Cumulative notes Kinesiology 100
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Date Created: 02/22/15
12115 12315 Kinesiology The study of movement Exercise Physiology How does the body respond to exercise 0 Oxygen supply 0 Energy 0 Muscular force 0 Environmental factors weather temperature 0 Nutrient in uences Biomechanics How can we describe movement o What physical factors constrain movement 0 What movements are most ef cient o What materials can be used in exercise 0 What mechanical factors affect circulation heart rate blood pressure Motor ControlExercise Neuroscience How does the nervous system control movement 0 How do we receive and process outside information o How do we select and execute correct movements 0 How do we learn and best practice new skills 0 How does the nervous system limit performance prevent injury Sports and Exercise Psychology 0 How is the mind involved in human movement 0 What psychological factors contribute to injury 0 Why do some exercise programs fail o What mindset is important during performance Sports Medicine 0 What factors in uence physical tness What injury and disease factors limit performance How are injuries prevented What new treatments bene t human movement What factors produce quotinjury pronenessquot 0000 Basic vs Applied Research both basic and applied research are necessary in kinesiology Basic Research 0 Mathematics can we describe muscle contraction mathematically o Biophysicist how do individual muscle molecules produce force 0 Neuromuscular Physiologist How does the nervous system coordinate muscle contraction o What is the optimal strength training technique sport scientist o How can I achieve greater muscular strength l performer Continuum of Movement performance 12115 12315 0 Subnormal pathology physically impaired disabled Normal Supernormal athlete The Nature of Evidence 0 Anecdotal Evidence Newspapers media internet obtained from information that may not represent clear data or clear fact Requires readers support people have to be interested in the information Chance events that are dramatized whenever they occur6 0 Scienti c Evidence Scienti c journals ex Journal of anatomy journal of sports medicine Evidence is reviewed by Acknowledged Scholars 0 Who is an expert Scienti c evidence determines who is an expert Inappropriate Research Methods 0 Testimonials Statement claiming a fact Useful for evaluating whether a product or substance is worth considering Form of anecdotal evidence 0 Statistical terms quot200 accuratequot quottwice as effective misleading Average mean difference postprepre x 100 Anatomical terms 0 Medial toward midline Lateral toward side lpsilateral same side Contralateral other side Anterior toward front OOOO Muscles o Biceps forearm exor Triceps forearm extendor Quadriceps anterior thigh 4 different muscles Hamstrings posterior thigh Motor unit A motor neuron and all bers it innervates NeuromuscularJunction NMJ where the motor neuron and the muscle ber meet OOOOO Muscle Actions 0 Agonist muscle performing the action 0 Antagonist muscle that apposes the action 12115 12315 0 Synergist muscle that helps the action 0 Flexion bend elbow exion 0 Extension straighten elbow extension Lecture 2 Muscle 0 Exercise physiology Metabolism o Biomechanics Morphology 0 Motor control Activation Types of Muscle Fibers 0 Fast Twitch high force anaerobic metabolism sprinting few capillaries white Fatiguable type II 0 Slow Twitch low force aerobic metabolism endurance many capillaries red fatigue resistant type Motor Unit Morphology 0 Eye muscles l 3000 motor units l 10 innervations ratio 0 Gastrocnemius calf l 600 motor units l 2000 innervations ratio Muscle Contraction o Nerve action potential AP Acetylcholine release from vesicles Ach binds at receptor sites Muscle ber AP generation AP travels along muscle ber Ca release 0 Ca causes actinmyosin binding Muscle contraction pathology 0 What can go wrong with the muscles Myasthenia gravis not enough receptor sites for the muscle to bind to problem with the muscle ALS the muscle has no problems there is a problem in the motor neurons The number of motor neurons begin to decrease and eventually the muscle bers lose motivation and don t receive a signal 0 Types of Muscle contraction Isometric static there is no change in the joint angle or position of the muscle lsotonic dynamic or rhythmic contract and release Concentric muscle shortening OOOOO 12115 12315 Eccentric muscle lengthening Measuring Muscular Strength 0 Isometric maximal force 0 lsotonic repetition maximum RM Pronunciation Permanent Lecture 3 Shorttermgycoysis 0 Goal is to make ATP from Glucose o Glucose stored as glycogen o Glycolysis releases only 5 of glucose 0 Mobilizing glycogen goal is to conver glycogen into glucose Called glycogenolysis Glucose l 2 pyruvate or 2 lactate ATP Lactate 0 With Hydrogen ions H lactic acid 0 Muscle contraction impaired by H Acidosis the presence of too much hydrogen 0 The good bad and ugly of lactic acid Good lactic acid lactate is energy Bad interferes with metabolism Ugly H acidosis o The lactic acid shuttle Lactic acid from FT fast twitch bers supply energy to ST slow twitch bers Moving lactate form FT to ST so that ST bers can use it for energy Glucose Paradox o Glycogen supply is limiting 0 Liver has a lot of glycogen but the liver prefers to make glucose from lactic acid and create glycogen rather than break it down 0 Why not utilize glycogen and break it down Oxidative Metabolism more ATP 0 Krebs cycle used for oxidizing the metabolism and produces a whole lot of ATP Pyruvate l acetyl coA hydrogen Hydrogen oxidized for more energy 12115 12315 Occurs in the mitochondria of the muscle ber l mitochondria is the energy powerhouse and oxidative metabolism energy is produced Requires oxygen and Acetyl coA vitamin B derivative 0 Electron transport chain Uses byproducts from krebs cycle Byproducts H20 C02 heat 0 Summary of Energy Metabolism 02 glucose ATP H20 C02 heat 1 glucose molecule 38 ATP Krebs cycle 4 ATP Electron transport chain 34 ATP Cyanide Arsenic impair ATP production Fat Metabolism o Adipose tissue fat tissues fat cells called adipocytes 0 Located just below the skin layer subcutaneous tissues and are round cells 0 Adipocytes comprised of triglycerides o Triglyceride l glycerol 3 FFA Free fatty acids 0 Beta 0xidation fat metabolism 0 Uses FFA FFA l acetyl coA l Krebs cycle and the Electron Transport Chain ATP 0 Generation of 02 carriers from FFA facilitated by epinephrine caffeine 0 Yields 460 ATP Energy from Protein Protein metabolism 0 Protein contains nitrogen N2 and nitrogen does not work too well in terms of energy 0 Deamination l removal of N2 0 Ultimately creates metabolites ex pyruvate for Krebs cycle Timing of energy requirements 0 Immediate energy sources energy produces within seconds it is an immediate source 0 Glycolysis peaks around 30 seconds 0 0xidative sources peaks around 120 seconds long term energy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy NMR 0 Noninvasive technique to measure phosphorus carbon Superconducting magnet 12115 12315 Energy requirements for running 0 Distance 100 m 400m 1500m 5000m marathon 0 Time 10 s 45 5 330 5 15 min gt2 hours 0 Aerobic 1 15 50 80 99 o Anaerobic 99 85 50 20 1 Lecture 4 Respiratory Anatomy 0 Lungs pipes Trachea bronchi lungs diaphragm muscle 0 O2 and C02 exchange system Four phases of respiration Ventilation breathing Inhalation and exhalation inspiration and expiration External respiration Exchange of gases Gas transport Transport 02 in the blood requires hemoglobin Hb Internal Respiration cellular respiration 02 to C02 transfer in cells How do you know when to take a breath Control of breathing Neural rhythm is set by quotbreathing centerquot in the brain medulla Affected by Chemoreceptor O2 sensors useful at elevated altitude not as much air C02 sensors in carotid sinus Does hyperventilation improve endurance ex swimmers 0 Problem C02 build up Calorimetry direct measure of the amount of heat you are using how many calories you are burning Indirect Calorimetry Measures heat indirectly Utilization of 02 oxygen uptake V02 V02 Max Maximum oxygen consumed litersmin or mlkgmin 12115 12315 Second Wind subjective sensation of easier breathing during exercise Dyspnea labored breathing Mechanisms improved diaphragm ef ciency easier to inhale Muscle temp goes up and may be more optimal for muscle contraction Chemical release Psychological factors Can we use extra 02 0 Factors saturation of Hb on the yaxis of a graph vs Pressure of 02 on the xaxis of a graph Results at sea level Hb is almost 100 saturated and it cannot carry any more oxygen At mount Everest you may be able to take in more oxygen Circulation and Exercise Respiration affected by Temp and H Bohr Effect Temp increase or increase in acidity curve shifts Greater 02 release to tissue Hb hods less 02 Elevated temps greater acidity in muscle are not good conditions to exercise in Myoglobin 02 carrier in muscle 0 Contains 1 iron molecule 4 for Hb 0 Important in strenuous exercise Measuring lung volume Spirometer way to measure lung volume Tidal volume unit of total lung capacity measured by spirometer Breathe right Nasal strips makes it easier to breathe Developed for sleep apnea keeps nasal passages open 0 No demonstrated athletic or scienti c bene t Lecture 6 Provides Energy substrate 02 Removes metabolic endproducs o H 12115 12315 0 C02 The Heart and Exercise 0 Left ventricle What determines how much blood is pumped ls circulation limiting Heart Rate HR beatsmin o Resting heart rate Decrease with training Increase with altitude temp extremes HRmax 220 age 18 Stroke Volume SV volume pumped per beat SV depends on LV size Bigger than chamber more blood can be squeezed into it The Heart and Exercise 0 Left Ventricle LV 0 Size is important ex Clarence de mar Heat size needs to be normalized to body mass 0 Cardiac output Q HR x SV 0 Cardiac output is a limiting factor in exercise Hear Rate Variability Too variable arrhythmia Too little variability Dynamical systemschaos theory Variability is important HR variability increases with training 0 Blood Pressure BP Peripheral resistance to blood ow Sphygmomanometer 2 components Systolic highest pressure Diastolic lowest pressure Variability about 7 mmHg 0 Measuring blood pressure Cuff pressure exceeds systolic pressure no sound Brachial artery closed no blood ow BP increases with exercise 0 Blood pressure cardiac output X total peripheral resistance Studying Peripheral circulation Transduction conversion of energy from one for to another 0 Example force transducer 12115 12315 Uses highfrequency pulses Produces sound waves Re ected sound waves are recorded by a transducer The ultrasound machine displays the distances and intensities of echoes Blood distribution during rest Brain 14 skin 6 heart 4 muscle 20 Blood distribution during exercise Active muscle 84 Lecture 7 21115 Exercise Training Speci city a speci c exercise in a speci c individual elicits a speci c training response Delorme overload principle 0 Exercise must include increase in frequency intensity and duration Types of Anaerobic Training Strength training Isometric since 19505 0 Dynamic DeLorme Progessive Resistance Exercise PRE Free weights repetition maximum load RM suggested 8 12 RM how many times you can lift it in a row 8 12 repetitions sets Exercise machines speci city Eccentric exercise greater force but more soreness Plyometrics depth jumping Power training combines force and time 0 Power force x distancetime Sportactivity speci city Shortterm training 0 Ex Sprinting rowing running stairs General principle activities lasting around 1030 sec Anaerobic Training Adaptations Muscle Resting levels of ATP CP glycogen Fiber type 0 Recruitment Slow twitch and Fast twitch bers 12115 12315 Fiber Type Transitions Longterm stimulation myosin ATPase SDH Anaerobic Training Adaptations Capillarization Anaerobic enzymes Bone density Aerobic Training Continuous training 0 Long slow distance Interval training 0 Repeated bouts with rest ex 400 m runs 0 May use more ATPPC sources less lactate More overall work less fatigue Aerobic system changes increase in mitochondria increase in Myoglobin content increase in aerobic metabolism increase in fat metabolism Circulation Increase in blood volume with exercise Increase in stroke volume Changes in Lactate Threshold Blood lactate level starts at a steadystate and then increases once it passes the lactate threshold during exercise Detraining Changes are reversible Controlling Exercise Intensity Train at of max HR 0 Max HR 220 age Effort perception 0 From Borg scale 6 20 6 being no exertion at all 20 being maximal exertion Train at lactate threshold How is Heat Transferred Conduction Heat Transfer by contact 12115 12315 Examples Air Water Withinbody Convection Particle movement Examples Aircyclist Waterswimmer Radiation Heat exchange without a transfer vacuum Examples sun white least heat exchange want to exchange the least amount of heat from the sun to your body do not where black where white black the greatest heat exchange Evaporation heat exchange by water loss Examples Air limited in H20 absorption Relative Humidity total moisture air can absorb Sweating major heat loss mechanism maximum rate 12 lhr Breathing Sweating doesn t cool evaporation cools Sweat that rolls of skin is wasted water Evaporation aided by convection Exercise in the Heat Worst High temphumidity Dehydration Body s thirst mechanism imperfect Cold uids empties from stomach faster Other ingredients high suger impede absorption Gatorade Glucose polymer drinks rapid absorption carbohydrate replacement Heat illnesses Heat cramps involuntary muscle spasm Muscle saltwater imbalance Heat Exhaustion the body is going all out to lose as much heat as possible total blood volume has dropped so much because you sweat so much Weak pulse 12115 12315 Profuse sweating extremely high heart rate Heat Stoke Temp control failure Hyperthermia No sweating Potentially fatal renal failure cardiac failure Treatments uids cold temps drugs Exercise in the cold Frostbite skin damage Appropriate clothing Head heat loss around 3040 Exercise at Altitude Lower barometric pressure less 02 in the air Harder to breath harder to take in 02 02 in the blood decreases and hemoglobin is not quite as saturated as needed Plasma volume decreases Predominantly affects endurance Treatment provide more 02 02 tank Acclimatization adjusting to a new environment Heat Adjustments Blood volume increase Earlier sweat onset Sweat output increases Skin blood ow increases Altitude Adjustments Increase in 02carrying capacity Increase in blood volume Increase in number of red blood cells polycythemia EPO stimulates new erythrocyte Bene ts lost around 23 weeks after returning to sea level the bene ts are not permanent once you return to sea level you will be back to where you started quotLive High Train Lowquot Air Pollution 1 CO carbon monoxide competes for hemoglobin better than 02 it will displace the 02 because the hemoglobin prefers to carry the CO rather than the 02 a Endurance capacity is reduced not as much oxygen 2 Ozone 03 sulfur dioxide 02 12115 12315 a Airway narrowing make it harder to inhale and exhale b Exerciseinduced Asthma EIA Problems in Microgravity space Disuse Atrophy size of muscle decreases Decrease in strength Decrease in exercise capacity Solutions Exercise Arti cial gravity human powered cartage Phermentology Nutritional Other alternatives l lowerbody negative pressure counters Anecdotal vs Scienti c Data Energy source the Calorie Unit of heat 1 Calorie 1 kcal 1000 calories How many Calories do we need Major Energy sources 1 Carbohydrates CHO primary source Grains fruites vegetables 1 g CHO 4kca Carbohydrate and Exercise Important energy source Protein sparer Nervous system Glycemic Index GI High GI food insulin l hypoglycemia 2 Protein Amino acids Essential from food Nonessential made Required tissues acidbase buffer during activity Needs 1016 gkg body weight Energy 1 g 4 kcal 3 Fats Essential nutrients cell membrane micronutrients Types of Fats Saturated fats many hydrogens mostly animal fats Polyunsaturated fats fewer hydrogens 12115 12315 1gfat9kca Dietary composition One suggestion CHO 60 Fat 25 Protein 15 Nutritional Supplements Vitamins Watersoluble Bcomplex C Fatsoluble AD Use caution Build up can occur and be hazardous Minerals Calcium Bone muscle metabolism Problem in dancers gymnasts not enough calcium Phosphorus Bone atp Magnesium BP muscle contraction Trace Minerals What do we need Dietary reference intake usda PreGame meal Prevent hypoglycemia too little glucose in the blood stream Provide fuel Minimize stomach acid Moderatecomplex CHO is best Why not simple sugars insulin promotes glucose uptake promotes glucose l glycogen promotes fatty acids fat cells possible hypoglycemia Nutrition during competition Fluid consumption Simple uids rapid consumption Electrolyte replacement potassium 12115 12315 sodium chloride
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