Exam #1 Lecture Notes Bundle
Exam #1 Lecture Notes Bundle KIN 150
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 150 at University of Miami taught by Sarah Adwan in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see KIN 150 Nutrition in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 828 Macronutrients 828 Terms Nutrition A science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food Nutrients Chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes 6 Nutrients o Carbs Proteins LipidsFats o Vitamins 0 Minerals 0 Water Forti ed Foods Forti cation involves adding nutrients not naturally found in certain foods to bolster their nutritional quality Enriched Foods Have nutrients that have been lost during processing added back to them In other words enriched foods are just injected with more of the nutrients naturally found in them Dietary Supplements A product intended for ingestion in the diet that contains one or more of the following vitamins minerals plantderived substances amino acids and concentrates or extracts Nutrient Density Vitamin amp mineral content versus calories in a food Vitamins Minerals Calories Low nutrient density gt food is high in empty calories Grains Endosperm center Starch Bran outer shelling KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 Fiber Germ bottom part Vitamins minerals amp lipids Diet Genes amp Health Nutrigenomics The study of how diet affects genes and how genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients on health 30 of the cause for most cancers are directly related to diet amp exercise Leading nutritionrelated deaths diabetes cancer amp heart disease Dopamine Foods high in fat amp sugar increase dopamine levels concentration amp focus memory blunts appetite Your health and disease risk Releases all dopamine at once amp then leads to a crash Healthy dopamine sources tyrosenes bananas avocados almonds lean meats exercise gt4 The genes youinhe t Macronutrients Your diet and lifestyle Carbs Proteins Lipids amp Water Needed in large quantities Micronutrients Copyright 2013 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved Vitamins amp Minerals Needed in small amounts Nonenergy Yielding Vitamins Minerals Water Don t provide calories amp energy EnergyYielding Nutrients Carbs 4 caloriesgram Protein 4 caloriesgram Fats 9 caloriesgram Alcohol 7 caloriesgram Carbohydrates Sugars building blocks Monosaccharides amp disaccharides KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 Monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose Disaccharides maltose sucrose lactose 0 Complex carbohydrates Starch amp ber 0 Fiber belongs to CH0 category but does not supply energy 25 gramsday necessary 0 When people diet on no carbs their nervous systems draw energy glucose from proteins their muscles results in loss of muscle mass 0 Minimum amount of carbs needed 130140 gramsday Proteins 0 Amino acid building block 0 Meat sh poultry dairy products legumes grains Lipids 0 Fatty acids building block 0 Found in the form of triglycerides in the body 0 Saturated fats Any fat that is solid room temperature Increase LDL cholesterol Increase risk of heart disease diabetes obesity etc Butter whole milk red meat 0 Foods high in unsaturated fat Avocado oil nuts sh salmon tuna shark mackerel ax seeds Micronutrients Provide no energy Function as enzymes that synthesize nutrients Necessary for proper body functioning Volatile may be affected by light exposure heat etc 92 Water Macronutrient needed in large quantities Does not provide calories or energy 0 60 of the body Fats Secrets hormones KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 Secrets molecules for health Protects organs Essential fats Women 10 12 Men 2 4 Women have more fat for child bearing needs Fat secretes estrogen Excess body fatoverfat Accumulates when the body takes in more calories than it burns Puts the body in an in ammatory condition Obesity diabetes heart disease high blood pressure Overfat vs Overweight 39 Overweight May be due to more muscle mass 0 Body builders Overfat Necessarily overweight 0 Oprah Nutrition amp History Food originally intended for survival 18605 British realized food can be used to bene t your life World Health Organization USDA myplate Academy of Nutrition amp Dietetics eatrightorg USDA con ict of interests agriculture amp nutrition industries Original food guide pyramid did not differentiate btwn Complex amp re ne carbs Essential amp bad fats New food pyramid added Physical activity Emphasis on whole grains 2011 MyPlate recommendations Focus on portions Dietary Reference Intakes DRls RDA upper level UL amp AMDR DRIs is the umbrella term DRIs not necessarily to be consumed every day but most days Water soluble vitamins more important body cannot store them RDA Amount of nutrients in milligrams your body needs per day Upper Level UL The level of a nutrient above which will cause toxicity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR Expressed as rangesproportions Tells you what percentage of energy should come from carbs lipids proteins etc Cortisol vs Dopamine KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 0 High cortisol lowers dopamine levels 0 More vacation days lowered cortisol higher dopamine levels Dopamine stimulates concentration productivity brain s processing speed memory attention etc KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 94 RDls amp Macronutrients cont 94 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 0 Evidencebased nutrition informationadvice for people 2 years old 0 Solid fatssaturated fats should be limited o Oils Heaehyets USDA Food Patterns Free owing Monounsaturated FOOd group Amountday Avocados etc Vegetables 25 cups Add d Rz zbs Frut and jUIceS 20 cups gr cia39 Grains 60 ounces 0 0 mm Upper limit 2400 mg daily Dalry products 30 CUPS 39 1 tsp 53 2325 mg Protein foods 55 ounces One serving of grams Starch 15 gearbs SOIId fats 16 grams 39 3 8 Protein Added sugars 32 grams 01gfat a a a a a a 7 I O e 5 Copyright 2013 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved 0 Fruits 15 gcarbs Mediterranean Eating Pattern 60 calories Vegetables Foods How often 5 g ca rbs Fruits vegetables grains mostly Every meal 25 calories whole olive oil nuts legumesand o Fats seeds herbs and spices Eggltories Fish and seafood At least twice a week Milk Cheese and yogurt Moderate portions daily or weekly o 8 g protein Poultry and eggs Moderate portions every 2 days 0 12 g ca rbs or weekly 39 Skim Meats and sweets Less often 0 90 calories 39 LOW fat Copyright 2013 John Wiley amp Sons Inc All rights reserved c 110 calories High fat 0 150 calories Proteins Lean o 1 g fat 0 7 g protein 0 45 calories KIN 150 Exam 1 Medium fat 0 5 g fat 0 7 g protein 0 100 calories High fat Quiz Most of the body is composed of water What are essential fats We want to aim for the athletes amp tness body fat percentages Less body fat less in ammation ofthe body Differences btwn myplate amp Harvard Dairy consumption limited in Harvard Substituted w water Harvard mentions healthy oils Harvard whole grains DRIs umbrella RDA UL AMDR Mediterranean diet Another healthy eating pattern High vs low nutrient density 82814 KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 918 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Loading amp Intermittent Fasting Nutrition Guides 0 Give serving sizes for easier comparison btwn similar products 0 Provides info on amts of nutrients whose intakes we want to limit 0 Serving sizes randomly decided List nutrients commonly de cient 0 Often don39t list daily value of sugar content for marketing purposes 0 Added sugars should not exceed 10 of daily intake 0 OfficialsWHO report 25 UL 0 Sugar could mean 0 Monosaccharides sugar glucose fructose galactose 0 Disaccharides sugar maltose sucrose lactose Naturally occurring fructose or added sucrose 0 Daily values based on 2000 calorie diet 0 Daily value the amount of a nutrient in a food shown as a percentage ofthe recommendation for a person consuming a 2000 calorie diet 0 Give percentages of how many calories should come from which nutrients 0 General recommendations may be based on AMDR or UL 0 Carbs broken down into amount provided from ber amp from sugars Ingredients 0 Go in descending order from highest amt of ingredient in weight to lowest Nutrients 0 Cholesterol 300 mgday O 1 egg yolk 200mg 0 Salt UL 2400 mgday O 1 tsp 2325 mg Carbon 0 Component of all nutrients except for water amp minerals 0 Protein 0 Carbs o Lipids O Vitamins Bonds w hydrogen oxygen amp nitrogen to form carbs lipids amp proteins Vitamins also carbon based RDI Vitamin C 60 mgday RDI for smokers 90 mgday O Oranges kiwis pineapples carrots kiwi broccoli cauli ower parsley Folate RDI 400 mcgday 0 Dark leafy greens spinach broccoli kale arugula Calcium 1000 mgday KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 0 Almond milk glassesday 2 cupsday 60 calories 0 Dairy skim milk glassesday 34 cupsday 270 calories 0 Add GH ROST cow hormone leads to infection information pus blood antibiotics etc 6 Nutrients All macronutrients have carbon hydrogen amp oxygen atoms 0 Protein also has nitrogen O Carbs 0 Fruits vegetables grains legumesbeans dairy products lactose o Lipids O Vitamins also contain other atoms 0 No carbon 0 Minerals Fe Zn Ca Na Mg K 0 Water H20 Carbs amp the Modern Diet 0 Carbohydrates 3 groups 0 Simple carbs sugars 0 Monosaccharides glucose blood fructose fruits amp veggies hfcs galactose dairy Disaccharides maltose sucrose lactose 0 Complex Carbs 0 Polysaccharides usually glucose 0 Carbs provide the basis of most modern diets Carbs in quotwhole foodsquot fresh fruit dairy whole grains are in their natural state 0 Re ning carbs separates the carbs from their vitamins minerals amp ber 0 Whole vs unre ned grains 0 Whole whole grain O Interchangeable multigrain 7 grain wheat barley oats millet rye quinoa Don39t necessarily have all the parts of the kernel may be re nedwhite amp then colored 0 Re ning grains 0 Gives ner texture O Extends shelf life 0 Tastes addictive AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range 0 Percentage of calories we should be ingesting from which nutrients 0 AM DR for carbs 4565 of total calories 0 Men require more RDA for adults amp children 130 gd O Glucose is the onlyobligatory energy substrate for the brain 0 De ciency in carbs results in body39s production of ketone bodies Appetite suppressants 0 Ketone bodies may be toxic but also provide energy for the brain Fiber RDI 25 gday KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 Regulatesprevents rapid rise in blood sugar levels Stored as glycogen in the body liver amp muscles utilized as glucose in the blood WaterSoluble O Dissolves in water 0 Helps lower glucose amp blood cholesterol levels 0 Oatmeal nuts beans lentils apples blueberries WaterInsoluble 0 Doesn39t dissolve in water 0 Promotes regular digestion reduces constipation 0 Wheat whole wheat bread whole grain couscous brown rice legumes carrots cucumbers tomatoes Carbohydrates 0 Carbon hydrogen oxygen 0 Simple sugars Advantage 0 Broken down quickly during exercise 0 Rapid source of energy 0 Can be used with or without oxygen high intensity sports Disadvantage 0 Limited supply 0 Overeating carbs gt insulin V02 Max maximum amount of oxygen you can get into your system 0 Minimum brain requirement 130 gday 0 Women need 12 kg less Carb Cycling 0 Lowcarb diet interspersed with periods of highmoderate carb consumption usually w exercise 0 Maximize fat loss while maintaining ability to perform high intensity exercise 0 Metabolic adaptations Increase fat oxidation ketone utilization 0 Less than 50 gday on low days 0 Only consuming carbs when you need them sports 0 How it works 0 Greater reliance on fats amp proteins 0 Fluctuations in hunger amp energy levels go away 0 Greater carbohydrate stores amp energy contribution from fatprotein oxidation on carb consumption 0 Reduction in insulin levels allows fat oxidation 0 Weight loss Ketosis 0 Increased fat amp protein consumption produces ketone bodies lowered carb consumption 0 Ketone bodies can be turned into glucose 0 After 20 day fast ketone levels only rise to 10 ml half the amt for toxicity Intermittent Fasting 0 Reducing or ceasing caloric intake for up to 24 hrs 0 Bene ts KIN 150 Exam 1 82814 0 Better brain health 0 Reduced aging 0 Reduced heart diseasediabetes risk 0 Hunger management 0 Impact on sports performance due to ability to oxidize fats 0 Recommended no more than once per week 0 Not necessarily better than eating smaller meals more frequently Carbohydrate Loading 0 Traditionally done before high intensityendurance events Involves reducing activity amp increasing CHO intake 0 Not necessary for events less than 90120 min long 0 Not necessary for team sportsintermittent sports football soccer etc 0 Loadingsupersaturating glycogen stores 0 Suf cient carb intake can be done duringimmediately prior to event 0 Ex 121 banana 121 pbampj sandwich 3045 min before 0 Ex12 banana animal crackers Gatorade during Disadvantage O Bloatingstiffness 0 3g of water stored for every g muscle glycogen 0 Sedentary individuals may bene t from a lowCHO diet 0 Ketogenic diet using carb cycling for exercise appears to be effective for maintaining lean body pro le 0 Requires tapering of carbohydrate intake 0 Faster weight gain when starting to consume CHO KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 930 Protein Proteins RDI 08gkg of body weight 0 Acceptable AMDR 10 35 of energy for adults 0 Needs increase during growth periods pregnancy amp lactation 0 Need declines w age during growth amp adolescence Greatest satiety value 0 Feeling full 0 Amino Acids building block 0 Body needs 20 diff amino acids synthesizes much larger of proteins 0 Essential amino acids 0 Can39t be made by the body Nonessential amino acids 0 Bodies produce amino acids even if it doesn39t come from food eaten Protein de ciency rare in US 23 dietary protein comes from meat poultry seafood eggs dairy Improved economy increased proportion of animal foods Majority of countries rely on plant proteins 0 Animal Products 0 provide protein Vitamins minerms General structure 1 Ammo Acrds 0 Low in ber H 0 High in fat l Ammo Carbox I 0 Plant proteins less absorbable C y Group group 0 Protein Structure O Dipeptide 2 amino acids O Tripeptide 3 amino acids Variable Group 0 Polypeptide up to 100 amino acids 0 Functions 0 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions 0 Transport proteins move substances in amp out of cells 0 Antibodies support immune system ghting foreign bodies 0 Contractile proteins help muscles move Actin amp myosin slide past one another to make muscles contract 0 Hormones act as chemical messengers Essential branched chain amino acids BCAAs 0 lsoleucine KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Valine 0 Leucine 0 Only dietary amino acid that can stimulate muscle protein synthesis 0 RDI 14 45 mgkg more for more active individuals 0 Dietary sources egg yolk meat poultry sh dairy legumes O Reduces risk of obesity 0 Increased muscle mass burns more calories Prevents muscle breakdown Promotes fat oxidation before muscle breakdown Supplementation combined w moderate energy restriction may induce body fat loss 0 Helps maintain high performance level Prolongs fatigue by decreasing serotonin synthesis 0 Alanine O Nonessential amino acid 0 Concentrated in meats 0 Found in meat amp vegetablegrain sources 0 Supplements may improve physical performance for HI amp strength training 0 Makes body more efficient at generating energy pre or during workouts 0 Tyrosine 0 Building block for several neurotransmitters including dopamine epinephrine norepinephrine Supplements may help improve memory amp performance under stress Dietary sources soy products chicken turkey sh peanuts almonds avocados bananas milk cheese yogurt cottage cheese lima beans pumpkin seeds sesame seeds 0 Vitamins B6 amp B9 folate amp copper help the body convert tyrosine into impt brain chemicals 0 Amino acids metabolized provide energy 4 caloriesgram 0 Only when the diet contains protein in excess of needs amp diet is low in energy Low energy diets cause AA to synthesize glucose Protein amp energy consumed in excess cause AA to synthesize fatty acids When protein amp energy are adequatenot excessive AA synthesize body proteins amp other nitrogen containing compounds Urea Nitrogen containing waste produced from AA breakdown amp excreted in urine KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 Amino Acids Complete vs Incomplete Proteins 0 Complete Proteins I o Glucose Fatty Acids Body Proteins and other Nitrogen containing When insufficient When excess When caloric intake caloric Intake calories are is adequate ingested Contain all essential amino acids 0 Mostanimalfoods Incomplete Proteins 0 Low quality proteins 0 Lack 1 or more essential amino acid 0 Plant foods not including soybeans 0 Complementary proteins 0 2 incomplete protein sources compensating for each other39s de ciency 0 Do not have to be eaten in the same meal just over the course of 1 day Denaturation 0 When cooking destabilizes protein structure amp breaks proteins back down into amino acid chains Dangers w Protein 0 PEM O Protein energy malnutrition 0 Covers range of protein de ciency conditions 0 Kwashiorkor 0 Pure protein de ciency O Characterized by swollen belly 0 Marasmus worse KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 Energy amp protein de ciency Caloric de ciency Depletion of fat stores 0 Wasting of muscle Potentially harmful proteins 0 Phenylketonuria PKU Inherited condition attributed to defective gene needed for metabolizing phenylalanine 0 Lack the enzyme needed to synthesize phenylalanine into tyrosine 0 Phenylketonurics contain phenylalanine 0 Can39t ingest aspartame has phenylalanine 000 a Dietary protein Aspartame lb 39 Normal metabolism Phenylketonurics Phenyla39anine x Twain Contains phenylalanine Reaction Phenylketonuria blocked Toxic to the brain Copyright if 2013 John Wiley 8 Sons Inc All rights reserved ii 0NYS9xiStodphoto 0 Monosodium Glutamate MSG Flavor enhancer used in Chinese cooking 0 Increases food pleasantness amp counteracts satiation Addictive properties 0 Used as meat tenderizers seasoning additives in snack foods canned soups cured meats 0 May induce ushed face tinglingburning headache rapid heartbeat chest pain weakness 0 Protein Excess Over long periods of time may result in O Hydration amp kidney function issues 0 High protein intake gt high urea production eliminated via kidneys Excess water loss in the process 0 Bone health issues 0 Increased calcium loss in urine 0 Kidney stones KIN 150 Exam 1 93014 0 Deposits of calcium etc in the kidneys amp urinary tract 0 High concentrations of calcium amp acid in urine increases likelihood of calcium deposits developing amp forming stones 0 Increased risk of heart disease amp cancer 0 When diet is low in fruit amp veggies gt increased risk of colon cancer High protein diets tend to be high in animal products gt saturated fat amp cholesterol High protein low CHO weight loss diets do not pose risk
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