PSY 230 Lecture & Textbook Notes Bundle
PSY 230 Lecture & Textbook Notes Bundle PSY 230
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PSY 230 Exam 1 Lecture Notes Exam 1 Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Child Development 5 perspectives biological psychodynamic learning cognitivedevelopmental contextual 0 Biological perspective Intellectual personality physical amp motor development are all rooted in biology Maturational theory Arnold Gesell Child development re ects a speci c amp prearranged schemeplan win the body Development is a natural unfolding of the biological plan Ethological theory Views development from an evolutionary perspective Behaviors are adaptive have survival value Supports theory of critical periods Critical period Stage in development where speci c type of learning takes place that may be impossible otherwise Lorenz amp imprinting ducks Underlying imprinting mechanism is biological but experience is essential for triggering programmedadaptive behavior 0 Psychodynamic perspective Development is affected primarily by how children confront con icts at diff ages Psychodynamic theory Development largely determined by how well ppl resolve life con icts diff ages Id Ego Superego Early experiences have enduring effects on children39s development Children experience con ict btwn what they want to do amp what they should do Psychosocial theory Erikson Development consists of a sequence of stages de ned by a unique crisis How one confronts a crisis will determine later development amp success dealing with crises 0 Learning perspective Development is affected primarily by children s environments Emphasizes role of experience in child development John Locke infants are born w quotclean slates for brains to be developed through expe ence John Watson learning determines what children will be experience is all that determines development BF Skinner amp operant conditioning Children s behavior is shaped through reinforcement amp punishment Children also learn wo reinforcement or punishment Learn through imitation amp observational learning PSY 230 Exam 1 Lecture Notes Social Cognitive Theory Children are more likely to imitate people who appear successful or are rewarded Children look to others to determine what is acceptable behavior Albert Bandura social cognitive theory amp self efficacy Social cognitive children actively interpret events 0 CognitiveDevelopmental perspective Development re ects children s efforts to understand the world Focuses on how children think amp how thinking changes as they grow Jean Piaget Children naturally try to make sense of their world Child ren s theories are tested by everyday experiences Children radically revise their theories age 2 7 amp 12 making 4 distinct stages in development 0 Contextual perspective Ecological systems affect children s development Culture The knowledge attitudes amp behavior associated w a group of people Vygotsky cultural context of learning The fundamental aim of all societies is to enable children to acquire essential cultural values amp skills Early amp Later Development 0 Concerns the predictability of development 0 Continuous process Children begin amp stay on speci c developmental paths 0 ContinuityDiscontinuity issue quotrelatednessquot of development 0 Development is not perfectly predictable 0 Virtually no aspects of development are due exclusively to heredity or environment Children In uencing Development 0 Children shape the way they re parented 0 ActivePassive issue Passive Children may be at the mercy of their environment Active Children s uniqueindividual characteristics in uence their own development Research 0 Systemic observation Observing amp recording children s actions 0 Selfreports children s answers to questions about the topic of interest 0 Response bias selecting the socially appropriate answer vs the truth 0 Populations broad groups of children 0 Field experiment researcher manipulates independent variables in natural settings to create results more representative of behavior in realworld settings 0 Quasiexperiment Examines impact of independent variable on groups not randomly selectedassigned PSY 230 Exam 1 Lecture Notes Microgenetic study Longitudinal design consisting of testing children over days or weeks amp examining change directly as it occurs 0 Metaanalysis Researchers synthesize results of many studies to estimate relationships btwn variables Chapter 2 Genetics amp Heredity 0 Genotype Complete set of genes that makes up an individual s heredity Phenotype Individual s displayed genetic traits physical behavioral psychological features Alleles Genes that come in different forms Behavioral genetics Branch of genetics dealing w inheritance of behavioral amp psychological traits Polygenetic inheritance Phenotypes distributed re ecting the combined activity of many separate genes Epigenesis Continuous interplay btwn genes amp multiple levels of the environment driving development Heritability coefficient Estimates the extent to which differences btwn people re ect heredity Chapter 3 Prenatal Development 0 The changes that develop a fertilized egg to a newborn human Zygote fertilized egg after 2 weeks Blastocyst 4 days later when zygote consists of 100 cells Implantation Blastocyst connects w uterine wall amp mother s blood vessels creating an embryo Germ disc Cluster of cells in center of blastocyst which develops into the baby Ectoderm forms hair skin nervous system 0 Mesoderm muscles bones circulatory system Endoderm digestive system amp lungs Fetal period Longest phase of prenatal development 9 weeks to birth baby increases size amp bodily systems begin working 0 Age of variability 2228 weeks when baby s systems function well enough to survive after birth 0 Stages of development 12 weeks zygote 34 weeks embryo 58 weeks embryo PSY 230 Exam 1 Lecture Notes 938 weeks fetus Spina bi da Caused by lack of folic acid Embryo s neural tube does not close properly during lst month of pregnancy 0 Teratogens Agents causing abnormal prenatal development 0 Genetic engineering Replacing defective genes w synthetic normal genes 0 Hypoxia Can be caused by disrupting blood ow thru umbilical cord Lack of oxygen may result in developmental disabilities or death Premature Born before 35 weeks Smallfordate Underdeveloped for the typical size at whatever stage the baby s at Chapter 4 Growth amp Health I Humans grow at different rates Infants amp young children less proportionate Head amp trunk grow faster than legs Virtually all the body s muscle bers are present at birth Later on elongate amp thicken as bers fuse together amp children grow muscle fat amp bones Secular growth trends Changes in physical development from one generation to the next E Basketball teams getting bigger players every year 80 of the growth hormone is secreted during sleep for children amp adolescents Sleep is essential for growth amp cognitive performance as well as moodstability amp selfesteem Puberty Biological start of adolescence Most cultures celebrate entering adulthood w rites of passage ceremonies Pituitary gland releases hormones to onset growth amp maturation Timing of puberty depends on genetics amp nutrition Girls growing up w chronic stress tend to physically mature earlier ages Earlier onset of maturation often results in more stress amp problematic situations for females Malnutrition disrupts biological development listlessness inattentiveness amp often results in parents quotgiving up on encouraging growthlearning NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Neurons The basic unit of the brain amp nervous system Specializes in receiving amp transmitting info 0 Cell body in the center of the neuron contains basic biological machinery to keep the neuron alive Dendrite Receiving end of neuron 0 Axon PSY 230 Exam 1 Lecture Notes Transmits info out of the neuron 0 Cerebral Cortex Wrinkled surface ofthe brain About 10 billion neurons Regulates functions Both halves connected by corpus callosum 0 Personality amp executive functioning skills mostly contained in frontal cortex 0 Brain development begins about 3 weeks after conception Group of cells form neural plate at structure 4 weeks neural plate forms a tube that develops into brain amp spinal cord Ends of the tube fuse shut amp produce neurons in 1 small region 10 weeks production of neurons begins 28 weeks developing brain has virtually all neurons it will ever have Over 4000 neurons formed per second 4th month neurons acquire myelin Development continues thru childhood amp adolescence 0 After lst bday Synaptic Pruning Gradual disappearance of unused synapses Depends on activity of neural circuits Inactive ones eliminated First done in brain regions associated w sensory amp motor functions 0 Diff brain systemsregions specialize different rates amp times but usually in the same order 0 Completing typical organization of the brain requires environmental input In uences ExperienceExpectant Growth Throughout evolution human infants have been typically exposed to certain forms of stimulation which adjust brain wiring strengthening amp eliminating certain circuits 0 Environmental stimulation netunes brain circuits for speci c systems ExperienceDependent Growth Life experiences help sculpt the brain Changes in the brain varying across individuals amp cultures Immature brains demonstrate more plasticity PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Exam 2 Lecture Notes Chapter 5 Perceptual amp Motor Development Sensory amp Perceptual Processes The means by which people receive select modify amp organize stimuli First step resulting in learning amp quotknowingquot 0 Perceptual processes closely related to motor skills Coordinated movements of muscle amp limbs Perception guides movement Perception in Infants 0 Senses begin to function early in life 0 Assessed by presenting stimuli amp analyzing babies responses Heart rate expressions eye movements Consistent responses to two different stimuli distinguishing Babies prefer novel over familiar stimuli habituation lnfants senses are powerful Smell Taste amp Touch 0 Smell Newborns respond positively to pleasant smells amp negatively to unpleasant smells Recognize familiar smells Taste Highly developed sense of taste Can differentiate salty sour bitter amp sweet tastes React favorably to sweet substances amp opposite to bittersour tastes 0 Touch Many areas on newborns respond re exiver Cheek mouth hand foot Experience pain 0 Development of senses makes babies ready to learn about the world Hea ng 0 Fetus can hear at 78 months after conception Newborns are sensitive to amp respond to sounds 0 Auditory Threshold Quietest sound a person can hear 0 Babies have a higher auditory threshold than adults babies hear less Best hear tones in the range of human speech 0 Can differentiate vowels from consonant sounds 0 45 months recognize their own names Prefer pleasant melodies amp sensitive to rhythmic structures of music PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Seeing 0 Babies respond to light from birth 0 Track moving objects w their eyes 0 Visual Acuity The smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependany Babies usually stare at patterned stimuli rather than plain Newborns1 month olds see 20 feet what adults see 200400 feet Same as an adult s by lst bday 0 Neuron circuits detecting color develop in rst few months after birth By 3 months newborns see in full color Integrating Sensory Info 0 Babies look longer when an object makes sounds coordinated w its movements 0 Link body movements to rhythms 0 Coordinating information Crossmodal perception easier for infants Sense multiple forms of sensory input in brain regions only responding to speci c sensory info in adults Intersensory Redundancy theory Infants perceptual system particularly attuned to amodal info presented to multiple sensory modes Certain info like duration rate amp intensity is amodal can be presented in different senses Best perceive info presented redundantly to multiple senses Perceiving Objects Newborns perception of objects is limited 0 By 4 months infants use multiple cues to identify objects Common motion Color Texture Aligned edges 0 Master size constancy early on 0 Infants by crawling age can perceive amp respond to depth visual cliff 1 12 month olds perceive depth 7 month olds respond to depth 0 Kinetic Cues Motion to estimate depth 0 Visual Expansion Objects moving closer ll a greater proportion of vision 0 Motion Parallex Nearby objects move faster across our visual eld Pictorial Cues Same cues artists use to convey depth in pictures Motor Skill Development 0 4 month olds can hold a toy but can t turn it amp stroke it until a few months later 0 Advances in motor skills allow infants to perceive the environment in more sophisticated ways PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Newborns are innately attracted to tracking faces 1 month olds focus on the outer edges of the face 3 month olds focus on the interior of the face eyes amp lips Tracking faces has survival value Babies eventually learn to distinguish btwn faces that resemble their parents Provide the basis for social relationships 0 After 4 weeks babies begin to track other stimuli as well Attention The process by which we select information that will be processed further 0 Orienting Response Strong or unfamiliar stimuli Startled eyes focused on stimulus changes in heartrate amp brain wave patterns 0 Orienting Makes infants aware of potentially importantdangers stimuli 0 Habituation Keeps infants from wasting energy on biologically insigni cant stimuli Infants who habituate more rapidly grow up to be more intelligent children Paying attention involves inhibiting unwantedinterfering thoughts amp behaviors Instructing children to sort shapes using 2 diff rules usually results in children resorting to the lst rule interferes w the 2nd Attention De cit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosed in 35 schoolage children 0 Boys outnumber girls by 31 ratio 0 De ned by Hyperactivity Unusually energetic Fidgety unable to keep still Dif culty limiting activity Inattention Skipping from one task to another Impaired concentration Impulsivity IE Interrupting others when speaking 0 Myths Tv food allergies sugar amp poor home life proposed as causes Children grow out of ADHD Known Causes Heredity an important factor Identical twins often both diagnosed fraternal twins usuallyjust 1 Prenatal exposure to alcoholother drugs 0 Black amp Hispanic students less often diagnosed Income Racial bias Motor Development PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 0 Coordinated movements of the muscles amp limbs Infants must learn locomotion 0 Fine Motor Skills Grasping holding manipulating objects 0 Children s motor skills enhance their cognitive amp social development Locomotion 0 Stages 4 months sit upright w support 67 months sit upright wo support 78 months stand w support 11 months toddlers stand alone brie y amp cruise 24 months climb steps walk backwards kick a ball 0 Dynamic Systems Theory Motor development involves many distinct skills organized amp reorganized over time to meet demands of speci c tasks Learning to Walk 0 Posture amp Balance Ability to maintain upright posture is fundamental to walking Virtually impossible for infants typically top heavy Requires growth of legs amp muscles Infants must adjust posture to keep standing upright Use visual cues amp inner ear mechanism to do so Balance is learned practiced amp relearned w each milestone towards walking Babies use differentjoints to move around on diff stages Infants relearn to balance again when walking w objects 0 Stepping 10 months children start stepping spontaneously once they ve mastered standing upright Environmental Cues Infants learn to walk on secure at ground 0 Use cues to judge whether a surface is suitable for walking on Perceptual cues Coordinating Skills 0 Dynamic Systems Theory emphasizes mastering speci c skills before integrating them for more complex tasks 0 Mastery of intricate motions requires Differentiation Mastery of component skills Integration Combining them in proper sequence into a working whole 0 Practice promotes motor development 0 Cultural practices can accelerate or delay development of motor skills Fine Motor Skills 0 Reaching 4 months children can successfully reach for objects PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Movements are clumsy uncoordinated shortdistance Must make several attempts to reach objects 0 Grasping Requires coordination of individual ngers to grab 4 month ods just use ngers to hold objects 78 months use thumbs to grip amp adjust hand position for optimal holding 0 56 months can coordinate both hands to complete one main task 0 6 month ods can grasp nger foods but struggle locating the mouth 0 1 year ods reach for objects w 1 hand Ready to try eating w a spoon Develop a hand preference Identical twins more likely than fraternal twins to favor the same hand 0 2 year ods can judge whether to reach w 1 or 2 hands 0 23 years old may dress themselves 0 34 years old may fasten buttons zippers etc 0 6 years old can tie Physical Fitness 0 Physical activity promotes Growth of muscles amp bone Cardiovascular health Cognitive processes 0 Sports Enhances selfesteem Teaches children to take initiative Teaches collaborative social skills Strategies require emerging cognitive skills Chapter 6 Cognitive Development Piaget s Theory 0 Children are naturally curious They want to make sense of their world Through experiences amp constructing understanding 0 Assimilation New experiences are readily incorporated into a child s existing theories 0 Accommodation Child s theories are modi ed by experience 0 Disequilibrium Children s current theories are not adequate bc they re spending more time accommodating than assimilating Equilibration Children reorganize their theories amp return to equilibrium Piaget s Stages Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 years 0 Progress from simple re ex actions to symbolic processing PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 0 Adapting to amp exploring the environment 14 months re exes are modi ed by experience The infant learns to initiate movements which were once re exes 48 months explores environment w greater interest 8 months intentionalgoal directed behavior emerges 12 months become active experimentersexplorers 0 Understanding objects Object permanence not until 18 months quotA not B error babies look for toys in the original hiding spot even after they ve seen it being hidden in a second hiding spot 0 Using symbols 18 months talking amp gesturing shows emerging capacity to use symbols Pretend play 1824 months can mentally anticipate consequences Preoperational Stage 2 67 years 0 Use of symbols to represent objects amp events Words gestures graphs maps models etc 0 Egocentrism Young children can t understand that others have differing perspectives amp ideas 0 Animism Crediting inanimate objects w life amp lifelike properties Believing objects think amp feel as they children do 0 Centration Narrowly focused thought tunnel vision characterizing preoperational children Issues understanding conservation Concrete Operational Stage 7 11 years 0 First using mental operations to solve problems amp reason 0 Mental Sperations Strategies amp rules making thinking more systematic amp powerful Math categorization spatial relations etc 0 Understanding that mental operations can be reversed Reversibility applies to all mental operations 0 Understanding conservation 0 Limited to tangible present problems Formal Operational Stage 11 0 Applying mental operations to abstract entities Thinking hypothetically Solving problems by setting up hypotheses amp testing them Deductive Reasoning The ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts Reasoning based on information provided amp not experiences Reaching counterfactual conclusions Piaget s Contributions 0 Studying cognitive development Showed why cognitive processes are central to development Offered methods to study them Made cognition part ofthe research agenda for child development PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 0 New view of children Constructivism Children are active participants in forming their own knowledge amp understanding 0 Counterintuitive discoveries Discovered unexpected ndings Discovered signi cant developmental progressions Weaknesses in Piaget s Theory 0 Underestimates cognitive competence in infants amp young children 0 Overestimates cognitive competence in adolescents Vague concerning mechanisms of change Theories like accommodation amp assimilation too vague to test scienti cally 0 Does not account for variability in children s abilities Children s thinking may be sophisticated in some domains amp limited in others Development is not consistently tied to each stage 0 Undervalues sociocultural in uences 0 Mechanisms accommodation assimilation equilibration vaguedif cult to study scienti cally Vygotsky s Theory 0 Sociocultural Perspective Children are products of their culture Cognitive development is inseparable from cultural contexts 0 Intersubjectivity Shared understanding among participants in a joint activity 0 Guided Participation Cognitive growth results from children s involvement in structured activities with more skilled partners 0 Private speech becomes inner speech Information Processing 0 Information Processing Theory Human cognition consists of mental hardware amp software Mental hardware amp 3 components Sensory memory Working memory Longterm memory 0 memory model 0 Central executive computer s operating system Moves info btwn longterm amp working memory Selects strategies needed to accomplish various goals Executes needed responses 0 How children cognitively advance Identify easier more accurate strategies for problem solving Increased working memory capacity More effective inhibitory processes amp executive functioning PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Inhibitory processes prevent taskirrelevant info from entering working memory selective attention Executive functioning includes inhibitory processes planning amp cognitive exibility Increased automatic processing Cognitive activities that require virtually no effort Moving skills into procedural memory leaves more open space in working memory Increased processing speed Core Knowledge Theories Distinctive domains of knowledge 0 Some acquired very early in life 0 Some forms of knowledge are essential for survival amp specialized systems evolved to simplify that learning language understanding ppl etc 0 Believes that the brain has areas predisposed to specializing in certain domains 0 Children s theories are focused on core domains amp not allencompassing as Piaget argues 0 Children are born knowing innate principals Categorization amp Learning 0 Children depend on categorization so every situation is not novel 0 amp to know which actions to perform on variations of the same object o 18 months children can combine categories to form more general ones Understanding Objects amp Other Living Things 0 4 12 mo understand object permanence determined by 0 6 mo infants understand gravity inertia etc 0 Can distinguish btwn liquids amp solids 0 Understand perspective of tall vs short objects 0 Movement Only animals can move themselves amp inanimate objects must be moved by other beings 0 Growth Animals grow objects don t 0 Internal Parts Animals contain blood amp bones objects don t Inheritance Only living things produce offspring resembling themselves Illness Permanent illness is inheritedgenetic Temporary illness is passed btwn people Illness can come from contaminated food 0 Healing Living things heal objects must be xed Teleological explanations Children believe that living things amp their parts exist for a purpose though not necessarily accurate Essentialism Children believe all living things have an essence that can t be seen but de nes them even despite unusual circumstances PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes Understanding People Nai39ve psychology Our informal beliefs about ppl amp their behavior 0 Infants understand behavior is intentional amp goaldirected 0 Btwn 25 yo children develop Theory of Mind Nai39ve understanding of relations btwn mind amp behavior Wellman s 3 stages 2 yo understand desires amp goals amp that they result in behaviors 3 yo distinguish btwn mental world amp physical world understand thinking believingremembering etc still place emphasis on desires amp goals 4 yo understand that behavior is based on beliefs about events amp situations though they are not necessarily accurate Chapter 7 Cognitive Processes amp Academic Skills 0 Memory amp Development Infants amp babies have memory as young as 23 mo Improvement in memory partly results from growth in brain regions supporting memory Strategies for Remembering Memory strategy Act to promote remembering 0 Preschool children don t yet have effective strategies for remembering but understand that remembering is not automatic amp requires effort 0 78 year olds use rehearsal for memory 0 As children grow they use more strategies for remembering 0 Organization Structuring material to be remembered so that related info is placed together Eventually use elaboration amp external aids notes calendars etc Metacognition 0 Memory strategies aren t useful unless children understand when amp how to apply them 0 Metamemory A child s informal understanding of memory Diagnosing memory problems accurately Monitoring effectiveness of memory strategies 0 Children s growing understanding of memory is paralleled by growing understanding of all cognitive processes 0 Cognitive SelfRegulation Skill identifying goals selecting effective strategies monitoring accurately Knowledge amp Memory 0 Script Memory structure used to describe the sequence in which events typically occur 0 Scripts reduce effort needed to remember procedures 0 May distort events that don t necessarily t preexisting scripts remembering the pilot as a man when it was really a woman 0 Older children more prone to memory distortions because they have more knowledge amp scripts PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 0 Knowledge may interfere w accurately remembering 0 Fuzzy Trace Theory Memories are stored verbatim or as the gist of the idea 0 Autobiographical Memory Peoples memories of their own signi cant experiences 0 Infantile Amnesia Inability to remember events from one s early life Encoding Processes Transform info in a problem into a mental representation 0 Limitations to problem solving for young children Haven t yet reached decentered thinking conservation Prefer to solve problems by doing rather than planning in advance Not developmentally advanced enough to plan easily frustrateddiscouraged by failed plans Expect older helpers to do it for them Confoundcombine variables accidentally in experimental studies Bias impedes them from integrating prior beliefs to contradicting evidence Reach conclusions prematurely before testing every possibility Effective Problem Solving Requires children to know facts amp strategies from prior experiences 0 Meansend analysis Someone determines the difference btwn current amp desired situations then acts to reduce the difference May use subgoals to reach larger goals Heuristics Rules of thumb that don t guarantee solutions but help solve a range of problems Tend to be fast amp require little effort Heuristics relying on imitation amp experiences 0 Analysis relying on statistics amp proven data Reading 0 Requires both word decoding amp comprehension 0 Word decoding Identifying unique patterns of letters Recognizing that letters symbolize sounds amp combine to form words 0 Comprehension Extracting meaning from a sequence of words 0 Foundations of reading Understanding that speci c letters symbolize sounds Knowing the alphabet Phonological awareness Distinguishing sounds in spoken words sounding out Decoding words amp then eventually recognizing the whole word by sight Propositions Children derive meaning by combining chunks of words to form propositions ideas that then add up to tell the meaning of the sentence 1O PSY 230 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 0 Factors improving comprehension Children eventually recognize whole words by sight Working memory capacity increases able to identify amp combine more propositions within a sentence Prior experiencesknowledge improve understanding Develop better monitoring skills amp strategies for comprehension Applying reading strategies appropriately Writing 0 Factors facilitating writing Greater knowledgeaccess to knowledge of topics Organization Young writers use knowledgetelling strategy writing down info on a topic as they retrieve it from memory lack of structure Adolescents use knowledgetransforming strategy organizing info before writing it down Numbers 0 Infants understand that quantity is one way to distinguish objects 0 Infants understand very simple addition amp subtraction by perceptual means 0 6 mo are sensitive to ratios 0 By age 3 most children master Onetoone principle There must be only one number name for each object counted Stableorder principle Number names must be counted in the same order Cordinality principle Emphasizing the last number name to identify the total of objects 11 PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Exam 3 Lecture Notes Chapter 8 Intelligence amp Individual Differences in Cognition Psychometrics The study of measuring psychological characteristics like intelligence amp personality Patterns of test scores provide evidence for general intelligence amp speci c abilities Intelligence is a hierarchy of general amp speci c skills 0 Carroll amp hierarchical theory 3 levels G General intelligence Intellectual skill 8 broad categories Fluid intelligence 1 example Crystallized intelligence Culturally in uenced accumulated knowledge amp skills Semantics 0 Gardner s 9 Intelligences Linguistic Logicalmathematical Spa al Musical Bodilykinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential 0 Sternberg s theory of successful intelligence Successful intelligence using one s abilities skillfully to achieve personal goals 3 types Analytic analyzing problems generating different solutions Practical knowing which solution or plan will actually work Creative dealing adaptively with novel situations amp problems 0 Testing amp the stereotype threat Students already questioning their cognitive abilities score lower on tests due to anxiety amp doubt Selfful lling prophecy Heredity Identical twins intelligence are more strongly correlated than fraternal twins 0 Adopted children39s scores resemble their biological parents more closely as they grow up 0 IQ Scores Steadin increasing over time PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes May be a result of improved health care nutrition education May also be due to greater availability of info through technology May be due to greater mixing of mating amp thus mixing high amp low IQ genotypes Gifted amp Creative Children 0 Gifted Generally scoring 130 or greater on intelligence tests Exceptional ability often associated primarily w academic skill 0 General prerequisites for exceptional talent Enthusiasm for the subject amp desire to master it Instruction beginning at an early age w inspiringtalented teachers Parents committed to promoting the talent 0 Creativity Intelligence generally associated w convergent thinking using provided info to determine a standardcorrect answer Creativity associated w divergent thinking novel amp unusual lines ofthought Disability 0 Intellectual disability Substantial limitations in intellectual ability problems in adapting to an environment Both issues emerge before 18 yo 0 Often de ned as a score of 70 or less on an intelligence test 0 Poor t btwn a person s capacities amp context in which they need to function 0 4 factors Biomedical factors Chromosomal disorders malnutrition traumatic brain injury Social factors Poverty impaired parentchild interactions Behavioral factors Child neglect or abuse violence Educational factors Impaired parenting inadequate special education services 0 Children w learning disabilities have Dif culty mastering academic subjects Normal intelligence Don t suffer from other conditions causing poor performance 0 About 5 of schoolage children labeled w learning disabilities Chapter 9 Language amp Communication Elements of Language 0 Language A system that relates sounds amp gestures to meaning Phonology Sounds of language 0 Semantics PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Study of words amp their meaning vocabulary 0 Syntax Rules that specify how words are combined to form sentences Pragmatics Communicative functions of language amp rules leading to effective communications 0 Grammatical morphemes Words or endings of words making sentences grammatical ing ed s 0 Overregularization Applying grammatical rules to irregular words goed vs went Stages in Speech 0 Cooing 2 months Making vowel sounds ooh amp agh 0 Babbling 6 months Mixing vowels amp consonants 811 months begin practicing adult intonations 0 Naming Explosion 18 months Learning vocabulary amp names much more rapidly Fast mapping connecting words to their actual meanings E ower is the whole plant notjust the petals 0 Underextension amp overextension of word de nitions 13 years 0 Telegraphic speech 1 12 years Using 2 word phrases to convey immediately relevant meaning generally agent action Differences in Language Learning 0 Phonological memory Ability to remember speech sounds brie y Directly correlated w size of vocabulary 0 Language environment directly effects speed amp ease for children learning language 0 Referential style vocabulary Mainly consists of words naming objects persons or actions Fewer words for social interactions or questions Expressive style vocabulary Including some names amp also social phrases More balanced vocabulary btwn labels amp interactive phrases Chapter 10 Emotional Development Functions of Emotion Emotions have survival value Emotions help humans adapt to their environment E fear avoiding danger survival PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes 0 Basic Emotions Experienced by people worldwide Happiness anger surprise interest disgust sadness fear Consist of 3 elements Subjective feeling Physiological change Over behavior Newborns experience 2 pleasure amp distress 0 Discrete emotions emerge w development 0 89 months display full range of emotions 0 Stages 2 months Social smiles Smiling when seeing another person 46 months Anger Distress when not achieving desired goals 6 months Fear Stranger wariness on unfamiliar adults 0 Complex Emotions Selfconscious emotions Involve feelings of success when standards amp expectations are met feelings of failure if not Don t surface until 1824 months Depend on understanding of self begins around 1518 months Recognizing Others Emotions 0 As early as 4 months amp def by 6 months babies are able to distinguish facial expressions emotions Babies re ect mothers emotions 0 Social Referencing Babies in unfamiliar environments look to their parents for cues on interpreting the shua on Re ect on emotions to determine their own behavioractions As children develop cognitively w age they become able to understand more complex emotions amp their causes 0 Display Rules Culturally speci c standards for appropriate expressions of emotion in particular settings or w speci c people Regulating Emotion 0 Cognitive processes are essential for emotional regulation 0 Stages Infancy Emotional regulation is always present to some degree 46 months Simple strategies used to regulate E looking away from scary objects 24 months PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Using expressions to gain attention amp support Temperament 0 Depends on stable biologically based behavioral styles 0 2 of 9 dimensions Activity typical level of motor activity Persistence amount of time devoted to an activity particularly when obstacles are present Attachment 0 Bowlby children who form meaningful attachments are more likely to survive 0 Stages Preattachment Birth 6 weeks Recognizing mothers by smell amp sound Instinctiver gaze amp smile to gain attention amp initiate interaction Attachment in the making 68 weeks 68 months Behavior differs among familiar amp unfamiliar adults More pleasant emotions when w familiar adults more easily soothed True attachment 68 months 18 months Looking to primary caregiver for cues on exploring initiating play etc Trust that caregivers will serve baby s needs Reciprocal relationships 18 months Growing cognitive amp language skills accumulated experiences help children become better partners in relationships Taking initiative in interactions amp negotiating w parents Ainsworth s attachment types Secure attachment May cry when parents leave Soothed upon return 6065 of American babies Avoidant attachment May not react when parents leave Ignore parents upon return Insecure 20 of American babies Resistant attachment Upset when parents leave Unable to be soothed upon return Insecure 1015 of American babies Disorganizeddisoriented attachment Confused when parents leave Disoriented upon return not understanding what s going on PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Insecure 510 of American babies 0 Internal working model Infants develop a set of expectations about parents availability amp responsiveness to their needs Chapter 11 Identity Self Recognition 0 Self concept The attitudes behaviors amp values a person believes makes them a unique individual 0 Self awareness in infants begins around 1824 months 15 months 2 years toddlers can recognize themselves in the mirror 0 Children become capable of autobiographical memory Recognizing continuity of quotIquot in present linking to quotIquot in past 0 Self awareness extends to understanding of ownership quotMinequot aware of past experiences w objects de ning self by ownership of other objects Selfconcept questioning who the self is after realizing that children are their own identities SelfConcept EuroAmerican preschool children de ne themselves by observableconcrete attributes Physical characteristics Preferences Possessions Capabilities Asian children tend to de ne themselves by their relationships w others 0 57 years EuroAmerican children start de ning themselves by Emotions Social groups Skill level in comparison w peers Adolescents Attitudes Personality traits Religious amp political af liations Selfconcepts also vary w setting familiar vs unfamiliar groups Often futureoriented goals plans social roles Identity in Adolescents Erikson adolescents work to achieve an identity in the adult world 0 Use hypothetical reasoning skills formal operational stage amp advanced cognitive skills to imagine selves in diff roles 0 Adolescent Egocentrism Correctly aware that others have differing perspectives Incorrectly assume they are the focus of others attention Imaginary Audience Performing for others PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes quotAll eyes on me sensation of being constantly watchedjudged 0 Personal Fable Believe that their experiences amp feelings are unique to only them 0 Illusion of nvulnerabilityInvincibility Misfortune only happens to others 0 Stages of achieving identity Diffusion Foreclosure Moratorium Achievement Do not necessarily occur in sequence Achievement amp moratorium more common in young adulthood 0 Identity affected by Parents Peers Social context amp resources Personality openness to experience SelfEsteem 0 One s judgment amp feelings about their own worth 0 Selfesteem is hierarchical like intelligence General selfesteem at the top Speci c domains within 0 Schoolage children develop their scholastic selfesteem based on academic experiences 0 Adolescents further develop amp distinguish their social competence 0 Selfesteem greatest during preschool years Egocentrism False belief of complete competence in any subject 0 Elementary school children begin comparing themselves w peers Selfesteem slightly drops w experiences of reality amp failure 0 Selfesteem lowers when children move to new schoolssocial groups Adjustsstabilizes again when they are aware of standing among familiar peers 0 Ethnicity Ethnic minority students in elementary schools have lower selfesteem Gap narrows in adolescence African American boys tend to have higher selfesteem than Euro American peers May be due to achieving ethnic identity amp pride Asian children tend to have lower selfesteem difference increases in adolescence Cultural emphasis on modesty More willing to admit weaknesses Greater focus on social harmony than selfcomparisoncompetition Sources of SelfEsteem 2 important factors Actual competence in domains children nd important Interests abilities amp selfconcept coupled How others view them PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Internalizing parents positive messages Seeing parents discipline as coming from a place of concern or not caring Hearing compliments or criticisms from peers Chapter 13 Gender amp Identity 0 Male associated traits called instrumental Describing individuals who act on the worldin uence it 0 Female associated traits called expressive Describe emotional functioning amp individuals who value interpersonal relationships 0 American gender binaries more extreme than other countries studied 0 18 month old babies look at gender stereotyped objects differently Girls look longer pictures of dolls than trucks Boys look longer trucks 0 Increased age leads to more exible views of gender stereotypes 0 Girls tend to be more exible about stereotypes perhaps bc Malestereotypic traits are presented as more attractivehigher status Social classeducation Higher income children have more exible views Gender Differences 0 Maccoby amp Jacklin Girls have greater verbal ability Boys have greater mathematical amp visualspatial ability Boys are more aggressive than girls 0 Boys are more likely to have practice in sports growing up amp have a greater musclefat ratio 0 Boys are more active as babies have a harder time sitting still 0 Girls tend to be healthier female embryos more likely to survive than males 0 Adolescent boys more likely to engage in risky behavior 0 Verbal ability Girls tend to have larger vocabularies than boys More talkative Score higher on reading writing amp spelling Boys more often diagnosed with languagerelated disabilities Left hemisphere language matures faster in girls Experiences mothers talk more to toddler girls than boys Reading stereotyped as a female activity 0 Visualspatial ability Infant boys more able to recognize rotated objects better at mental rotation Spatial skills adaptive for men who typically hunted more during evolution Right hemisphere may be more specialized in males since their left hemisphere matures more slowly Boys more likely to engage in activities requiring visualspatial skills Lower SES children have more equal spatial skills 0 Aggression Boys do tend to be more aggressive Generally only aggressive w other boys PSY 230 Exam 3 Lecture Notes Girls display aggression when provoked Linked to androgens hormones secreted by the testes Media portrays males as more aggressive Parents tend to use physical discipline more often on boys amp are more tolerant of aggressive behavior in boys Emotions Girls tend to be better able at expressing their emotions amp interpreting those of others Identify facial expressions more accurately More empathetic Regions of temporal lobe processing emotional expression develops faster in girls Parents place larger emphasis on feelings amp consideration in girls Girls more likely to comply w adults amp seek their help 0 Depression Adolescent girls more likely to experience depression Greater emphasis on socialemotional con icts amp consequences May experience more stressors after pubertal change dissatisfaction w appearance PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes Exam 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 12 Moral Understanding amp Behavior Self Control Ability to control one s behavior amp inhibit impulsive responding to temptations Infancy amp beginning of self control 0 1 year aware that other ppl impose demands to which they much react accordingly have limits 0 2 years Internalized some controls capable of some selfcontrol in parents absence E not grabbing another child s toy o 3 years Capable of selfregulation may use strategies to control own behavior 0 4 years Beginning to delay grati cation for signi cant rewards Children starting early w strong self control more likely to Have higher SAT scores Less likely to experiment w drugs amp alcohol Better educated Higher selfesteem Better cognitive control In uences on Self Control Greater self control enhanced by authoritative parenting Self control tends to be lower w authoritative parents 0 Children do not experience opportunities to make decisions for themselves amp practice self control Effortful control Ability to focus attention ignore distraction amp inhibit inappropriate responses Some children temperamentally better selfcontrol Piaget 24 years No wellformed ideas about morality 57 years Moral Realism Believe rules are rigid cannot be changed 0 Immanent Justice Breaking a rule always leads to punishment 8 years Moral Relativism Understanding that rules are created by people to help them get along rules may be changed to maintain fairness Kohlberg Preconventional level punishment amp reward o 1 Obedience to authority 0 2 Nice behavior in exchange for future favors Conventional level social norms o 3 Live up to others expectations 0 4 Follow rules to maintain social order Postconventional level moral codes PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes 0 5 Adhere to social contract when valid 0 6 Personal morality based on abstract principles Individuals move thru all 6 stages in sequence wo skipping stages Advancement for moral reasoning not consistent in all answers by adolescents Does not consider collectivist cultures Applies more to males than females Chapter 14 Family Relationships Ecological System Microsystem family assistance peer in uence teachers Mesosystem parent involvement w the school Exosystem school board administration teacher unions Macrosystem culture teaching philosophies Chronosystem E trends in teacher instruction cursive technology presence of females in higher education Parenting Styles Depends on 2 dimensions 0 Warmth amp responsiveness 0 Control Varies by culture Varies win culture by SES Parental Behavior Direct Instruction 0 Telling a child what to do when amp why 0 Teaching by reasoning amp explaining Observational learning amp counterimitation o Counterimitation Children learn what not to do by observing Negative reinforcement trap 0 Parents actually reinforcing unwanted behaviors by accident Parents treatment of children is affected by the child s age temperament amp behavior Divorced Families Children of divorce more likely to 0 Experience con ict in their own marriages 0 Have negative attitudes toward marriage 0 Become divorced 0 Report less satisfaction w life 0 Become depressed Effects on children 0 May miss out on one parentrole model 0 May have only 1 parent responsible for 2 or more 0 Economic hardship PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes 0 Emotional distress Children of gay parents resemble children of heterosexual parents in all aspects Siblings First born children Often quotguinea pigs of their parents Parents typically have high expectations for firstborns More punitive as well Tend to have higher intelligence test scores More likely to go to college More willing to obey parents requests Parents learn w experience of more children More relaxed amp realistic expectations by lastborn children 0 More popular amp innovative Only children more likely to succeed in school have higher intelligence leadership autonomy maturity Toddlers talk more to siblings than parents by 4 years old Older siblings a source of care comfort amp learning Siblings of the same sex tend to have warmermore harmonious relationships Relationships improve as siblings matureage Children get along better when they perceive that their parents treat them equally Relationship btwn parents affects relationships btwn siblings Adopted Children Adopted children similar to biological children in temperament attachment selfesteem cognitive development More prone to issues adjusting to school conduct disorders aggression Problems more common in children adopted at older ages w poor care beforehand Maltreatment of Children Abuse or neglect More likely to face difficulties in life related to maltreatment Ego resilience 0 Children s ability to respond adaptively amp resourcefully to new situations 0 Effects of abuse smaller on this group Culture amp community 0 Cultural values amp social conditions hold different views on physical punishment 0 Poverty correlated w higher incidents of abuse 0 Social isolation of the family Parents 0 Often were maltreated themselves 0 Have unrealistic expectations amp have poor disciplining skills 0 Often believe they are powerless in controlling children Children PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes 0 Younger children more likely to elicit amp experience abuse 0 Chronically sick ill or disabled children more likely to be abused o Stepchildren Chapter 15 Influences Beyond the Family Peer Interactions Progress from nonsocial play parallel play associative play to cooperative play MakeBelieve Starts 1618 months Re ects values important to a child s culture Promotes cognitive development Tend to be more advanced in language memory reasoning More sophisticated understanding of others thoughts beliefs etc Allows children to explore topics that frighten them Imaginary friends beneficial associated w prosocial behaviors Parental In uence Playmate o Scaffold children s play 0 Model advanced forms of play Social director 0 Arranging playdates o Enrolling children for activities 0 Taking children to visit places Coach 0 Constructive suggestions 0 Guiding behavior Mediator 0 Help children negotiate amp solve social con icts Peer Relations After Preschool Peer relations change in elementary school a Number of peers increases 0 Children exposed to more diverse peers 0 Mix of structured amp unstructured social time Get along better due to advance communication skills Rough amp tumble play Physical play sometimes wrestling no aggression involved a More common among boys 0 More running amp chasing than wrestling btwn girls Friendship Adolescence o Friendships become more intimate 0 First romantic relationships PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes 0 Groups take on greater signi cance Friendship Voluntary relationship btwn two people based on mutual liking Preschool friendships Based on liking each other enjoying playing together Elementary school friendships Trust amp assistance friends are helpful kind reliable Adolescence Further emphasis on trust intimacy sharing thoughts amp ideas social amp emotional support Friendships mostly btwn children of the same sex race amp age attitudes Coruminating Discussing each others personal problems 0 Strengthens intimacy btwn friendships 0 Higher likelihood of depression anxiety Friend Groups Cliques 46 friends tending to be similar in age sex race interests Crowd Larger mixedsex group of older childrenadolescents sharing similar values attitudes common labels Selfesteem tends to correlate w status of one s social group Designated social group also depends on parenting style 0 Authoritativer parented teens join groups promoting adult standards of behavior 0 Neglectedpermissiver parented teens tend to join crowds opposing adult standards of behavior drug use etc Dominance Hierarchy Leader of the group 0 Tends to be the most physically strong peer among boys 0 Tends to be peers w highest selfesteem good relationships amp useful skills among girls amp older boys Norms Standards of behavior that apply to all group members Peer pressure stronger when Children are younger amp more socially anxious Peers have high status Peers are friends Standards for behavior are not clearcut Romantic Relationships By high school 23 of students have had romantic relationships win the previous 15 years Cultural factors affect which age teens begin dating at Adolescent romance developmentally significant 0 Begin based on best friendship amp change forms over time o Younger adolescents focus on companionship 0 Older adolescents focus on intimacy trust support Early involvement in romantic relationships may increase likelihood of Selfconfidencehigher selfesteem Positive relationships in adulthood More emotional upheavalcon ict Early dating w many partners associated w drug use lower grades less satisfying relationships as adults PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes Sexual Behavior By the end of high school 23 of students have had intercourse Likelihood increased by 0 Permissive attitudes toward sex 0 Lack of parent monitoring 0 Peer approval 0 Physical maturation 0 Drinking alcohol 1 in 6 sexually active female teens becomes pregnant Factors in teen pregnancy 0 Not using contraception correctlyconsistently o Ignorance of contraception facts Illusion of invincibility Lack of access to contraception Stigma attached to acquiring contraception Appeal of having a baby amp becoming a quotreal adult having someone to love them Prevented by comprehensive sex ed programs Little evidence proving that focusing solely on abstinence prevents teen pregnancy or unprotected sex Sexual Orientation 15 of adolescents go through period of sexual questioning o Often times part of the larger process of role experimentation o 5 of adolescents identify as gay May be due to different levels of hormonesgenes Nonheterosexual adolescents more likely to face 0 Disrupted family amp peer relationships 0 Verbalphysical attacks 0 Mental health issues Socially Rejected Children Many tend to be overly aggressive hyperactive socially unskilled unable to regulate emotions hostile See aggression more as an end than a means Consequences of rejection Major obstacle in development Less involved in classroom activities Feel lonely Dislike school More likely to dropout in longterm instances Commitjuvenile offenses Suffer from psychopathy Causes of rejection 0 Parental in uence amp imitating parent behavior thus learning prosocial skills or not learning social skills at all PSY 230 Exam 4 Lecture Notes 0 Inconsistent punishment lack of warmthsupport Media Television Typical high school graduates have watched over 15000 hours 2 straight years of TV in their lifetime Viewing time peaks just before adolescence Children w lower IQs or from lower income families tend to watch more TV Possible effects of watching too much TV 0 Shorter attention span little evidence based more on modeling than actual TV 0 Difficulty concentrating V 0 Passive thinking less promotion of symbolicinterpretive thinking mixed evidence depends on programs being watched 0 Less time spent on productivesocial activities not necessarily cause amp effect may be due to lack of skills amp resorting to watching TV instead Leaving the TV consistently on leads to more time spent distracted from play or parentchild interactions Children may learn aggression or gender stereotypes from TV May also learn prosocial skills Consumer behavior learned commercials ads etc Cognitive skills Sesame street Computers Many children start playing computer games around 25 years Majority of children use computers for internet amp games Content affects development Some games may promote perceptualspatial skill development May increase processing speed Exposure to violence may also increase aggression 10 experience pathological addiction to games like gambling Time playing interferes w time studying May be used to improve academicsinschool learningachievement Child Care Quality of attachment affected by other care givers only when attachment w the mother is weakinsecure 3 forms of child care o In the home cared for by relatives o In another home belonging to a caregiver o Daycare or nursery school programs Latchkey children Children who care for themselves termed by children who raise the latch to enter their own homes May be detrimental only if children are away from home unsupervised in dangerous neighborhoods
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