Exam #3 Lecture Notes Bundle
Exam #3 Lecture Notes Bundle KIN 150
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Elliana on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 150 at University of Miami taught by Sarah Adwan in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see KIN 150 Nutrition in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
KIN 150 Exam 3 111314 11 13 Fitness Cha ter 9 Causes of Obesity 1 Appetite vs hunger O Appetite A desire to consume speci c foods cravings independently of hunger triggered by external cues sightsmell O Hunger A desire to consume food that is triggered by internal physiological signals hunge 2 Portion distortion 0 Portion sizes have increased over time 3 Energy expenditure 0 Modern conveniences driving etc have reduced our physical activity levels Assessing Fitness Components 1 Cardiovascularendurance O Ef ciency with which body delivers oxygen amp nutrients to cells needed for muscular activity 0 Increased by aerobic exercise 0 Aerobic zone Training in between 60 to 85 of maximum heart rate 0 Agepredicted max HR 220 age 0 Fat burning vs cardio zone 0 Targeted by aerobic exercise Fatburning programs lower intensity higher proportion of fat used for fuel Highintensity cardio uses lower percent of calories from fat tho same amt is used amp total calories burned is greater better for weight loss burns same amt of fat amp more calories Goal is to burn max of calories 2 Strength 0 Muscle strengthening exercise strength training resistance exercise 0 Muscular strength 468 reps heavier weights 0 Muscular endurance lower weights 8 12 reps 3 Flexibility 0 Range of motion how far one can bend amp stretch musclesligaments O Adds muscle cells to add length amp elasticity to muscles 0 2 types 0 Static Getting into positions that stretch muscles to their farthest point amp holding it 0 Dynamic slow controlled movements to extend muscles to their limit of range of motion Before strength training increases force production 4 Body fat composition 0 A t person has a lower percent body fat which translates into more percent lean body mass muscle 0 Healthy waist circumference ranges Men lt 40quot 0 Women lt 35quot KIN 150 Exam 3 111314 0 BMI amp desirable ranges 0 Underweight lt 185 0 Overweight 249 Both categories increase risk of disease 0 Limitations of BMI cannot be used with athletes pregnant amp lactating women or older adults Does not calculate quality of body composition musclefat ratio simply weight to height ratios Recommendation Intensity FrequencyDuration owiw o 2013 John Wiley 8 San Inc Al rights reserved The 3 Main Body Types 0 Endomorph O Tend to have more body fat amp gain weight easily football linemen O Require stricter monitoring of diet amp exercise 0 Recommended that they work the hardest in terms of exercising lots of cardio amp weight training 0 Mesomorph O Tend to be more athletichigher body composition of lean muscle athletes 0 quotGoalquot body type not overweight or underweight O Gain amp lose weight without much effort 0 Ectomorph O Tend to be quotlong amp leanquot very little muscle or body fat have a hard time gaining weight fashion models 0 Recommended that they keep cardioaerobic training to a minimum amp concentrate on musclebuilding activities with heavy weights The 3 Types of Energy Expenditure TEE Total Energy Expenditure 0 Basal Metabolism 0 6070 of the body39s total energy expenditure KIN 150 Exam 3 111314 0 Includes involuntary bodily functions such as breathing circulating blood regulating body temperature sending nerve signals etc 0 Physical Activity 0 Thermic Effect of Food 0 510 of daily energy intake 0 The energy required for the digestion of food amp absorption of its nutrients 0 Calculating TEE Basal Metabolic Rate x Daily Physical Activity KIN 150 Exam 3 111714 11 17 Exercise Nutrition Cha ter 10 Recommendations 1 Aerobic exercise At least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity working hard enough to break a sweat but still able to carry on a conversation ve days per week or 20 minutes of more vigorous activity three days per week 2 Strength training Should be performed a minimum of two days each week with 8 12 repetitions of 8 10 different exercises that target all major muscle groups 3 Flexibility training A minimum of 2 days per week Extend to position of mild discomfort and hold each stretch for 10 to 60 seconds for 1 4 repetitions WHO recommendations 0 Overweightobese people are recommended to spend 90 minutes daily of cumulative physical activity to lose weight amp maintain it 0 Physical activity should burn 500 caloriesday Supercompensation theory 0 Working out during recovery period overtraining Chronic athletic fatigue syndrome 0 Working out during the supercompensation period advances the body to a higher tness level 0 Working out after the supercompensation period keeps the body at the same base level Health Bene ts of Exercise 0 Cardiovascular Health 0 Cardio strengthens heart muscles 0 Increases HDL O Lowers blood pressure 0 Weight Management 0 Increases total energy expenditure Increases BMR 0 Overall well being O Lowers stress hormonesanxiety Releases endorphins neurotransmitters producing euphoric effect Reduces cortisol O Reduces appetite KIN 150 Exam 3 111714 0 Increases dopamine amp dopamine receptors 0 Lowers cancer risk up to 40 Periodization Training Counters cardio amp strength training plateaus Changes training program at regular intervalsperiods to keep the body working harder amp still getting adequate rest 0 Core strength training increases overall strength in all other exercises Gaining Muscle Mass 0 Weight gain should be in increased muscle mass 0 Increased caloric intake amp adequate CHO intake accompanied by balanced progressive resistance exercise program Minimize cardiovascular exercise 0 No evidence that protein powders promote muscle growth more effectively that protein consumption from a balanced diet 0 Increase daily protein intake to 16 or 2g per kg of body mass 0 Extra 2000 calories needed to gain a pound of muscle 0 Liquid ingestion of 6 8 CHO solution beforeduring exercise may enhance muscle building amp exercise performance amp prevent dips in blood sugar Low fat diet amp replacing saturated w polyunsaturated fat decreases basal testosterone levels Exercise Nutrition Proportions 0 10 35 protein 0 45 65 CH0 0 20 35 fat 0 Timing 0 Protein intake up to 30 min after weight training 0 20g protein within an hour Overtrainingsyndrome O Gradually depleting CHO reserves w repeated strenuous training 0 Glycogen replenishment takes at least 20 hrs 0 1 2 days of restlighter activity amp high CHO intake reestablishes pre exercise muscle glycogen levels 0 Low fat chocolate milk may be the ideal post workout snack 0 Ideal CHOprotein ratio Replenishes lost glycogen repaired muscle tissue 0 Most useful for competing endurance athletes KIN 150 Exam 3 111714 Progression of weight loss 0 First week majority of weight lost is water weight 0 Continuous calorie restriction proportion of weight loss in body fat increases Percentage of Total Weight Loss rat l 1 Water 7 390 l lt Fat 85 0A rf Fat 70 21 Weeks 23 muxu an quota u LoomI Iw on Female Athlete Triad 1 Disordered eating 2 Amenorrhea irregularabsent menstrual periods due to low body fat 3 Osteoporosis low bone mass amp microarchitectural deterioration KIN 150 Exam 3 112014 11 20 Su lements amp Er o enic Aids Cha ter 11 Ergogenic Aid 0 a technique or substance used for the purpose of enhancing performance 0 Nutritional 0 CH0 loading Maximizes muscle glycogen stores amp endurance 0 Resting 13 days before competition 0 10 to 12 g of CHO per kg of body weight Disadvantages Not worth it for exercise lasting less than 90 min Adds water weight amp muscle stiffness Pharmeceutical O Anabolic steroids 0 Synthetic versions of testosterone affects bones muscles skin hair Insigni cant effect on sex organs 0 Causes body to inhibit testosterone production Lack of natural testosterone amp effect of steroids causes tests to shrink sperm production stops 0 Hydroxycut Family ofdietary supplements 0 Sold wo prescription as weight loss aid Active ingredients of herbs Studies funded by makers O HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 0 Illegal 0 HCG hormone produced by the human placenta in pregnancy 0 Has no effect on weight loss blunts appetite 0 Not backed by any scienti c evidence 0 Green Coffee Bean Extract 0 Raw coffee beans 0 Chlorogenic acid supposedly aids weight loss lowers BP May increase homocysteine CVD risk 0 Nitric Oxide NO 0 Synthesized in the body from AA Larginine 0 Supposedly increases blood owoxygen delivery 0 Not backed by scientific evidence Blood owoxygen intake naturally enhanced by exercise 0 Medium Chain Triglycerides 0 Rapid source of fatty acid fuel Marketed as quotfat burnerquotquotmuscle builderquot Watersolubility of MCFA enables them to travel into the blood stream Might spare livermuscle glycogen during highintensity aerobic exercise 0 Con icting research ndings Increases blood lipid levels Often accompanied by cramping amp diarrhea KIN 150 Exam 3 112014 0 Coenzyme C110 0 Found primarily in meats peanuts soybean oil 0 Has no value as an ergogenic aid 0 Has antioxidant properties 0 Creatine Found mainly in animal food sources Increases weightlifting abilities 0 Improves endurance activities by allowing tested subjects to complete races in shorter periods of time PCr ADP gt ATP adenosine diphosphate gt adenosine triphosphate Used in the rst 30 seconds of physical activity sprinting lifting etc Ergogenic effects reduced by caffeine 0 Associated w risks of Kidney damage High doses may inhibit body39s natural Creatine production Draws water from blood increases dehydration risk 0 Creatine supplementation dehydration decreases in dopamine amp serotonin production 0 HMB BetaHydroxymethylbutyric Acid Breakdown product of essential AA leucine Enhances gains during resistance exercise possibly from reducing protein breakdown No reported sideeffects Lack of data on longterm intake 0 Caffeine 0 Extends duration of exercise due to facilitated use of fat as exercise fuel Spares limited glycogen reserves 0 Side effects Nervousness anxiety Insomnia Digestive discomfort Abnormal heartbeat 0 UL 300500 mgday 0 DH EA Dehydroepiandrosterone Weaker type of steroid hormone 0 Claims to build muscle mass amp burn fat 0 No proven bene ts banned at sports events Side effects generally same as steroids 0 Acne oily skin 0 Facial hair 0 Liver damage 0 Stimulation of existing cancers 0 Ginseng 0 Claims to boost energy amp diminish negative effects of stress on the body 0 No scienti c evidence proves that it offers any ergogenic bene t or enhance exercise performance 0 Ephed ne Banned by the FDA in 2004 KIN 150 Exam 3 112014 First time the FDA banned a dietary supplement 0 Claims to increase energy expenditure amp aid weight loss Raises risk for cardiovascular events heart attacks strokes etc 0 Growth Hormone 0 Stimulates bone amp cartilage growth 0 Enhances fatty acid oxidation slows glucose amp AA breakdown 0 Serious side effects Gigantismacromegaly pituitary becomes oversized oversizes everything 0 Garcinia Cambogia 0 Medicine made from fruit rind of garcinia plant 0 Claims to prevent fat storage amp control appetite No scienti c evidence proves effectiveness KIN 150 Exam 3 112014 11 20 Or anic Products Cha ter 12 Organic Foods 0 Organic farming one of the fastest growing segments of USEuropean agriculture 0 Main characteristics 0 Respect for environmentanimals 0 Promotion of sustainable cropping methods 0 Use of nonchemical fertilizers amp pestdiseaseweed control means 0 No use of GMOs Organic Label USDA Organic seal indicates product is at least 95 organic 0 Organic amp natural not the same thing 0 Only products cleared by USDA organic standards may be labeled organic More characteristics 0 Plant products contain more minerals amp signi cantly more antioxidant micronutrients more iron magnesium etc 0 Organic grass fed animal products contain more polyunsaturated FA Omega 3 Less in ammatory Omega 6 Data on CHO protein amp vitamin levels pretty equal insuf cient data 94100 of foods don39t contain pesticide residues 0 Organically grown grains contain overall similar levels of mycotoxins mold fungal growths due to lack of pesticides 0 Vegetables contain far less nitrates 50 Nitrates gt nitrites in the body promote cancer attach to hemoglobin amp decrease oxygen distribution Prevented by switching to organic vegetables 0 UL 120280 mgday on average we consume 100day 0 80 of nitrates come from green vegetables 0 Not risk free 0 Usually grown w composted manure 0 May contain pathogenic bacteria contaminating the food Pesticides 0 Added to crops growing or after harvest Prevent plant diseases amp insect infestations Prevent spoilage amp extend plant life 0 Limits on application to food supply set 100 x below level that harms humansenvironment Genetic Engineering 0 Foods have foreign genes inserted into their genetic codes 0 Potential bene t may be decreased use of pesticides 0 Potential risk may be unexpectedharmful genetic changes Antibiotics amp Hormones in Food Antibiotics O Preventstreats disease in animals 0 Promotes growth 0 Contributes to creation of antibioticresistant bacteria 0 Hormones KIN 150 Exam 3 112014 0 Increase weight gain in cattle amp milk production in cows 0 Genetically engineered bovine somatotropin bST increased milk production creates public concern 0 bST in cows 0 Causes in ammation of mammary glands amp other health complications Requires increased consumption of antibiotics Contamination from Industrial Wastes 0 Mercury 0 Nearly all shshell sh contain traces 0 May harm the nervous system of fetuses amp young children 0 Should consume smaller types of sh Minimizing Contaminants Choose a wide variety of foods 0 Local grown produce contains fewer pesticide residues 0 Peeling or washing w warm water scrubbing Bioaccumulation Contaminants in water accumulate in soil plants ocean Resources consumed by animals Animals consumed by animals Animals consumed by people Greater concentration of contaminants higher along chain Contaminants are found Concentrations are greater in greater concentrations Humans iquot 399 5quot Kb 05 039 in the meat and milk from than it algae tiny marine cattle than in the grasses organisms or in small fish they consume 39 1 such as sardines and herring Large sh 3 W 7 quot tuna a Grazing animals Small sh quot19 sardines 1 and herring Small M marine animals I 39 W 2 Water plants I m w and microscopic animals 23 0 i G39roundw39ater irrigation Grasses x grains and r A other crops quot 2 water waterways lakes oceans Agricultural Industrial chemicals wastes Copyright 2013 John Wiley 8 Sons Inc All rights reserved
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