Exam #2 Lecture Notes Bundle
Exam #2 Lecture Notes Bundle KIN 150
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 150 at University of Miami taught by Sarah Adwan in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see KIN 150 Nutrition in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
KIN 150 Exam 2 10914 109 Lipids amp Vegetarian Diets Lipids Chemical term for what we commonly callfat O A group of organic molecules which mostly don39t dissolve in water 0 Includes fatty acids triglycerides phospholipids sterols 0 Triglycerides Major form of lipid in food amp the body Consists of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule 0 1 fatty acid gt Monoglyceride 2 fatty acids gt Diglyceride 0 Fatty Acid Organic molecule made up of a chain of carbons linked to hydrogen w an acid group at one end 0 Phospholipid Lipid containing phosphorous atom 0 Helps regulate what passes in out of cells 0 Attach amp form bilayer to cell membranes 0 1 glycerol w 2 fatty acids contains phosphate atom Water soluble 0 Sterol Lipid w a structure composed of multiple chemical rings 0 Don39t dissolve well in water 0 Cholesterol is a type of sterol found only in animal food sources 0 Needed to synthesize 0 Vitamin D in skin 0 Bile made of cholesterol helps digest fats O Steroid hormones testosterone estrogen amp cortisol 0 Plant sterols phylosterols help reduce cholesterol levels compete w LDL cholesterol absorption Diets high in cholesterol from animals increase CVD risk 0 Necessary in our dietsbodies O Needed to absorb fatsoluble vitamins DEKA O Source of essential fatty acids omega 3 amp 6 can39t be produced in the body 0 Form structuralregulatory molecules 0 Stored as an energy reserve in adipose tissue 0 Broken down via cellular respiration to provide energy as ATP 0 Adipose Tissue Stored triglycerides 0 Help de ne body shape nonessential 0 Provide stored energy nonessential O Insulate body from temp changes 0 Protect internal organs from physical shock 0 Broken down during fasting to provide energy source 0 Contribute texture avor aroma 0 Fats amp oils 9 calories per gram 0 Typical American diet gets 34 energy from fat RDA 3040 gday KIN 150 Exam 2 10914 Majority of fat stored in the body are triglycerides 0 Feasting 0 Excess energy is stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue 0 Fasting O Triglycerides from adipose tissue break down amp release fatty acids as energy 0 Virgin cold pressed olive oil best Length of Fatty Acids 0 Short chain fatty acid 0 47 carbon atoms in length 0 Remain liquid at colder temperatures milk 0 Medium chain fatty acid MCT 0 812 carbons O Solidify in the fridge remain liquid at room temperature coconut oil Relatively soluble in water 0 Easily digestedabsorbed faster delivery to the liver 0 More readily available energy source 0 Greater satiating effect than LCT S quot quot quot Mquot 0 Long chain fatty acid I x 0 gt12 carbons 0 Usually solid at room temperature beef fat 0 Plant sources healthier than animal sources Type amp Location of Fatty Acid Bonds 0 Saturated fatty acids 0 No double bonds btwn carbons vs in unsaturated fatty acids 0 Increase LDL cholesterol 0 Increase CVD risk 0 Replacing SFA w n3 PUFA has cardioprotective effect 0 Replacing SFA w carbs re ned has cardiotoxic effects 0 Unsaturated fatty acids 0 Contain 1 or more pairs of carbons not saturated w hydrogen atom 0 Contain double bonds 0 The more double bonds the easier it oxidizes less stable 0 Omega 3 amp 6 fatty acids 0 Cis versus Trans double bonds Cis bend at the end 0 Liquid at room temperature 0 Monounsaturated FA Contain 1 CC double bond Polyunsaturated FA Contain 2 or more CC double bonds Omega 3 amp 6 Essential Fatty Acids Both polyunsaturated fatty acids 0 Omega 6 Linoleic acid 0 Omega 3 AlphaLinolenic acid 0 EPAamp DHA animal sources RDA 11 gday 0 Alinolenic acid plant sources KIN 150 Exam 2 10914 0 RDA 12 g for women 17 for men 0 Healthier to keep n6 to n3 ratio 11 up to 51 acceptable typically 101 according to population Eicosanoids Hormonelike molecules made from omega 3 amp 6 fatty acids 0 Helps regulate blood clotting amp pressure 0 Regulates immune function 0 Effects depend on the fatty acid it39s made from 0 Healthy from Omega3 unhealthy from Omega6 Trans Fatty Acids 0 Unsaturated fatty acid where the hydrogen atoms lie on opposite sides of the double bond 0 Function more like saturated fats 0 Don39t bend like cis FAs pack tightly like saturated FA 0 Comes from hydrogenation 0 Cis con guration Both H atoms on same side ofthe double bond asymmetrical harder to pack triglycerides 0 Hydrogenation Process whereby H atoms are added to CC double bonds of UFA making them more saturated O Lengthens shelf life 0 Increases stability against rancidity 0 Higher melting point Raises LDL lowers HDL cholesterols 0 Increases heart disease risk Increases triglycerides 0 Proin ammatory effects 7 Cholesterolester 0 Worsen insulin resistance 7 A I I Triglyceride Lipoproteins 0 Transport particles for waterinsoluble lipids Carriers of fat thru the blood 0 LDL Low density lipoprotein O Lipoprotein transporting cholesterol to cells ampbody tissues 0 Elevated levels increase CVD risk 0 Small dense LDL Cholesterol Phospholipid 0 Easrly permeate artery walls m mmswm Don39t oxidize amp cause in ammationatherosclerosis o HDL High density lipoprotein O Densest lipoprotein particle picks up cholesterol from cells amp brings it to the liver to be eliminated 0 Reverse cholesterol transportquot 0 Can39t be broken down by body cells thus returned to amp excreted by liver 0 High levels prevent cholesterol deposits in artery walls 0 Reduces heart disease risk Type of lipid mg100 ml Low riskoptimal 1 Near optimal Borderline high High risk Total cholesterol lt200 200 239 2240 lt100 LDL cholesterol lt70 in highrisk 100129 130159 2160 3 individuals HDL cholesterol 260 lt40 Triglycerides lt1 50 Copyright 201 John Wiley ons Inc All rights reserved KIN 150 Exam 2 10914 Vegetarian Diets Types Depend on what is excluded TABLE 62 Types of Vegetarian Diets Diet What it excludes and includes Semivegetarian Excludes red meat but may include fish and poultry as well as dairy products and eggs Pescetarlan Excludes all animal esh except fish Lactoovo vegetarian Excludes all animal esh but does include eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese Lactovegetarian Excludes animal flesh and eggs but does include dairy products Vegan Excludes all food of animal origin opyrl i 3 2013 John Wiley 8 Sons inc All rl ts reserved De ciency Protein quality is always better from animal sources 0 Vitamin amp Mineral de ciencies 0 Vitamin 312 0 Found almost exclusively in animal products Vegans have to take supplements 0 Calcium 0 Dairy Spinach greens 0 Vitamin D 0 Dairy 0 Can be absorbed thru sun exposure 0 Iron 0 Red meat the biggest source 0 Poorly absorbed from plant sources 0 Must be coingested w vitamin c 0 Red meat the biggest source 0 Poorly absorbed from plant sources KIN 150 Exam 2 10914 0 Must be coingested w protein 0 Iodine O The omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA Animal sources fatty sh 0 Supplements 0 Produced by body from alinolenic acid Alphalinolenic acid 0 Plant sources Flaxseed walnuts seaweed Bene ts 0 Can be nutritionally adequate Appropriate at any life stage 0 May prevent treat amp reduce risk of chronic disease due to 0 Lower saturated fat amp cholesterol intake 0 Higher intakes of fruits veggies whole grains ber nuts soy products phytochemicals rA BL E 63 Meeting Nutrient Needs with a Vegan Diet22 Nutrient at risk Foods to include in a vegan diet Protein Soybased products legumes seeds nuts grains and vegetables Vitamin 8 2 Products forti ed with vitamin B such as soy beverages rice milk and breakfast cereals forti ed nutritional yeast dietary supplements Calcium Tofu processed with calcium calciumrich vegetables such as broccoli kale bok choy and legumes products fortified with calcium such as soy beverages rice milk grain products and orange juice Vitamin 0 Sunshine products fortified with vitamin D such as soy beverages rice milk breakfast cereals and margarine lron Legumes tofu dark green leafy vegetables dried fruit whole grains iron fortified grain products absorption is Improved when ironcontaining foods are consumed with vitamin C found in citrus fruit tomatoes straw berries and dark green vegetables Zinc Whole grains wheat germ legumes nuts tofu and fortified breakfast cereals Iodine Iodized salt sea vegetables seaweed and foods grown near the sea Omega3 fatty Canola oil flaxseed and flaxseed oil soybean oil walnuts and sea veg acids etables seaweed which contain EPA or fatty acids that can be used to synthesize EPA and DHA DHArich microalgae Wo2013hhnmqamp50mbc n tsmerwd KIN 150 Exam 2 102314 1023 Micronutrients Micronutrients 0 Include vitamins amp minerals 0 Do not provide energy 0 Needed in small quantities O De ciencies amp excesses impact health 0 Energy yielding macronutrients O Carbs gt glucose gt ATP 0 Lipids gt fatty acids gt ATP l Watersoh e l A Both processes catalyzed by B vitamins Thiamin 31 0 Vitamins Ribo avin 8 0 Organic substances Niacin 33 O No particular chemical structure in common xxthenk add 0 FatSoluble Vitamins Vitamin 36 Dissolve amp stored in body fat tissues Folate Dietary lipids are a source of fatsoluble Vimmiquot 312 vitamins Win NHWM MW Aler Needed for absorption of FSV 0 Should not be consumed in excess 0 Are not excreted easily from the body 0 WaterSoluble Vitamins Act largely as coenzymes catalyze reactions Disperse readily in body uids 0 Excess intake voided in the urine Marginal de ciencies may develop in about 4 weeks of inadequate intake 0 Vitamin Preservation May be lost by Exposure to light Exposure to oxygen Washed away during prep Destroyed by cooking TA 8 L E 8 1 Tips for Preserving the Vitamins in Your Food Store food away from heat and light and eat it soon after purchasing it o Cut fruits and vegetables as close as possible to the time when they will be cooked or served o Don39t soak vegetables Cook vegetables with as little water as possible by microwaving pressurecooking roasting grilling stirfrying or baking rather than boiling them ll foods are cooked in water use the cooking water to make soups and sauces so that you can retrieve some of the nutrients o Don39t rinse rice before cooking in order to avoid washing away watersoluble vitamins Copyriin aquot 2013 John Wiley 8 Sons inc AI nghts reserved Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K KIN 150 Exam 2 102314 Vitamins Details Fat Soluble 0 Vitamin D 0 quotSunshine vitaminquot produced in the skin by UV exposure 0 Low levels correlated w depression 0 Vitamin E O Antioxidant 0 Provide extra electron to neutralize free radicals 0 Vitamin K O Regulating blood clotting O Orlistat Alli amp Xenical Prevents fat absorption in the intestines 0 May block absorption of fatsoluble vitamins 0 May cause severe liver injury 0 Vitamin A O Mainly functions in vision Water Soluble 0 Thiamin Bl 0 Ribo avin B2 0 Destroyed by exposure to light 0 Hence milk is not served in clear bottles 0 Niacin B3 0 Doses over 50 mgday in nicotinic acid form decrease LDLc amp triglycerides amp increase HDLc 0 UL is only 35 mgday 0 Biotin B4 0 Avidin Protein in raw egg whites tightly binds biotin prevents absorption 0 Pantothenic Acid BS 0 Pantothen found everywhere 0 Vitamin B6 0 Prevents dopamine destruction 0 De ciency affected by alcohol amp oral contraceptives O Toxicity from supplements may cause nerve damage Folate B9 0 Folate natural food 0 Folic acid supplement form 0 Absorption inhibited by alcohol 0 Tobacco inactivates folate in cells lining lungs 0 Levels decreased by oral contraceptives 0 Cobalamin B12 0 Found almost exclusively in animal products 0 Vegan diets require supplementation O De ciency 0 Rare bc the body stores amp reuses it efficiently Anemia preventable by folate consumption Difficult to diagnose before irreversible nerve damage occurs KIN 150 Exam 2 102314 0 Vitamin C O Unstable 0 Destroyed by oxygen light amp heat 0 Destroyed when cooked w copper or iron cookware 0 Functions as an antioxidant O Increases iron absorption from plant food sources 0 Increased requirement for cigarette smokers Extra 35 mgday 0 Choline O Called vitamin B complex in supplements 0 Not classi able as a vitamin but recognized as an essential nutrient 0 Functions similarly to a B vitamin 0 Can be synthesized in the body but not in great enough amounts Dietary antioxidants 1 Selenium 2 Vitamin E 3 Vitamin C Xenical vs Alli Xenical prescribed Alli overthecounter B Vitamins amp Choline 0 Function as coenzymes in the metabolism of macronutrients to generate ATP Minerals 0 Inorganic elements needed in small amounts for health amp maintenance 0 Not destroyed by heat oxygen or acid 0 Major Minerals 0 Needed in amounts over 100 mgday 0 Sodium chloride potassium calcium phosphorus magnesium sulfur 0 Trace Minerals 0 Required in amounts less than 100 mgday 0 Iron copper zinc selenium iodine chromium uoride manganese molybdenum and others 0 De ciencies as damaging as for major minerals Electrolytes O Electronically charged particles dissolved in body uids 0 Sodium potassium chloride 0 Bioavailability 0 Minerals in animal products are generally better absorped than from plant sources 0 Plants contain phytates tannins oxalates amp ber that bind minerals in the GI amp reduce absorption Major Minerals 0 Calcium KIN 150 Exam 2 102314 0 Most abundant mineral in the body 0 Provides structure to bones amp teeth 0 Released from bones during de ciency 0 Leads to osteoporosis Phosphorus 0 Component of structural amp regulatory molecules 0 Essential for energy metabolism ATP 0 Creatine Phosphate CrP 0 Fast source of energy Transforms ADP diphosphate gt to ATP triphosphate Magnesium 0 Component of chlorophyll Found in leafy greens 0 Important for all ATP reactions 0 Inadequate magnesium reduces serotonin levels 0 Sulfur 0 Found in protein foods 0 High protein diets do not risk de ciency O No DRI Trace Minerals 0 Iron 0 RDA greater for women 1950 menstruating 0 Component of hemoglobin 0 Found in blood Zinc 0 Better absorbed from animal food sources Zinc in plants often bound by phytates 0 Vegetarians may need to consume up to 50 more zinc to meet needs 0 Important for reproductive health 0 Needs increased for pregnant women 0 Improves immune function fertility amp sexual performance 0 Can reduce duration amp severity of the cold 0 Toxicity in excess amounts 0 Suppresses immune system lowers HDLc impairs copper absorption 0 Copper 0 Selenium O Antioxidant O Needed for proper function of immune system 0 Required for sperm motility amp reduces miscarriage risk 0 Regulates mood De ciency linked to adverse mood states 0 Elevated intake associated w reduced cancer risk antioxidant factor 0 Chromium O Involved in CHO amp lipid metabolism 0 Regulates blood sugar 0 De ciency requires more insulin production for proper glucose absorption KIN 150 Exam 2 102314 Dietary Supplements 0 Supplements vs drugs 0 No FDA provisions to approve dietary supplements for safety amp effectiveness 0 Once a dietary supplement is marketed FDA has to prove that the product is not safe in order to restrict its use or remove it from the market 0 Supplements vs whole foods 0 Supplements do not provide all the bene ts of a diet containing a variety of foods 0 Varied diets provide phytochemicals amp other healthpromoting nutrients not found in supplements Ppl who eat more fruits amp veggies have lower incidence of chronic diseases 0 Gastrointestinal system requires presence of food 0 USP US Pharmacopeia Veri ed mark indicates product is tested for purity amp contaminants Phytates Tannins Oxalates Fiber quotAll bind minerals amp prevent their absorption KIN 150 114 Weight Management Exam 2 11414 Obesity Epidemic Most signi cance in the south 0 Higher poverty rates for southern states 0 Wider class gaps 0 Causes 0 Appetite vs Hunger Appetite A desire to consume speci c foods independent of hunger Triggered by external cues sight smell Sugar starch casein dairy protein Hunger Desire to consume food that is triggered by internal physiological signals 0 Portion Distortion 0 Increasing 0 People tend to eat in units regardless of size 0 Energy Expenditure 0 Modern conveniences reduce physical activity levels 0 Real cause of obesity 0 Marketing 0 Processed addictive largeportion fast foods Body Composition 0 Human body composed of lean tissue amp body fat 0 Lean tissue includes bones muscles all tissue except adipose Body fat lies under skin amp around internal organs 0 Body Types 0 Endomorph 0 More fat or muscle 0 Put them on more easily 0 Heavier rounder individuals 0 Have to work the hardest to lose weight cardio O Mesomorph Lean low body fat 0 Athletic 0 Not over or underweight 0 Gain amp lose weight wo much effort 0 Ectomorph 0 Thin 0 Have a hard time putting on fat 0 0 Minimum cardioaerobic emphasis concentration on musclebuilding weight training Cardio interferes w building muscle Energy Balance KIN 150 Exam 2 11414 Occurs when energy consumed energy expenditure 0 Food in amp exercise out BMR Basal Metabolic Rate 70 of calories spent regulating amp maintaining body functions Thermic Effect of Food 510 of calories spent digesting amp processing food TEE Total Energy Expenditure Healthy waist circumference ranges 0 Men lt 40 0 Women lt 35quot 0 Women w waisthip ratios over 086 amp men w 095 are at risk for diabetes CVD amp hypertension due to fat distribution 0 Body mass index 0 Weight in lbsheight in inches2x 703 O Desirable range 185 249 0 Unreliable for measuring athletes pregnant amp lactating women or elderly adults ACSM Weight Loss Guidelines 0 12 lbs a week 0 10 in 6 months 0 3500 calories in 1b of fat 0 Reduce caloric intake by 500 1000 calday 0 Yoyo dieting decreases likelihood of success in future attempts Longterm maintenance 0 Behavior modi cation Wellbalanced meals 0 Reduced portion size 0 Recording food intake amp physical activity 0 Increasing daily physical activity by at least 300 cal Percentage of Total Weight Loss 7 r5t 3in Fat 85 I Water 7 ON V Weeks 23 mquw taut Mann to pun antuni a KIN 150 Muscle vs Fat Exam 2 0 Muscle 1b burns 6 calday Fat 1b burns 2 calday Weight Loss Diets 0 Atkins O O O 0 Low CHO hight fat high protein Low CHO diets release less insulin Body goes ketogenic ketons suppress appetite Hazards Kidney stones Dehydration Bone loss 0 Fatigued state depleted glycogen stores 0 Loss of muscle mass 0 Zone Diet 0 O O O Lowfat protein meals amp snacks Carbs from fruits amp veggies Small amounts of healthy fats Moderate consistent exercise 0 Very Low Calorie Diets O 0000 400800 calday Highquality protein foods or liquid meals Recommended only for severely obese patients Depleted glycogen stores impair physical activity Muscle mass lost interfere w exercise 11414
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