, April 19, 2016 2:07 PM • Electoral Systems • First Past the Post in single memberconstituencies (Mostof what Counts) • Some proportional representationin Northern Ireland • Proportionalrepresentation for membersof the European Parliament • PoliticalParties • Dominatedby the conservativeand labour parties • Third largest - The Scottish Nationalist • Liberal Democratscome and go ○ Old liberals, formerlythe whigs • Plaid Cymru • Northern Ireland Parties ○ DemocraticUnionists ○ Social Democrats ○ Ulster Unionist • UK Independence Party • Green Party • Conservatism • Values old institutions • Emphasizes community • Insists on authority and hierarchy • Generositytowards disadvantaged • Old Tories • For Church and Crown • For Aristocracy and Gentry • For a societyof ranks, orders, and degrees • Source of Ideology - ○ From classical liberalism, preference for limited gov't, lower taxes, and private enterprise ○ From classical conservatism - an affection for old values like authority and community • My Boi David Cameron • Civil Partnerships ○ Marriage legal in 2014 • National Health Service ○ Safe for generations to come • Labour Party • Karl Marx - RevolutionaryOverthrow • Fabian Society - Gradual reform • Cooperativemovement - economiccooperation • Socialism • British pragmatism too strong to allow ideologyalone to determine policy • Finding solution that benefit people • Socialism in Practice [1945 - 1951] • Nationalism of Industry • Creation of the health service • Efforts at central planning ○ Thatcher tookBritain back to extremeCapitalism  Health Service stayed • New Labour • Tony Blair Deletion of Clause Four ○ Deletion of Clause Four  Manifesto of the Labour party that called for gov't ownership of the means of production ○ Alternative means to improve life • Labour in Reverse • Jeremy Corbyn ○ An old style socialist ○ Chosen in preferential vote system ○ Disaster in General Election of 2015 • Liberal Democratic Party • Personal Liberty • Protectionof Environment • Social Justice • Decentralization • Electoral Reform • More positive approach to the EU • Scottish Nationalism • 1707 - Union btwn Scotland and England • 1999 - Scottish Parliament • Scottish National Party • Referendum for Independence • Future of Nationalism • UK Independence Party • Fervently opposed to British membership in the EU • Populist - Increase Social Care and lower taxes • Controlling borders, reduce immigration • Patriotism first • Legitimacy • Strong support for constitution • Less support for current gov't • Concern about terror


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