Exam (Midterm & Final) Review Guides Bundle
Exam (Midterm & Final) Review Guides Bundle PSY 230
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PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide Exam 1 Review Guide STUDYING CHILD DEVELOPMENT I 5 perspectives biological psychodynamic learning cognitivedevelopmental contextual I Biological perspective I Intellectual personality physical amp motor development are all rooted in biology Maturational theory I Development is a natural unfolding of the speci c amp prearranged biological plan I Ethological theory I Views development from an evolutionary perspective I Behaviors are adaptive have survival value I Supports theory of critical periods I Critical period I Stage in development where speci c type of learning takes place that may be impossible otherwise I Psychodynamic perspective I Development largely determined by how well ppl resolve life con icts diff ages Id Ego Superego I Early experiences have enduring effects on children39s development I Children experience con ict btwn what they want to do amp what they should do I Psychosocial theory Erikson I Development consists of a sequence of stages de ned by a unique crisis I How one confronts a crisis will determine later development amp success dealing with crises I Learning perspective I Operant conditioning based on punishment amp reinforcement I Children also learn through imitation amp observational learning I Social Cognitive Theory I Children are more likely to imitate people who appear successful or are rewarded I Children look to others to determine what is acceptable behavior I Albert Bandura social cognitive theory amp self ef cacy I Social cognitive children actively interpret events I CognitiveDevelopmental perspective I Focuses on how children think amp how thinking changes as they grow I Jean Piaget I Children naturally try to make sense of their world I Child ren s theories are tested by everyday experiences I Children radically revise their theories age 2 7 amp 12 making 4 distinct stages in development PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Contextual perspective I Ecological systems affect children s development I Culture I The knowledge attitudes amp behavior associated w a group of people I Vygotsky cultural context of learning I The fundamental aim of all societies is to enable children to acquire essential cultural values amp skills Research amp Methods I Systemic observation I Observing amp recording child ren s actions I Selfreports children s answers to questions about the topic of interest I Response bias selecting the socially appropriate answer vs the truth I Populations broad groups of children Field experiment I Researcher manipulates independent variables in natural settings to create results more representative of behavior in realworld settings I Quasiexperiment I Examines impact of independent variable on groups not randomly selectedassigned Microgenetic study I Longitudinal design consisting of testing children over days or weeks amp examining change directly as it occurs I Metaanalysis I Researchers synthesize results of many studies to estimate relationships btwn variables I Disadvantages of longitudinal studies I Expensive I Timeconsuming I Subject dropout I Repeated testing in uences behavior I Disadvantages of crosssectional studies I Compares diff children I Makes assumptions about development I Cohort effects I Disadvantages of longitudinalsequential studies I Timeconsuming I Complex to conduct amp analyze l Disadvantages of experimental method I Ethical issues may be transformed into an intervention program to meet guidelines I Some individual variables can t be controlled age gender weather etc I Identifying direction of effect IE not knowing whether watching violent shows causes aggression or if those who watch are innater more aggressive I Consequences of mistaken correlations E quotMeasles vaccines correlating w autism PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Results in wasting money debunking it I Health issues kids are unvaccinated I Misinformation to the public I Correlations may point down amp still be positive as long as x moves in the same direction as y I Some correlations have a third variable involved IE More retrucks present at res correlates w more deaths bc of the third variable the size of the large re I Cohort effect I The phenomenon whereby a group of people are in uenced by historical forces or events unique to the time andor place in which they live INFLUENCES ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Development amp In uence I Concerns the predictability of development I Continuous process I Children begin amp stay on speci c developmental paths I ContinuityDiscontinuity issue I quotrelatednessquot of development I Development is not perfectly predictable I Virtually no aspects of development are due exclusively to heredity or environment I Children shape the way they re parented I ActivePassive issue I Passive Children may be at the mercy oftheir environment I Active Children s uniqueindividual characteristics in uence their own development I In uences on development I genetic in uences I environmentalin uences I gene x I behavioral in uences I Ecological system I Child is the center I Microsystem Next quotlayerquot consists of direct daily in uences family school neighborhood etc daytoday settings I Mesosystem Interactions among the surrounding microsystems even beyond the child s awareness affect development I Exosystem environmental in uences I Macrosystem Overarching culture beliefs political structure etc I Chronosystem Changes over time I Within the child I every level I Constantly changing I Environmental in uence PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Genetics also determine how ppl act on their environment I Displayed traits affect how ppl interact approach amp respond to each other I Genes in uence the environment E quotniche picking I Genes specify a range within which development may result I Epigenesis I Environmental in uences determine which genes are expressed I Body naturally turns on amp off speci c genetic quotswitchesquot to develop organs body regulation etc I Environment affects regulation of genes I Behavioral genetics I Heritability coef cient I Ranges from 000 to 100 I The extent to whether a trait is determined by genes or the environment I Child development cannot be explained by any single concept such as genes parenting peer pressure television or culture I Gene X Environment Interactions I Genes in uence the environment I Nichepicking I Speci c environments affect only individuals with particular genetic predispositions I Genes can determine a range for developmental outcomes Environment in uences development within that range Genetics amp Heredity I Genotype I Complete set of genes that makes up an individual s heredity I Phenotype I Individual s displayed genetic traits physical behavioral psychological features I Alleles I Genes that come in different forms I Behavioral genetics I Branch of genetics dealing w inheritance of behavioral amp psychological traits I Polygeneticinheritance I Phenotypes distributed re ecting the combined activity of many separate genes I Epigenesis I Continuous interplay btwn genes amp multiple levels ofthe environment driving development I Heritabilitycoef cient I Estimates the extent to which differences btwn people re ect heredity PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Stages PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Period of the Zygote I Conception 2 weeks Period ofthe Embryo I 3 8 weeks I Period ofthe Fetus I 9 weeks birth I Zygote I Fertilized egg Stages in Depth I Period of the zygote I Fertilized egg I Differentiation begins I Cells fertilize amp duplicate I Implantation last step means the blastocyst embeds in the uterine wall Blastocyst I 4 days after when zygote consists of 100 cells I Germ disc I Cluster of cells in center of blastocyst which develops into the baby I Period ofthe embryo 2 weeks after conception I Mom experiences lst missed period2 I Goes from 3 cell layer quotoreo cookie to a human baby I Ectoderm skin hair nervous system etc I Mesoderm muscles bones I Endoderm lungs organs etc I 4 weeks cells begin to fold amp form body parts I Still the size of a grain of rice I Period of the fetus I Longest phase of prenatal development I 9 weeks to birth I baby increases size amp bodily systems begin working I Grows from the size of a strawberry to 20 inches long I Fine tuning development of hair nails eyelashes etc Health amp Conditions I Age of variability I 2228 weeks when baby s systems function well enough to survive after birth I Spina bi da I Caused by lack of folic acid I Embryo s neural tube does not close properly during lst month of pregnancy I Teratogens PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Agents causing abnormal prenatal development I Genetic engineering I Replacing defective genes w synthetic normal genes I Hypoxia I Can be caused by disrupting blood ow thru umbilical cord I Lack of oxygen may result in developmental disabilities or death I Prematu re I Born before 35 weeks I Smallfor date I Underdeveloped for the typical size at whatever stage the baby s at I Monozygotic twins I 1 egg identical twins I Dizygotic twins I 2 eggs fertilized by diff sperm fraternal twins I Total of 3840 weeks of pregnancy I Trimester stages based on mom s development 12 weeks3 months I By 8 weeks the baby begins to look human I Has fully formed organs amp body systems I At this point the size of a strawberry I Age of viability I The youngest age a baby can survive outside the womb w medical assistance I Youngest 2022 weeks halfway thru pregnancy I The sperm determines the sex of the baby I Genes are a code for proteins I Polygenic I Many genes working together to determine a single trait I Down Syndrome I Chromosome 21 contains 3 rather than 2 chromosomes I Turner s Syndrome I Livable condition of a missing X sex chromosome I Due to abnormalities in amp structure of chromosomes I Genetic abnormalities I repetition I missing pieces I wrong order Support Structures I Form during the period ofthe embryo I Attaches baby to mother transports nutrients I Amniotic sac I Fluid lled sack protecting the embryo I Lung development PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Protects baby from impact I Allows baby to form evenly all the way around by oating I Placenta I Mass of tissue providing oxygen amp nutrients I Carries away waste I Contains some of the baby s genetic makeup may be extracted amp tested I Mom s amp baby s blood never mix I Umbilical cord I Delivers blood cells oxygen nutrients etc Teratogens I Any substance that can cause damage during pregnancy I Determinants of damage I Genetic vulnerability I Amount of exposure I Timing of exposure I Embryo stage is the most vulnerable period when the body is rst developing amp forming I Alcohol is the strongest teratogen I Kills cells in the baby s face amp brainhead I Mother s BAC correlates w baby s BAC I Cigarettes amp smoking Ca rcinogens Any type of smoking restricts oxygen to the baby Low birth rate avg V2 pound less Second hand smoke is as dangerous I Environmentalteratogens I Metals I Pesticides I On produce or to exterminate bugs I Chemicals I Lead in toys makeup ceramics pipes I Mercury in big sh I Both quotquot affect brain development I Over the counter drugs aspirin I Health conditions amp effects I Depression I Medications mother s ability to take care of herself behaviors I Sometimes it s safer to stay on meds than go off them during pregnancy I Obesity I Labor amp delivery complications I Overweight babies PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Issues w nutrition I Predisposition to type 2 diabetes I Asthma I Deprivation of oxygen I Radiation I Strong odors generally dangerous I The placenta is not present during the zygote period teratogens are not transmitted but any threat is still fatal I Brain amp heart begin forming 25 weeks after conception THE NEWBORN Nervous System Development Chapter 3 I Neurons I The basic unit ofthe brain amp nervous system I Specializes in receiving amp transmitting info I Cell body in the center ofthe neuron contains basic biological machinery to keep the neuron alive I Dendrite I Receiving end of neuron I Axon I Transmits info out of the neuron I Cerebral Cortex I Wrinkled surface of the brain I About 10 billion neurons I Regulates functions I Both halves connected by corpus callosum I Personality amp executive functioning skills mostly contained in frontal cortex I Brain development begins about 3 weeks after conception I Group of cells form neural plate at structure I 4 weeks neural plate forms a tube that develops into brain amp spinal cord I Ends of the tube fuse shut amp produce neurons in 1 small region I 10 weeks production of neurons begins I 28 weeks developing brain has virtually all neurons it will ever have I Over 4000 neurons formed per second I 4th month neurons acquire myelin I Development continues thru childhood amp adolescence I After lst bday Synaptic Pruning I Gradual disappearance of unused synapses I Depends on activity of neural circuits I Inactive ones eliminated I First done in brain regions associated w sensory amp motor functions PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide Diff brain systemsregions specialize different rates amp times but usually in the same order Completing typical organization of the brain requires environmental input I In uences ExperienceExpectant Growth I Throughout evolution human infants have been typically exposed to certain forms of stimulation which adjust brain wiring strengthening amp eliminating certain circuits Environmental stimulation netunes brain circuits for speci c systems ExperienceDependent Growth I Life experiences help sculpt the brain I Changes in the brain varying across individuals amp cultures Immature brains demonstrate more plasticity Class Notes 131 I Birth procedures Nose and mouth are cleared I Umbilical cord is cut I Preventative medical treatments are conducted I Antibiotics I Shots amp vaccines I Apgar test scored out of 10 7 is good I Screening for 29 different diseases from a blood sample I Hearing tested to avoid language impairment I Appearance of the baby I Coneshaped head I Skull not yet fully formed made of bone plates amp connective tissue Class Notes 203 I Adverse birth outcomes I Premature I Born 3 or more weeks early I 12 of US births are premature issues w healthcare I Born before 26 weeks usually results in cognitive amp respiratory issues I Cause usually unknown but may be I Maternal infections I Lack of oxygen or nutrients to the baby I Twins can t both grow to full size in the womb I Low birth weight I Same risks as being born premature I Normal weight 55 lbs I Low 3355 lbs I Very low less than 33 lbs I Smallfor date PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I Birthweight under 10th percentile for that age in weeks of pregnancy I Indicates issues w prenatal development I Same issues as being born premature I Some causes I Not enough nutrients I Malfunctioning placenta I Birth defects restricting growth I Teratogens Birth defects I Abnormalities occurring in any body part structure function metabolism I May be identi ed after birth I Cleft lip upperlip tissues don t fuse I Spinal bi da neural tubes don t close defects in the spine SIDS I Sudden infant death syndrome I Leading cause of death in ages 1 month 1 year I Highest risk at 24 months I May be related to brain stem amp serotonin levels I Correlation btwn sleeping on backs amp reduction in SIDS rates I Sleeping on their back results in babies not having to push off their front less crawling may even skip crawling sometimes scoot on their butts instead I Babies forced to push up from their stomachs build crawling muscles Class Notes 203 I Babies born w few abilities I Eat 812 times per day I Need 812 diaper changes per day I Sleep 1618 hours per day I Cry 13 hours per day I Only spend 23 hoursday observing amp exploring Have re exes I Re exes give info on how the nervous system amp brain are functioning I Rooting sucking grasping stepping moro falling babinski toes swallowing I Premature babies sometimes born before re exes are fully developed I Makes re exes for eating more dif cult impairs growth I Grasping re ex links back to primates I Stepping re ex may begin in the womb I Problems w re exes I May not be present or too weak I Overly strong reactions I Longer lasting re exes than usual should disappear around 6 months 10 PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide NUTRITION 8 HEALTH Class Notes 131 Maternal Health I Mothers should get full nutrition restrictive diets dangerous I Folic acid I Helps neural tubes amp brain form properly I Helps face develop properly I Spinach orange juice I Mostly safe during pregnancy I May contain pesticides I Exercise I Facilitates delivery I Should not be rigorous Class Notes 205 I Children s growing bodies need adequate nutrition I Breastfeeding I First source of nutrition until at least 12 months I Babies breastfeed exclusively for rst 46 months I 74 of babies are ever breastfed I Breastmilk more easily digested contains antibodies I Combats disease amp infection lowers risk of SIDS I Helps mom lose weight faster reduces risk of cancer in mom I Accelerates mom s healing amp uterus shrinking back to normal I Helps w bonding I Teratogens may be carried thru breastmilk I Solid foods I Must be very smooth ne I Start eating around 46 months I Cow s milk 912 months I 3 month old babies consume 50 caloriespound I Need calories to grow Growth amp Health Chapter 4 I Humans grow at different rates I Infants amp young children less proportionate I Head amp trunk grow faster than legs I Virtually all the body s muscle bers are present at birth I Later on elongate amp thicken as bers fuse together amp children grow muscle fat amp bones I Secular growth trends I Changes in physical development from one generation to the next 11 PSY 230 Exam 1 Review Guide I E Basketball teams getting bigger players every year I 80 of the growth hormone is secreted during sleep for children amp adolescents I Sleep is essential for growth amp cognitive performance as well as moodstability amp selfesteem I Puberty I Biological start of adolescence I Most cultures celebrate entering adulthood w rites of passage ceremonies I Pituitary gland releases hormones to onset growth amp maturation I Timing of puberty depends on genetics amp nutrition I Girls growing up w chronic stress tend to physically mature earlier ages I Earlier onset of maturation often results in more stress amp problematic situations for females I Malnutrition disrupts biological development listlessness inattentiveness amp often results in parents quotgiving up on encouraging growthlearning Class Notes 27 Body image I In uenced by media culture fashion technology I Failure to reach unrealistic goals results in psychological damage I Children learn expectations amp ideals thru observation I Obesity Rising epidemic due to I Supersized portions I Fast foods amp processed foods becoming more affordable amp accessible I Technology amp sedentary lifestyles I Lack of sleep increases hunger hormone I Kids average 1 hour less of sleep than in the 60s I Jobs becoming more sedentary I Environmentalexposure I Sugaryjuices amp soft drinks I Genetics I Parents uneducated on health amp nutrition I Consequences I Cardiovascular diseases diabetes digestive problems I Social consequences I Affectjobs relationships public access I Affect selfesteem body image happiness I Treatment I Change in lifestyle I Identify triggers amp conditions 12 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Exam 2 Review Guide Chapters 47 Chapter 43 Nervous System Development Neurons The basic unit of the brain amp nervous system Specializes in receiving amp transmitting info 0 Cell body in the center of the neuron contains basic biological machinery to keep the neuron alive Dendrite Receiving end of neuron 0 Axon Transmits info out of the neuron 0 Cerebral Cortex Wrinkled surface ofthe brain About 10 billion neurons Regulates functions Both halves connected by corpus callosum 0 Personality amp executive functioning skills mostly contained in frontal cortex 0 Children process info slower bc their brains are not yet fully myelinated Slow transmitting of impulses Dif cult handeye coordination Myelination begins prenatally amp nishes by adulthood 0 LateralizationCompartmentalization Hemispheres take on speci c functions Starts at birth Ends around age 10 Prenatal Brain Development 0 Brain development begins about 3 weeks after conception Group of cells form neural plate at structure Neural tubes form 1927 days after conception amp develop into central nervous system 4 weeks neural plate forms a tube that develops into brain amp spinal cord Ends of the tube fuse shut amp produce neurons in 1 small region 10 weeks production of neurons begins 28 weeks developing brain has virtually all neurons it will ever have Over 4000 neurons formed per second 4th month neurons acquire myelin Development continues thru childhood amp adolescence Neurogenesis Formation of new neurons Entirely prenatal process Born with about 100 billion neurons 0 Synaptogenesis Formation of new synapses Begins prenatally People are born with more neurons amp synapses than necessary PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Has survival value Brain exibilityplasticity People inevitably lose some over time Brain Development in Childhood 0 After lst bday Synaptic Pruning Gradual disappearance of unused synapses Depends on activity of neural circuits Inactive ones eliminated First done in brain regions associated w sensory amp motor functions Analogous to forming more directef cient highways Removes clutter Diff brain systemsregions specialize different rates amp times but usually in the same order 0 Completing typical organization of the brain requires environmental input In uences ExperienceExpectant Growth Throughout evolution human infants have been typically exposed to certain forms of stimulation which adjust brain wiring strengthening amp eliminating certain circuits 0 Environmental stimulation netunes brain circuits for speci c systems ExperienceExpectant Development Anticipated path for development instinct Brain is prewired due to evolution Brain anticipates experiencestrengthening skills Expects to be able to do things like walk communicate coordinate muscles etc Experience netunes the wiring ExperienceDependent Development Life experiences help sculpt the brain Changes in the brain varying across individuals amp cultures Many experiences are not anticipated by the brain E learning to skateboard Occurs at any age Plasticity Ability of the brain to change or adapt Children have greater plasticity Recover more easily from brain trauma Brain nishes setting around 20 yo Children before 45 yo process language all around the brain Adulthood speci c forms of language are processed in speci c regions Critical periods for sound amp grammar in language Chapter 5 Perceptual amp Motor Development Sensory amp Perceptual Processes The means by which people receive select modify amp organize stimuli First step resulting in learning amp quotknowingquot 0 Perceptual processes closely related to motor skills Coordinated movements of muscle amp limbs Perception guides movement PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Perception in Infants 0 All 5 senses function before birth 0 Assessed by presenting stimuli amp analyzing babies responses Heart rate expressions eye movements Consistent responses to two different stimuli distinguishing Babies prefer novel over familiar stimuli habituation Infants senses are powerful Smell Taste amp Touch 0 Smell Perceive smells in amniotic uid Newborns respond positively to pleasantsweet smells amp negatively to unpleasant smells Recognize familiar smells Mom 0 Taste Able to taste in the last trimester foods change avor of amniotic uids Highly developed sense of taste Can differentiate salty sour bitter amp sweet tastes React favorably to sweet substances amp opposite to bittersour tastes Prefer tastes experienced before birth evolutionary purpose Uncoordinated motor skills amp blurry vision lead babies to explore w their mouth until 6 months 0 Touch Many areas on newborns respond re exiver Cheek mouth hand foot nattentive to pain in the head at birth Touch is well developed in newborns Touch helps newborns explore amp learn 0 Development of senses makes babies ready to learn about the world Hea ng 0 Babies hear mom s voice amp digestion in the womb 0 Fetus can hear at 78 months after conception Newborns are sensitive to amp respond to sounds 0 Auditory Threshold Quietest sound a person can hear 0 Babies have a higher auditory threshold than adults babies hear less Best hear tones in the range of human speech 0 Can differentiate vowels from consonant sounds 0 45 months recognize their own names Prefer pleasant melodies amp sensitive to rhythmic structures of music 0 Preferential sucking paradigm Calculates what babies hearprefer Rate of sucking alters stimuli presented Newborn babies suck harder to get to hear mom s voice Prefer mom s voice ltered native language amp sounds heard before birth 0 Even mild hearing impairment negatively impacts language development PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Seeing 0 Least developed sense at birth Little stimulation for vision in the womb 0 Babies respond to light from birth 0 Track moving objects w their eyes 0 Visual Acuity The smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependany Babies usually stare at patterned stimuli rather than plain Newborns1 month olds see 20 feet what adults see 200400 feet Same as an adult s by lst bday 0 Neuron circuits detecting color develop in rst few months after birth By 3 months newborns see in full color Integrating Sensory Info 0 Babies look longer when an object makes sounds coordinated w its movements 0 Link body movements to rhythms 0 Coordinating information Crossmodal perception easier for infants Sense multiple forms of sensory input in brain regions only responding to speci c sensory info in adults Intersensory Redundancy theory Infants perceptual system particularly attuned to amodal info presented to multiple sensory modes Certain info like duration rate amp intensity is amodal can be presented in different senses Best perceive info presented redundantly to multiple senses Perceiving Objects 0 Newborns perception of objects is limited born w about 20400 vision blurry Reach 2020 vision by 6 months 0 Visual system matures at 6 yo Impacts academic development 0 By 4 months infants use multiple cues to identify objects Common motion Color Texture Aligned edges 0 Master size constancy early on 0 Infants by crawling age can perceive amp respond to depth visual cliff 1 12 month olds perceive depth 7 month olds respond to depth 0 Kinetic Cues Motion to estimate depth 0 Visual Expansion Objects moving closer ll a greater proportion of vision 0 Motion Parallax Nearby objects move faster across our visual eld Pictorial Cues PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Same cues artists use to convey depth in pictures 0 Determining perceptual abilities Selfreport hearing amp vision tests in schools Habituationdishabituation amp xation in infants Preference pairing images or sounds Behavior Physiological behavior heart rate hormones etc Perceptual Narrowing Language First 910 months babies can distinguish all sounds in any language After 10 months brain begins pruning to begin specializing in 1 language 0 Faces Similar to language development Until 912 months can discern btwn similar faces better than adults can 0 The brain begins as open to all stimuli amp subtlety Around 910 months the brain uses environmental input to determine what to narrow down perception on Motor Skill Development 0 4 month olds can hold a toy but can t turn it amp stroke it until a few months later 0 Advances in motor skills allow infants to perceive the environment in more sophisticated ways Newborns are innater attracted to tracking faces 1 month olds focus on the outer edges of the face 3 month olds focus on the interior of the face eyes amp lips Tracking faces has survival value Babies eventually learn to distinguish btwn faces that resemble their parents Provide the basis for social relationships 0 After 4 weeks babies begin to track other stimuli as well 0 Infants must learn locomotion 0 Fine Motor Skills Grasping holding manipulating objects 0 Children s motor skills enhance their cognitive amp social development Locomotion 0 Stages 4 months sit upright w support 67 months sit upright wo support 78 months stand w support 11 months toddlers stand alone brie y amp cruise 24 months climb steps walk backwards kick a ball 0 Dynamic Systems Theory Motor development involves many distinct skills organized amp reorganized over time to meet demands of speci c tasks 0 0 Learning to Walk 0 Posture amp Balance Ability to maintain upright posture is fundamental to walking PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Virtually impossible for infants typically top heavy Requires growth of legs amp muscles Infants must adjust posture to keep standing upright Use visual cues amp inner ear mechanism to do so Balance is learned practiced amp relearned w each milestone towards walking Babies use differentjoints to move around on diff stages Infants relearn to balance again when walking w objects 0 Stepping 10 months children start stepping spontaneously once they ve mastered standing upright Environmental Cues Infants learn to walk on secure at ground 0 Use cues to judge whether a surface is suitable for walking on Perceptual cues Coordinating Skills 0 Dynamic Systems Theory emphasizes mastering speci c skills before integrating them for more complex tasks 0 Mastery of intricate motions requires Differentiation Mastery of component skills Integration Combining them in proper sequence into a working whole 0 Practice promotes motor development 0 Cultural practices can accelerate or delay development of motor skills Fine Motor Skills 0 Reaching 4 months children can successfully reach for objects Movements are clumsy uncoordinated shortdistance Must make several attempts to reach objects 0 Grasping Requires coordination of individual ngers to grab 4 month olds just use ngers to hold objects 78 months use thumbs to grip amp adjust hand position for optimal holding 0 56 months can coordinate both hands to complete one main task 0 6 month olds can grasp nger foods but struggle locating the mouth 0 1 year olds reach for objects w 1 hand Ready to try eating w a spoon Develop a hand preference Identical twins more likely than fraternal twins to favor the same hand 0 2 year olds can judge whether to reach w 1 or 2 hands 0 23 years old may dress themselves 0 34 years old may fasten buttons zippers etc 0 6 years old can tie Physical Fitness 0 Physical activity promotes Growth of muscles amp bone PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Cardiovascular health Cognitive processes 0 Sports Enhances selfesteem Teaches children to take initiative Teaches collaborative social skills Strategies require emerging cognitive skills Chapter 6 Cognitive Development 0 Learning theories Classical Pavlov amp Albert Environment triggers response Operant Reinforcement amp punishment Environment responds to behavior Observational Bandura Rewards amp consequences for behavior Piaget s Theory 0 Children are naturally curious They want to make sense of their world Through experiences amp constructing understanding 0 Assimilation New experiences are readily incorporated into a child s existing theories 0 Accommodation Child s theories are modi ed by experience 0 Disequilibrium Children s current theories are not adequate bc they re spending more time accommodating than assimilating Equilibration Children reorganize their theories amp return to equilibrium Piaget s Stages Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 years 0 Progress from simple re ex actions to symbolic processing 0 Adapting to amp exploring the environment 14 months re exes are modi ed by experience The infant learns to initiate movements which were once re exes 48 months explores environment w greater interest 8 months intentionalgoal directed behavior emerges 12 months become active experimentersexplorers Learning by trial amp error 0 Cognitive limitations Object permanence not until 18 months PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Mental problem solving quotA not B error babies look for toys in the original hiding spot even after they ve seen it being hidden in a second hiding spot 0 Using symbols 18 months talking amp gesturing shows emerging capacity to use symbols Pretend play 1824 months can mentally anticipate consequences Use symbols of language around 1 yo Preoperational Stage 2 67 yearspreschool early elementary 0 Cognitive advancements Use of symbols to represent objects amp events Words gestures graphs maps models etc 0 Cognitive limitations Egocentrism Young children can t understand that others have differing perspectives amp ideas Animism Crediting inanimate objects w life amp lifelike properties Believing objects think amp feel as they children do Centration Narrowly focused thought tunnel vision characterizing preoperational children Issues understanding conservation Conservation of liquids numbers mass length etc Concrete Operational Stage 7 11 years 0 Cognitive advancements First using mental operations to solve problems amp reason Mental Sperations Strategies amp rules making thinking more systematic amp powerful Math categorization spatial relations etc Logical thought Reduced egocentrism Conservation Identity Decentered thinking amp multitasking thoughts Dynamic transformation paying attention to the process Reversibility Understanding that mental operations can be reversed Reversibility applies to all mental operations 0 Cognitive limitations Abstract thinking Limited to tangible present problems Formal Operational Stage 11 0 Cognitive advances Abstract thought amp applying mental operations to abstract entities Thinking hypothetically Solving problems by setting up hypotheses amp testing them Deductive Reasoning The ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Reasoning based on information provided amp not experiences Reaching counterfactual conclusions 0 Cognitive limitations Adolescence Egocentrism heightened focus on self Imaginary audience everybody s watching Personal fable they are rst to thinkfeel profound shit Illusion of invincibility Universality not everyone reasons at that level Knowing how to get to the answer Piaget s Contributions 0 Studying cognitive development Showed why cognitive processes are central to development Offered methods to study them Made cognition part ofthe research agenda for child development 0 New view of children Constructivism Children are active participants in forming their own knowledge amp understanding 0 Counterintuitive discoveries Discovered unexpected ndings Discovered signi cant developmental progressions Weaknesses in Piaget s Theory 0 Underestimates cognitive competence in infants amp young children Object permanence apparent at 35 months 0 Overestimates cognitive competence in adolescents Vague concerning mechanisms of change Theories like accommodation amp assimilation too vague to test scienti cally 0 Does not account for variability in children s abilities Children s thinking may be sophisticated in some domains amp limited in others Development is not consistently tied to each stage 0 Undervalues sociocultural in uences 0 Mechanisms accommodation assimilation equilibration vaguedif cult to study scienti cally Vygotsky s Theory 0 Sociocultural Perspective Children are products of their culture Cognitive development is inseparable from cultural contexts 0 Intersubjectivity Shared understanding among participants in a joint activity 0 Guided Participation Cognitive growth results from children s involvement in structured activities with more skilled partners 0 Behavior regulation amp instruction private speech transforms to inner speech PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Instruction Speech amp coaching from others Private speechselftalk Inner speech Core Knowledge Theories Distinctive domains of knowledge 0 Some acquired very early in life 0 Some forms of knowledge are essential for survival amp specialized systems evolved to simplify that learning language understanding ppl etc 0 Believes that the brain has areas predisposed to specializing in certain domains 0 Children s theories are focused on core domains amp not allencompassing as Piaget argues 0 Children are born knowing innate principals Categorization amp Learning 0 Children depend on categorization so every situation is not novel 0 amp to know which actions to perform on variations of the same object o 18 months children can combine categories to form more general ones Understanding Objects amp Other Living Things 0 4 12 mo understand object permanence determined by 0 6 mo infants understand gravity inertia etc 0 Can distinguish btwn liquids amp solids 0 Understand perspective of tall vs short objects 0 Movement Only animals can move themselves amp inanimate objects must be moved by other beings 0 Growth Animals grow objects don t 0 Internal Parts Animals contain blood amp bones objects don t Inheritance Only living things produce offspring resembling themselves Illness Permanent illness is inheritedgenetic Temporary illness is passed btwn people Illness can come from contaminated food 0 Healing Living things heal objects must be xed Teleological explanations Children believe that living things amp their parts exist for a purpose though not necessarily accurate Essentialism Children believe all living things have an essence that can t be seen but de nes them even despite unusual circumstances Understanding People Naive psychology Our informal beliefs about ppl amp their behavior 0 Infants understand behavior is intentional amp goaldirected 0 Btwn 25 yo children develop Theory of Mind 10 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Naive understanding of relations btwn mind amp behavior Wellman s 3 stages 2 yo understand desires amp goals amp that they result in behaviors 3 yo distinguish btwn mental world amp physical world understand thinking believingremembering etc still place emphasis on desires amp goals 4 yo understand that behavior is based on beliefs about events amp situations though they are not necessarily accurate Attention The process by which we select information that will be processed further 0 Orienting Response Strong or unfamiliar stimuli Startled eyes focused on stimulus changes in heartrate amp brain wave patterns 0 Orienting Makes infants aware of potentially importantdangers stimuli 0 Habituation Keeps infants from wasting energy on biologically insigni cant stimuli Infants who habituate more rapidly grow up to be more intelligent children Paying attention involves inhibiting unwantedinterfering thoughts amp behaviors Instructing children to sort shapes using 2 diff rules usually results in children resorting to the lst rule interferes w the 2nd Attention De cit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosed in 35 schoolage children 0 Boys outnumber girls by 31 ratio 0 De ned by Hyperactivity Unusually energetic Fidgety unable to keep still Dif culty limiting activity Inattention Skipping from one task to another Impaired concentration Impulsivity IE Interrupting others when speaking 0 Myths Tv food allergies sugar amp poor home life proposed as causes Children grow out of ADHD Known Causes Heredity an important factor Identical twins often both diagnosed fraternal twins usuallyjust 1 Prenatal exposure to alcoholother drugs 0 Black amp Hispanic students less often diagnosed Income Racial bias Chapter 7 11 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Cognitive Processes amp Academic Skills Memory 0 Information Processing Theory Human cognition consists of mental hardware amp software Mental hardware amp 3 components Sensory memory Working memory Longterm memory Central executive moving memories btwn longterm amp working 0 memory model 0 Central executive computer s operating system Moves info btwn longterm amp working memory Selects strategies needed to accomplish various goals Executes needed responses Infants amp babies have memory as young as 23 mo Improvement in memory partly results from growth in brain regions supporting memory 0 Longterm memoriesimpediments Encoding moving info from sensory to working memory Storage moving info from working to longterm memory Accessing central executive retrieving info Retrieval Recognition external Distinguishing familiar from unfamiliar habituation Recall internal Recalling a stimulus from memory 2 month olds recall memories from about 2 days ago 6 month olds recall from about 2 weeks ago Tipof thetongueRetrieval longterm memory was created amp is accessible but can t be moved into working memory 0 Working memory capacity peaks in 205 Deteriorates after Strategies for Remembering Advances Memory strategy Act to promote remembering Memory in children improves bc of Increased working memory capacity up to 7 digits Processing speed increases myelination amp pruning Automatic processes Better strategies Rehearsal Organization Elaboration Mnemonic devicesacronyms Knowledge base experts vs novices 78 year olds use rehearsal for memory As children grow they use more strategies for remembering 12 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Organization structuring material to be remembered so that related info is placed together Eventually use elaboration amp external aids notes calendars etc 0 Limitations Infantile amnesia can t recall memories from rst 34 years of life Partly due to lack of languagenarration to memories Encoding based on sensory input Preschool children don t yet have effective strategies for remembering but understand that remembering is not automatic amp requires effort Metacognition 0 Memory strategies aren t useful unless children understand when amp how to apply them 0 Metamemory A child s informal understanding of memory Diagnosing memory problems accurately Monitoring effectiveness of memory strategies 0 Children s growing understanding of memory is paralleled by growing understanding of all cognitive processes 0 Cognitive SelfRegulation Skill identifying goals selecting effective strategies monitoring accurately Knowledge amp Memory 0 Script Memory structure used to describe the sequence in which events typically occur 0 Scripts reduce effort needed to remember procedures 0 May distort events that don t necessarily t preexisting scripts remembering the pilot as a man when it was really a woman 0 Older children more prone to memory distortions because they have more knowledge amp scripts Knowledge may interfere w accurately remembering 0 Fuzzy Trace Theory Memories are stored verbatim or as the gist of the idea 0 Autobiographical Memory Peoples memories of their own signi cant experiences 0 Infantile Amnesia Inability to remember events from one s early life Encoding Processes Transform info in a problem into a mental representation 0 Limitations to problem solving for young children Haven t yet reached decentered thinking conservation Prefer to solve problems by doing rather than planning in advance Not developmentally advanced enough to plan easily frustrateddiscouraged by failed plans Expect older helpers to do it for them Confoundcombine variables accidentally in experimental studies Bias impedes them from integrating prior beliefs to contradicting evidence Reach conclusions prematurely before testing every possibility Effective Problem Solving 13 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Requires children to know facts amp strategies from prior experiences 0 Meansend analysis Someone determines the difference btwn current amp desired situations then acts to reduce the difference May use subgoals to reach larger goals Heuristics Rules of thumb that don t guarantee solutions but help solve a range of problems Tend to be fast amp require little effort Heuristics relying on imitation amp experiences 0 Analysis relying on statistics amp proven data Reading 0 Stages PreK amp kindergarten Using books Matching sounds to letters Recognizing words lst amp 2nd grade Sounding out words Reading independently 2nd amp 3rd grade Gain speed amp uency in reading Gain independence 4th grade Reading to learn amp gain knowledge 0 Key skills Phonological awareness ability to distinguish sounds in spoken words Word decoding Identifying unique patterns of letters Recognizing that letters symbolize sounds amp combine to form words Comprehension Extracting meaning from a sequence of words Fluency 0 Requires both word decoding amp comprehension 0 Foundations of reading Understanding that speci c letters symbolize sounds Knowing the alphabet Phonological awareness Distinguishing sounds in spoken words sounding out Decoding words amp then eventually recognizing the whole word by sight Propositions Children derive meaning by combining chunks of words to form propositions ideas that then add up to tell the meaning of the sentence 0 Factors improving comprehension Children eventually recognize whole words by sight Working memory capacity increases able to identify amp combine more propositions within a sentence 14 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Prior experiencesknowledge improve understanding Develop better monitoring skills amp strategies for comprehension Applying reading strategies appropriately 0 Reading Instruction Phonics Sou ndletter combinations Tends to be boring Correlated w reading uency Wholeword Labels Recognizing words by sight Wholelanguage Writing 0 Form Writing stories Singing songs w subtitles Immersion Often start writing in big capitals All around the page Motor skills still developing 0 Content Writing longer stories More complicated sentences Planning amp editing 0 Spelling Inventive spelling 0 Factors facilitating writing Greater knowledgeaccess to knowledge of topics Organization Numbers 0 Stages Young writers use knowledgetelling strategy writing down info on a topic as they retrieve it from memory lack of structure Adolescents use knowledgetransforming strategy organizing info before writing it down Preschool amp kindergarten Learning to count Recognizing shapes Simple addition amp subtraction lst amp 2nd grade Addition amp subtraction up to 30 Basic word problems Fractions Money 3rd 8th grade 15 PSY 230 Exam 2 Review Guide Complex addition amp subtraction Multiplication amp division Complex word problems Probability 9th 12th grade Algebra Geometry Trigonometry Calculus Infants understand that quantity is one way to distinguish objects 0 Infants understand very simple addition amp subtraction by perceptual means 0 6 mo are sensitive to ratios 0 By age 3 most children master Onetoone principle There must be only one number name for each object counted Stableorder principle Number names must be counted in the same order Cordinality principle Emphasizing the last number name to identify the total of objects 0 Strategies Fingers amp objects Speaking out loud to solve Mentally thinking thru problems Fact retrieval times tables Developing Academic Skills 0 School readiness varies by SES Potty training behavior regulation social skills Physical wellbeing motor development socialemotional development approaches to learning Separating from parents 0 How children cognitively advance Identify easier more accurate strategies for problem solving Increased working memory capacity More effective inhibitory processes amp executive functioning Inhibitory processes prevent taskirrelevant info from entering working memory selective attention Executive functioning includes inhibitory processes planning amp cognitive exibility Increased automatic processing Cognitive activities that require virtually no effort Moving skills into procedural memory leaves more open space in working memory Increased processing speed 0 Factors affecting academic success Ecological system Child factors intelligence personality motivation genetics 16 PSY 230 17 Controversies Exam 2 Review Guide Microsystem family assistance peer in uence teachers Mesosystem parent involvement w the school Exosystem school board administration teacher unions Macrosystem culture teaching philosophies Chronosystem E trends in teacher instruction cursive technology presence of females in higher education Ability grouping Pros All in the same ZPD can challenge all students appropriately Pygmalion in the classroom High level kids better served w better teachers than low level Expectationsself ful lling prophecieslabels Disproportionate representations of race SES levels etc Lower level classes cover less content harder for students to move up levels Highstakes testing Consequences for students teachers school funding Waste of Accou ntability Drives aways teachers Sti es creativity Reduced available time amp resources to subjects not tested Doesn t teach reallife skills Encourages cheating Bankingstyleminimal education Underresources schools that need it most PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Exam 3 Review Guide Intelligence amp Individual Differences in Cognition Psychometrics The study of measuring psychological characteristics like intelligence amp personality Patterns of test scores provide evidence for general intelligence amp speci c abilities Intelligence is a hierarchy of general amp speci c skills Spearman s general amp speci c intelligences 0 Carroll amp hierarchical theory 3 levels G General intelligence Intellectual skill 8 broad categories Fluid intelligence 1 example Crystallized intelligence Culturally in uenced accumulated knowledge amp skills Semantics 0 Gardner s 9 Intelligences all speci c Linguistic Logicalmathematical Spa al Musical Bodilykinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential 0 Sternberg s theory of successful intelligence Successful intelligence using one s abilities skillfully to achieve personal goals 3 types Analytic analyzing problems generating different solutions Practical knowing which solution or plan will actually work Creative dealing adaptively with novel situations amp problems 0 Testing amp the stereotype threat Students already questioning their cognitive abilities score lower on tests due to anxiety amp doubt Selfful lling prophecy Intelligence 0 Intelligence predicts Academic performance Occupational statusperformance Health In uential factors Genetics PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Environment SES Culture Nutrition Language Cultural bias vs culturally fair tests Heredity Identical twins intelligence are more strongly correlated than fraternal twins Adopted children39s scores resemble their biological parents more closely as they grow UP IQ Scores Steadily increasing over time May be a result of improved health care nutrition education May also be due to greater availability of info through technology May be due to greater mixing of mating amp thus mixing high amp low IQ genotypes Gifted amp Creative Children 0 Gifted Generally scoring 130 or greater on intelligence tests Exceptional ability often associated primarily w academic skill 0 General prerequisites for exceptional talent Enthusiasm for the subject amp desire to master it Instruction beginning at an early age w inspiringtalented teachers Parents committed to promoting the talent 0 Creativity Intelligence generally associated w convergent thinking using provided info to determine a standardcorrect answer Creativity associated w divergent thinking novel amp unusual lines ofthought Disability 0 Intellectual disability Substantial limitations in intellectual ability problems in adapting to an environment Both issues emerge before 18 yo 0 Often de ned as a score of 70 or less on an intelligence test 0 Poor t btwn a person s capacities amp context in which they need to function 0 4 factors Biomedical factors Chromosomal disorders malnutrition traumatic brain injury Social factors Poverty impaired parentchild interactions Behavioral factors Child neglect or abuse violence Educational factors Impaired parenting inadequate special education services 0 Children w learning disabilities have Dif culty mastering academic subjects Normal intelligence PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Don t suffer from other external conditions causing poor performance 0 About 5 of schoolage children labeled w learning disabilities Language amp Communication Communication 0 3 forms Nonverbal communication Prelinguistic vocalizations Areas of language Nonverbal forms Body language expressions gestures posture gaze Communicative functions Show Give Reject Request Share Seen in 6 month olds Joint attention babies checking if their parentsplay partners are perceiving amp reacting to what they see the same way Do you see what I see Prelinguistic behavior Crying causes physiological reactions in adults around them increased heart rate blood pressure etc Stages in Speech Cooing birth 23 months Making vowel sounds ooh amp agh Immature vocalizations undeveloped vocal system Vocal Play 3 8 months Learning how to usemanipulate the vocal system Babbling 5 10 months Mixing vowels amp consonants 8 11 months begin practicing adult intonations Jargon Babbling 9 18 months Combinations of sounds interspersed with actual words Still practicing adultlike intonations Deaf children have delayed or no babbling Naming ExplosionBeginning Talking 18 months Range of normal for this stage goes from 15 24 months Learning vocabulary amp names much more rapidly after 50 words Fast mapping connecting words to their actual meanings E ower is the whole plant notjust the petals Telegraphic speech 15 years Using 2 word phrases to convey immediately relevant meaning generally agent action Due to limited working memory capacity Already have some sense of grammatical norms PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Children not using telegraphic speech by 2 years may have a serious delay Around 2 3 years old bring in grammatical forms Grammar Explosion 2 3 years Using articles conjunctions possessive adjectives prepositions question words contractions compound sentences etc Underextension amp overextension of word de nitions 1 3 years Elements of Language Phonology Sounds of language Kids don t master lastmost dif cult sounds v s 2 until around 8 years old Common pronunciation mistakes Deletion deletingleaving out the nal consonant of a word Repetition repeating sounds to create a word quotbaba for bottle Simpli cation simplifying a consonant cluster libary instead of library Reorganization reordering the consonants in a word aminal instead of animal 0 Semantics Study of words amp their meaning vocabulary People have receptive words they understand amp expressive words they sayuse vocabulary Children must understand the actual meaning of words to qualify as expressive vocab Receptive vocab is always longer precedes expressive vocab Expressive Vocabulary 10 15 months lst year begin saying rst words 18 month olds on average reach 50 words Making sentences Naming explosion 0 Syntax Rules that specify how words are combined to form sentences Sentence structure amp grammar Understanding always precedes use Pragmatics Communicative functions of language amp rules leading to effective communications Tu rntaking Speaking quotmotherese simpli ed language to babies Even preschoolers use it for babies Preschoolers know to use longermore polite sentences w parents amp more direct commands w friends Preschoolers egocentrism leads them to turntaking in 2 onesided conversations stating their ideas while not addressing or responding to the friend s previous one Slang last aspect of pragmatics used by teens to separate from adults Grammatical morphemes Words or endings of words making sentences grammatical ing ed s 0 Naming Errors Underextension de ning a word too narrowly using a general word as a proper noun Overextension de ning a word too broadly calling every man a Daddy PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide 0 Overregularization Using grammatical rules in all contexts even when inappropriate Applying grammatical rules to irregular words goed vs went quotI seed two sheeps on the farm Good sign that children are internalizing grammar rules Less common after 4 years old Referential Communication Using language to convey a message that the listener will understand Requires knowing amp monitoring your audience 2 steps Checking for understanding 0 Conversational Repair Revising what was said if you believe the listener did not understand Dif cult for 3 year olds to do Younger children usually don t request for adults to repair their sentences May not understand that it needs reparation May assume that they understand what they actually did n t May be used to not understanding adults statements in general Differences in Language Learning 0 Phonological memory Ability to remember speech sounds brie y Directly correlated w size of vocabulary 0 Language environment directly effects speed amp ease for children learning language 0 Referential style vocabulary Mainly consists of words naming objects persons or actions Fewer words for social interactions or questions Expressive style vocabulary Including some names amp also social phrases More balanced vocabulary btwn labels amp interactive phrases Vocabulary Assessment 0 Observation May be at home or in an of ce Time consuming Parent report May record in diaries tracking new words May also ll out checklists of words learned 0 Direct assessment Starts around 25 years old PPVT Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test for receptive vocabulary EVT Expressive Vocabulary Test for expressive vocabulary 0 Researchers test children39s grammar by inventing words amp having children ll in sentences with the grammatically correct form of that word Emotional Development Functions of Emotion PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Emotions have survival value Emotions help humans adapt to their environment E fear avoiding danger survival 0 Basic Emotions Experienced by people worldwide Happiness anger surprise interest disgust sadness fear Consist of 3 elements Subjective feeling Physiological change Overt behavior Newborns Experience 2 emotions Pleasure Stress 2 months Social smiles Smiling when seeing another person 46 months Anger Distress when not achieving desired goals 6 months Fear Stranger wariness on unfamiliar adults 89 months Display full range of emotions 0 Complex Emotions Selfconscious emotions Involve feelings of success when standards amp expectations are met feelings of failure if not Don t surface until 1824 months Discrete emotions emerge w development Depend on understanding of self begins around 1518 months Recognizing Others Emotions 0 As early as 4 months amp def by 6 months babies are able to distinguish facial expressions emotions Babies re ect mothers emotions 0 Social Referencing Babies in unfamiliar environments look to their parents for cues on interpreting the shua on Re ect on emotions to determine their own behavioractions As children develop cognitively w age they become able to understand more complex emotions amp their causes 0 Display Rules Culturally speci c standards for appropriate expressions of emotion in particular settings or w speci c people Regulating Emotion 0 Cognitive processes are essential for emotional regulation 0 Stages Infancy PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Emotional regulation is always present to some degree 46 months Simple strategies used to regulate IE looking away from scary objects 24 months Using expressions to gain attention amp support Erik Erikson s 8 Stages Infancy Trust vs Mistrust birth 1 year Toddlerhood Autonomy vs ShameDoubt 1 3 years Terrible Twos Desire for independenceautonomy Realization of control over the environment 0 Preschool Initiative vs Guilt 3 6 years Guilt results from failure lack of support criticism 0 Elementary Industry vs lnferiority 6 12 years Learning culturally relevant skills Aiming to become functioning members of society Adolescence Identity vs Role Confusion 13 20 years 0 Early Adulthood Intimacy vs Isolation 21 40 years Adulthood Generativity vs Stagnation 41 65 years 0 Late Adulthood Integrity vs Despair 66 years Temperament An individual s relatively consistent style of reacting to environmental circumstances 0 Foundational piece of personality 0 Depends on stable biologically based behavioral styles 0 According to psychodynamic theoryFreud personality is determined by one s balance between their id amp superego Some people may be more driven by their id while others are more driven by their superego In uences on temperament Genetics Temperament is 50 genetics amp 50 personality Initially determine temperament in rst months of life Environment Gene X Environmental Interactions Child s genes in uence the environment Nichepicking choice of environment Interpretation of experience Goodness of Fit There s no perfect temperament or environment Most important is the interaction btwn both they should match t Temperament Types 9 Dimensions of Temperament Activity typical level of motor activity PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Rhythmicity biological rhythms eating sleeping etc Ideal is not an extreme Approach vs withdrawal to novel stimuli Adaptability Threshold of responsiveness threshold drawing a reaction timing of reactions Intensity of reactions Quality of mood positive or negative Distractibility Attention span amp persistence amount of time devoted to an activity particularly when obstacles are present Temperament dimensions quotEasyquot temperament children Stable rhythmicity Approach novel stimuli High adaptability High threshold of responsiveness Low intensity of reaction Positive quality of mood quotDif cultquot temperament children Only about 10 of children Prefer structure amp less stimuli peaceful calm settings Temperament may be shapedmolded to some degree Shy children tend to have higher heart rates blood pressure amp cortisol levels Their bodies are on heightened alert amp thus have more intense reactions Extreme level of rhythmicity Withdrawn from novel stimuli Low adaptability Low threshold of responsiveness High intensity of reactions Negative quality of mood High distractibilitylow attention span or persistence Slowtowarmup children Easy in familiar environments Not too emotionally reactive have a reasonable threshold Wary fear novel stimuli may withdraw despite curiosity Less adaptive Need extra time to warm up Need to be familiarized w new situations in advance Temperament dimensions focused on regulation Resilient Similar to easy children Adaptable Follow expectations for behavior Overcontrolled Overcontrol of one s own emotions Obsessive about regulation amp rules Shyness anxiety Undercontrolled PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Not enough regulation Impulsive Aggressive Distractible Difficulty following rules Assessing Temperament 0 Behavioral Observation Structured observation Can test many kids w the same experiments Not always very natural situations Approaching a play tube Reacting to a robot or balloon popping behind you Restraining infants arms 0 Physiological Reaction Heart rate blood pressure EEG cortisol stress hormone detected in saliva 0 Questionnaires amp Interviews Asking the parents May ask the parents anything May be dif cult to keep participating parents attention for over 100 questions Parents have their own perspectives on their child ren s behaviorpersonalities Attachment 0 Bowlby children who form meaningful attachments are more likely to survive Attachment quality in childhood directly correlates w relationship quality in adulthood Good for infants to form multiple attachments to different people 0 Make a hierarchy of attachments Primary usually the mother Less close attachments fall under 0 Stages Preattachment Birth 6 weeks Recognizing mothers by smell amp sound Instinctiver gaze amp smile to gain attention amp initiate interaction Attachment in the making 68 weeks 68 months Behavior differs among familiar amp unfamiliar adults More pleasant emotions when w familiar adults more easily soothed True attachment 7 18 months Looking to primary caregiver for cues on exploring initiating play etc Trust that caregivers will serve baby s needs Reciprocal relationships 18 months Growing cognitive amp language skills accumulated experiences help children become better partners in relationships Taking initiative in interactions amp negotiating w parents Theoretical Origins of Attachment Bowlby worked w refugee children amp children without parents 0 Was aware of Spitz s studies on children in orphanages PS Y 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Lead to US closing orphanages amp shifting towards adoptions Harlow attachment takes priority over food in baby monkeys 0 Ethological TheoryEvolutionary Psych Views development from an evolutionary perspective Tries to trace evolutionary purposes of animal behaviors amp traits Babies appear cute to adults to draw their attention amp receive the care necessary for survival Imprinting Pertains mostly to nonhuman animals water birds Mainly visualbased Imprinting is a phase which eventually ends Conrad Lorenz imprinted geese on random objects amp himself toy trains etc Assessing Attachment Quality 10 Questionnaires amp Interviews Asking adults about their childhood experiences w parents Ainsworth Structured observations Strange situation test Ainsworth s attachment types Secure attachment Behavior in the room Explores the room but occasionally checks in w the caregiver may bring back objects to share w the caregiver On Separation May or may not cry On Reunion Seeks comfort from the caregiver easily soothed if not too distressed may not even need to seek comfort but is happy upon caregiver s return Strategy Seeks comfort amp support from caregivers trusts that they are reliable Caregiver Behaviors Consistently responsive emotionally supportive Child Outcomes Have best quality relationships later in life 6065 of American babies Avoidant attachment insecure Behavior in the room Explores the room wo checking in w caregiver ignores the caregiver most favorable reactions to strangers maybe even more so than to the caregiver On Separation Not visibly upset when the caregiver leaves On Reunion May ignore or look away from caregiver actively avoids caregiver Strategy Avoid the caregiver rely on one s self Caregiver Behaviors Consistently unreliable detached unsupportive Child Outcomes May seek out attachments in others may end up becoming emotionally guardedclosed off prefer to rely on themselves 20 of American babies Resistant attachment insecure Behavior in the room Explore the least clinginghovering around caregiver waiting to receive attention dislike the stranger On Separation Upset when parents leave cry the most On Reunion Seek comfort but then resist being soothedpicked up dif cult to calm down PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide Strategy Cling to caregivers but push back when nally receiving attention Caregiver Behaviors Inconsistent caregiving sometimes responsivereliable sometimes not intermittent reinforcement like slot machines may be due to parents depression or substance abuse 1015 of American babies Disorganizeddisoriented attachment insecure Behavior in the room Fearful confusion oddout of place behaviors maybe no reaction at all due to abuse being shuf ed around foster care or having disabilities like Autism On Separation Confusion strange behaviors 0n Reunion Might not react or understand what s happening confused on whether to seek comfort from or avoid the caregiver Strategy No strategy disorientation Caregiver Behaviors May be abusive towards the child or engaged in substance abuse 510 of American babies 0 Internal working model Cognitive representations of relationships that children construct from their interactions w others Infants develop a set of expectations about parents availability amp responsiveness to their needs Children take their perspectives on relationships w them throughout life Early baggage affects quality of future relationships Identity Self Recognition 0 Self concept The attitudes behaviors amp values a person believes makes them a unique individual EuroAmerican preschool children de ne themselves by observableconcrete attributes Physical characteristics Preferences Possessions Capabilities Asian children tend to de ne themselves by their relationships w others 57 years EuroAmerican children start de ning themselves by Emotions Social groups Skill level in comparison w peers Adolescents Attitudes Personality traits Religious amp political af liations Selfconcepts also vary w setting familiar vs unfamiliar groups Often futureoriented goals plans social roles Self awareness in infants begins around 1824 months 15 months 2 years toddlers can recognize themselves in the mirror 11 PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide 0 Children become capable of autobiographical memory Recognizing continuity of quotIquot in present linking to quotIquot in past 0 Self awareness extends to understanding of ownership quotMinequot aware of past experiences w objects de ning self by ownership of other objects 0 Selfconcept questioning who the self is after realizing that children are their own identities CrisisExploration Commitment Yes No Yes Achievement Moratorium No Foreclosure Diffusion Identity Formation in Adolescents 0 Identity status categories Achievement exploration commitment Moratorium in the process of exploration Foreclosure commitment wo exploration usually happens w religion amp majority groups Diffusion avoiding exploration or commitment Developmental trends Identity diffusion amp foreclosure more common before 18 years old Prevalence of both stages declines as age increases Erikson adolescents work to achieve an identity in the adult world 0 Use hypothetical reasoning skills formal operational stage amp advanced cognitive skills to imagine selves in diff roles 0 Adolescent Egocentrism Correctly aware that others have differing perspectives Incorrectly assume they are the focus of others attention Imaginary Audience Performing for others quotAll eyes on me sensation of being constantly watchedjudged Personal Fable Believe that their experiences amp feelings are unique to only them 0 Illusion of InvulnerabilityInvincibility Misfortune only happens to others 0 Do not necessarily occur in sequence Achievement amp moratorium more common in young adulthood 0 Identity affected by Parents Peers Social context amp resources Personality openness to experience 12 PSY 230 Exam 3 Review Guide SelfEsteem 0 One s judgment amp feelings about their own worth 0 Selfesteem is hierarchical like intelligence General selfesteem at the top Speci c domains within 0 Schoolage children develop their scholastic selfesteem based on academic experiences 0 Adolescents further develop amp distinguish their social competence 0 Selfesteem greatest during preschool years Egocentrism False belief of complete competence in any subject 0 Elementary school children begin comparing themselves w peers Selfesteem slightly drops w experiences of reality amp failure 0 Selfesteem lowers when children move to new schoolssocial groups Adjustsstabilizes again when they are aware of standing among familiar peers 0 Ethnicity Ethnic minority students in elementary schools have lower selfesteem Gap narrows in adolescence African American boys tend to have higher selfesteem than Euro American peers May be due to achieving ethnic identity amp pride Asian children tend to have lower selfesteem difference increases in adolescence Cultural emphasis on modesty More willing to admit weaknesses Greater focus on social harmony than selfcomparisoncompetition Sources of SelfEsteem 2 important factors Actual competence in domains children nd important Interests abilities amp selfconcept coupled How others view them Internalizing parents positive messages Seeing parents discipline as coming from a place of concern or not caring Hearing compliments or criticisms from peers Gender amp Identity 0 Male associated traits called instrumental Describing individuals who act on the worldin uence it 0 Female associated traits called expressive Describe emotional functioning amp individuals who value interpersonal relationships 0 18 month old babies look at gender stereotyped objects differently Girls look longer pictures of dolls than trucks Boys look longer trucks 0 Children 23 years old start identifying others genders by physical appearance 0 By 5 years old have established ideas of what quali es as female or male traits American gender binaries more extreme than other countries studied 0 Increased age leads to more exible views of gender stereotypes Easier for females to break their stereotypes 0 Girls tend to be more exible about stereotypes perhaps bc 13 PSY 230 Gender Differences 14 Exam 3 Review Guide Malestereotypic traits are presented as more attractivehigher status Social classeducation Math skills Higher income children have more exible views Lower SES children have more equal spatial skills Girls are generally better at math than boys when they re younger Math switches over to favoring boys later in life Math abilities are attitude oriented inconsistent differences btwn genders BiologicalPhysical Differences males amp females have differing numbers of cells Males Have a Y chromosome Produce testosterone hormone Have more lateralized brains Speci c brain regions are more de ned for speci c functions More sensitive to cool colors amp movement Have greater muscle to fat ratio More likely to have extra practice in sportsphysical activities Naturally more active as babies have a hard time sitting still Females X chromosomes Produce estrogen hormone Use morebroader brain regions when performing tasks Better able to detect warm colors amp textures Tend to be physically healthier female embryos are more likely to survive than male ones SocialEmotional Differences Males Adolescent boys more likely to engage in risktaking behavior Greater amount of accidental deaths amp surgeries More often display physical aggression Tend to be more aggressive generally only w other boys Linked to androgens hormones secreted by the testes Media also portrays males as more aggressive Parents tend to use physical discipline more often on boys amp are more tolerant of aggressive behavior in boys Females May be more emotional because of stronger connection w related cortex May also have more trouble taking risks making demands or asking for needs pay raise etc Girls tend to be better able at expressing their emotions amp interpreting those of others Identify facial expressions more accurately More empathetic Regions of temporal lobe processing emotional expression develops faster in girls PSY 230 15 Exam 3 Review Guide Parents place larger emphasis on feelings amp consideration in girls Girls more likely to comply w adults amp seek their help More often display passive aggressionmanipulation of relationships Display aggression after being provoked Adolescent girls more likely to experience depression Greater emphasis on socialemotional con icts amp consequences May experience more stressors after pubertal change dissatisfaction w appearance etc Intellectual Differences Males Greater mathematical amp visualspatial ability Boys more often diagnosed with languagerelated disabilities Reading stereotyped as a female activity Infant boys more able to recognize rotated objects better at mental rotation Spatial skills adaptive for men who typically hunted more during evolution Right hemisphere may be more specialized in males since their left hemisphere matures more slowly Boys more likely to engage in activities requiring visualspatial skills Females Greater verbal abilities in females worldwide Tend to have larger vocabularies More talkative Score higher on reading writing amp spelling Left hemisphere language matures faster in girls Experiences mothers talk more to toddler girls than boys Friday April 25 2014 Psych Last Exam Review Chapter 12 Moral Understanding amp Behavior Self Control Ability to control one s behavior amp inhibit impulsive responding to temptations Infancy amp beginning of self control 0 1 year aware that other ppl impose demands to which they much react accordingly have limits 0 2 years Internalized some controls capable of some selfcontrol in parents absence IE not grabbing another child s toy 3 years Capable of selfregulation may use strategies to control own behavior 0 4 years Beginning to delay grati cation for signi cant rewards Children starting early W strong self control more likely to 0 Have higher SAT scores Less likely to experiment W drugs amp alcohol 0 Better educated 0 Higher selfesteem Better cognitive control In uences on Self Control 0 Greater self control enhanced by authoritative parenting Self control tends to be lower w authoritarian parents Children do not experience opportunities to make decisions for themselves amp practice self control 0 Effortful control Ability to focus attention ignore distraction amp inhibit inappropriate responses 0 Some children temperamentally better selfcontrol Piaget Stage 1 Premoral birth 4 years 0 Don t consider morals in behavior 0 No wellformed ideas about morality Stage 2 Moral Realism 5 7 years 0 Start to think in moral ways moral values in decision making 0 Believe rules are rigid cannot be changed authority must be obeyed See moral decisions as black amp white 0 Don t consider context amp intention 15 vs 1 glass Immanent Justice Breaking a rule always leads to punishment Stage 3 Moral Relativism 8 years 0 Includes adults Recognize gray areas rules amp authority gures are social constructions may be challenged Understanding that rules are created by people to help them get along rules may be changed to maintain fairness Stage 4 Role of Society 12 years c Morals are different in different cultures spanking treatment of women etc o More global awareness theory of mind Kohlberg Preconventional level punishment amp reward 1 Obedience Orientation Obedience to authority punishment avoidance o 2 Instrumental Orientation Nice behavior in exchange for future favors gaining rewards Conventional level social norms 3 Interpersonal Norms Live up to others expectations pleasing others concern about what others think of you Friday April 25 2014 o 4 Social Systems Morality Follow rules to maintain social order respect for the rules believe they are in place to help society function amp keep ppl safe Postconventional level moral codes 0 5 Social Contract Orientation Adhere to social contract when valid awareness of circumstances when it is acceptable to break the law 0 6 Universal Ethical Principles Personal morality based on abstract principles focus on justice equalityoverarching human rights Limitations 0 Advancement for moral reasoning not consistent in all answers by adolescents Does not consider collectivist cultures Applies more to males than females Prosocial Behavior Behaviors that bene t another person sharing cooperating complimenting etc Altruism Good deeds done without the intent of gaining a reward main motive is not personal gain Category under prosocial behavior In uences on prosocial behavior Moral Reasoning Religion Modeling amp imitation Direct instruction by parents teachers etc Media Temperament amp personality level of empathy etc Affecting disorders or developmental delays Cultural In uences Individualism Cultural orientation based on belief that people are independent of each other Self reliance Competition Celebrating individual accomplishments Focus on the individual USA Collectivism Cultural orientation based on belief that people are interdependent members of social groups Focus on betterment of others group Focus on the individual is considered shameful Emphasis on cooperation Prosocial behaviors seen as essential amp commonly observed Asian amp South American countries Types of Aggression Not always necessarily physical may be verbal or gestural middle nger Instrumental Aggression Motive is always to gain something 0 Most commonly seen in toddlers due to Egocentrism Lack of communication amp emotion regulation skills Developmentally normal due to cognitive limitations Hostile Aggression 0 Done to harm intimidate or harass someone 0 Main motive is always to cause harm 0 Peaks in the middle school years Reactive Aggression 2 Friday April 25 2014 0 Done in response to frustrating events or others behaviors Due to lack of emotion regulation 0 Results from frustration motive is not manipulation o Declines with age Relational Aggression o Harming others through purposeful manipulation amp damage of peer relationships 0 Rumors exclusion etc o More common in teen girls only form of aggression more common in girls 0 Can start in preschool cliques exclusion etc Gender Aggression is equally displayed by both genders just takes on different forms accordingly Stability People who begin aggressive are likely to remain that way amp viceversa Bullying 30 of US children involved in bullying 0 Most common in middle school Bullies Tend to be con dent o Emotionally stable hard to upset 0 Low in empathy 0 Typically controversial have followers amp victims 0 Physically strong Victims Tend to be physically weak 0 Also emotionally weak highly emotionally reactive 0 Low selfesteem 0 Typically neglected or rejected not a lot of friends 0 Makes them an easy target by not having friends to defend them BullyVictims 0 Highly emotionally reactive o Tend to misinterpret others actions as hostile Suffer the worst of both worlds 0 Typically rejected 0 Likely to have con icts home 0 Consequences of bullying Fear of coming to school Loss of learning time Dif culty forming positive relationship Play Bene ts of play MakeBelieve Play Starts 1618 months Re ects values important to a child s culture Promotes cognitive development Tend to be more advanced in language memory reasoning More sophisticated understanding of others thoughts beliefs etc Allows children to explore topics that frighten them Imaginary friends bene cial associated w prosocial behaviors Physical Bene ts gross motor development Happiness amp stress relief Promotes healthy lifestyle 0 Cognitive Problem solving skills Friday April 25 2014 Strategy Language amp communication Trial amp error Symbolic thinking 0 Social Learning communication Cooperating sharing Regulating amp reading emotions Compromising Impediments to children s play 0 TV amp internet 0 Schools cutting RE amp recess Short on resourcesfunds Focus on academics Lack of knowledge about play Supervision safety Both parents work more More news coverage on abductions increased paranoia Cognitive Advances in play Functional Play 0 2 years 0 Using toys as they re intended obvious uses Realistic use of objects amp actions Symbolic Play 2 3 years c Makebelieve Using objects to symbolize other objects Sociodramatic Play 3 7 years 0 Acting out roles o Reenacting stories or experiences 0 Inventing roles amp stories RuleBound Play 7 years c More aware of rules 0 Morality development Social Advances in Play 0 Nonsocial play 0 Parallel Play 1 year olds Engaging in the same activity wo any social interaction Independent play May be include some exchange of words 0 Associative Play 2 year olds Interacting while playing independently Sharing toys Conversing about what they re doing independently o Cooperative Play 35 year olds Preschool years Common goal Collaborative Friday April 25 2014 Chapter 14 Family Relationships Parenting Styles 2 dimensions warmth amp control 4 categories 0 High warmth nurturing loving supportive Low warmth Critical neglectful mean High control Having amp enforcing rules amp consequences 0 Low control Lack of rules enforcement or discipline Rules 0 Keep kids safe Provide structure amp order Teaches children self control 0 Prepares children for the real world 0 Children internalize family s rules amp expectations for behavior 0 Kids w rules have an easier time using self control Authoritative Parenting 0 High warmth high control rules enforcement consequences sensitivity 0 Best child outcomes most effective form of parenting Democratic control Authoritarian Parenting 0 High control low warmth o Tend not to explain rules Because I said so 0 Typically use less effective discipline yelling spanking threats 0 At its extreme level becomes abuse 0 Generally positive outcomes Rules self control safety Children may have lower selfesteem or more aggression Difficulty initiating activities amp making decisions independently Less selfreliance more likely to conform to peers Permissive Parenting 0 High warmth low control 0 May come from parents emphasizing freedom amp independence 0 Lack of rules consequences or enforcement Outcomes Lowest academic amp cognitive skills Lower social skills Impulsive Disobedient of authority Uninvolved Parenting 0 Worst form 0 Low warmth amp low control 0 At its extreme level becomes neglect May be due to parental stress illness substance abuse etc Ecological System Microsystem family assistance peer in uence teachers Mesosystem parent involvement w the school Exosystem school board administration teacher unions Macrosystem culture teaching philosophies Chronosystem LE trends in teacher instruction cursive technology presence of females in higher education Friday April 25 2014 Parental Behavior Direct Instruction 0 Telling a child what to do when amp why 0 Teaching by reasoning amp explaining Observational learning amp counterimitation o Counterimitation Children learn what not to do by observing Negative reinforcement trap 0 Parents actually reinforcing unwanted behaviors by accident Parents treatment of children is affected by the child s age temperament amp behavior Discipline Prevention should be the first course of action anticipatingavoiding problems rewarding desired behavior 0 Distraction amp redirection Works bet on children under 15 years Due to short attention spans Don t require much punishment 0 Reinforcement Rewards Praise 0 Punishment Timeout o 1 minute per years old Removing privileges 0 Taking away something the child values 0 Works any age 0 Best w adolescents Physical punishment 0 Anything painful for uncomfortable for the child 0 75 of Americans consider spanking appropriate 0 Changes behavior in the shortterm makes other disciplines more effective 0 Drawbacks Models aggression Can ruin parentchild relationships Selfesteem amp emotional issues Physical injury Parental In uence Playmate Scaffold children s play 0 Model advanced forms of play Social director 0 Arranging playdates o Enrolling children for activities 0 Taking children to visit places Coach Constructive suggestions Guiding behavior Mediator 0 Help children negotiate amp solve social con icts Divorced Families Children of divorce more likely to 0 Experience con ict in their own marriages Friday April 25 2014 0 Have negative attitudes toward marriage 0 Become divorced Report less satisfaction W life 0 Become depressed Effects on children 0 May miss out on one parentrole model 0 May have only 1 parent responsible for 2 or more 0 Economic hardship o Emotional distress Children of gay parents resemble children of heterosexual parents in all aspects Siblings Toddlers talk more to siblings than parents by 4 years old Older siblings a source of care comfort amp learning Siblings of the same sex tend to have Warmermore harmonious relationships Relationships improve as siblings mature age Children get along better When they perceive that their parents treat them equally Relationship bth parents affects relationships bth siblings Firstborn children Often guinea pigs of their parents 0 Parents typically have high expectations for firstborns o More punitive as well 0 Tend to have higher intelligence test scores 0 More likely to go to college 0 More Willing to obey parents requests Parents learn W experience of more children More relaxed amp realistic expectations by lastborn children 0 More popular amp innovative Only children more likely to succeed in school have higher intelligence leadership autonomy maturity Adopted Children Adopted children similar to biological children in temperament attachment selfesteem cognitive development More prone to issues adjusting to school conduct disorders aggression Problems more common in children adopted at older ages W poor care beforehand Maltreatment of Children Abuse or neglect More likely to face difficulties in life related to maltreatment Egoresilience Children s ability to respond adaptively amp resourcefully to neW situations 0 Effects of abuse smaller on this group Culture amp community 0 Cultural values amp social conditions hold different vieWs on physical punishment 0 Poverty correlated W higher incidents of abuse 0 Social isolation of the family Parents Often Were maltreated themselves 0 Have unrealistic expectations amp have poor disciplining skills Often believe they are p0Werless in controlling children Children 0 Younger children more likely to elicit amp experience abuse Friday April 25 2014 o Chronieally sick ill or disabled children more likely to be abused Stepchildren Friday April 25 2014 Chapter 15 Influences Beyond the Family Child Care Quality of attachment affected by other care givers only When attachment W the mother is Weak insecure Children W insecure parental attachments bene t from strong caregiver attachments positive outcomes 3 forms of child care 0 In the home cared for by relatives 0 In another home belonging to a caregiver Daycare or nursery school programs Quality of child care 0 Structural Quality Indirect measure of quality Adultchild ratio of kids per room group Caregiver educationtraining 0 Process Quality Single best predictor of quality Encompasses all aspects of warmth 0 Being a good teachermaximizing learning What the child is doing during the day Harder to measure Varies by child Depends on the childteacher t State License Accreditation 0 Required for any institution in every state 0 Required of home caregivers in some states 0 Doesn t necessarily guarantee quality caregiving o Lenientsometimes inappropriate guidelines Focuses on structural quality OrganizationalAccreditation o NAEYC NAFCC NECPA Structural amp process quality evaluated 0 Higher standards than state licensing Characteristics of high quality child care programs Trained caregivers educated creditations LOW staff turnover kids get attached to caregivers Clean safe environment Variety of ageappropriate toys Space to play indoors amp outdoors Daily plans W structure Curriculum addressing all developmental domains Welcoming to parents 0 Happy teachers amp children Latchkey children Children Who care for themselves termed by children Who raise the latch to enter their 0Wn homes 0 May be detrimental only if children are aWay from home unsupervised in dangerous neighborhoods Friendships Developmental Changes in Friendships 0 Convenience Under 3 years Infants amp toddlers Pe Fr Friday April 25 2014 Familiarity Proximity amp convenience Interests 3 years Common interests Enjoying playing together Personality 8 years Genuinely liking someone Kindness reliability helpfulness Trust amp Intimacy Teen years Reliance Con ding sharing emotions Trust Friendships become more intimate First romantic relationships Groups take on greater signi cance Friendships mostly btwn children of the same sex race amp age attitudes Coruminating Discussing each others personal problems 0 Strengthens intimacy btwn friendships 0 Higher likelihood of depression anxiety er Relations After Preschool Peer relations change in elementary school 0 Number of peers increases 0 Children exposed to more diverse peers Mix of structured amp unstructured social time 0 Get along better due to advance communication skills Rough amp tumble play Physical play sometimes wrestling no aggression involved 0 More common among boys 0 More running amp chasing than wrestling btwn girls iend Groups Developmentally bene cial o Helps children transition from depending on parents to autonomy Rely on each other before they re ready to be independent 0 Helps build autonomy Cliques o 46 friends tending to be similar in age sex race interests 0 Frequently interacting 0 Sharing common interests amp traits Strongest in middle school 0 Broaden in high school amp disband towards the end Crowds 0 Larger mixedsex group of older children adolescents sharing similar values attitudes common labels Socially determined groups the kids don t pick determined by association 0 Less de ned by friendship o Disband by end of high school Selfesteem tends to correlate w status of one s social group Designated social group also depends on parenting style Authoritativer parented teens join groups promoting adult standards of behavior Neglectedpermissiver parented teens tend to join crowds opposing adult standards of behavior drug use etc Dominance Hierarchy Leader of the group 10 Friday April 25 2014 Tends to be the most physically strong peer among boys Tends to be peers W highest selfesteem good relationships amp useful skills among girls amp older boys Norms Standards of behavior that apply to all group members Peer Conformity Tendency to go along W Wishes of peers or yield to group pressures Peer pressure stronger When Pressures are positive playing sports taking academics seriously Children are younger amp more socially anxious Peers have high status Peers are friends Standards for behavior are not clearcut Peer Acceptance The extent to Which a child is viewed by peers as a worthylikable companion Measuring peer acceptance 0 Children measure each other on scales Nomination amp data gathering Vote for 3 peers you like the most 3 peers you like the least Tallying votes to determine groups Average peers Largest group of children 0 Not strongly liked or disliked Norm Neglected peers Least number of votes or none at all Shy Withdrawn Not noticed or nominated 0 Most likely to shift into other groups Rejected peers Actively disliked Often aggressive disruptive Social issues hygiene issues annoying lacking social skills Socially Rejected Children Many tend to be overly aggressive hyperactive socially unskilled unable to regulate emotions hostile See aggression more as an end than a means Consequences of rejection 0 Major obstacle in development Less involved in classroom activities Feel lonely Dislike school More likely to dropout in longterm instances Commit juvenile offenses Suffer from psychopathy Causes of rejection 0 Parental in uence amp imitating parent behavior thus learning prosocial skills or not learning social skills at all 0 Inconsistent punishment lack of warmth support Popular peers 11 0 Many liked votes 0 Positive characteristics charismatic attractive friendly etc Friday April 25 2014 0 Strong social skills Controversial peers Cool kids Popular yet often aggressive Mix of many like amp dislike votes Polarizing Mix of socially skilled amp disruptive behaviors rejected amp popular characteristics Social power Romantic Relationships By high school 2 3 of students have had romantic relationships win the previous 15 years Cultural factors affect which age teens begin dating at Adolescent romance developmentally signi cant 0 Begin based on best friendship amp change forms over time Younger adolescents focus on companionship Older adolescents focus on intimacy trust support Early involvement in romantic relationships may increase likelihood of o Selfconfidencehigher selfesteem 0 Positive relationships in adulthood o More emotional upheaval con ict 0 Early dating W many partners associated W drug use lower grades less satisfying relationships as adults Sexual Behavior By the end of high school 23 of students have had intercourse Likelihood increased by c Permissive attitudes toward sex 0 Lack of parent monitoring 0 Peer approval 0 Physical maturation 0 Drinking alcohol 1 in 6 sexually active female teens becomes pregnant Factors in teen pregnancy 0 Not using contraception correctlyconsistently o Ignorance of contraception facts Illusion of invincibility Lack of access to contraception Stigma attached to acquiring contraception Appeal of having a baby amp becoming a real adult having someone to love them Prevented by comprehensive sex ed programs Little evidence proving that focusing solely on abstinence prevents teen pregnancy or unprotected sex Sexual Orientation 15 of adolescents go through period of sexual questioning Often times part of the larger process of role experimentation 5 of adolescents identify as gay May be due to different levels of hormones genes Nonheterosexual adolescents more likely to face 0 Disrupted family amp peer relationships Verbalphysical attacks 0 Mental health issues 12 Friday April 25 2014 Media Typical high school graduates have watched over 15000 hours 2 straight years of TV in their lifetime Viewing time peaks just before adolescence Children W lower IQs or from lowerincome families tend to watch more TV Media use discouraged for children under 2 0 Need to learn thru sensorimotor play Less than 2 hours a day of media for older children ideal Children should not have televisions in their bedrooms 0 Content 0 Disrupts sleep 0 Background TV affects development attention Television Literacy Develops around 8 years old Ability to understand how info is conveyed in television amp how to interpret it properly Characters story lines production features Depends on cognitive development Interpretation of television programs develops gradually Children under 8 0 Can t distinguish reality from ction Often believe characters are real live in the TV amp can see them Typically don t remember plots use of redundant story lines May be confused by camera angle changes Little commercial literacy susceptible to persuasion Start recognizing brands around 2 years Mostly see targeted by ads for junk food amp toys Children over 8 0 Can distinguish reality from ction cartoons characters stories 0 Follow story lines Positive development outcomes 0 Education 3 Sesame street created to foster school readiness in low SES children 0 Prosocial behavior May modelteach sharing cooperating friendliness etc Link btwn prosocial behavior modeling amp imitation stronger than for aggressive behavior more rewards easier to practice 0 Creativity Boosted by magic amp fantasy Negative impacts on development 0 Health Risky behaviors glamorized smoking drinking fucking etc Negative consequences not portrayed or discussed Overweightobesity likely Sedentary activity Advertising of junk foods Eating disorders Unrealistic body images 0 Attention Fastpaced viewing affects how the brain focuses amp regulates attention Passive thinking less promotion of symbolicinterpretive thinking mixed evidence depends on programs being watched Less time spent on productive social activities not necessarily cause amp effect may be due to lack of skills amp resorting to watching TV instead 13 Friday April 25 2014 Leaving the TV consistently on leads to more time spent distracted from play or parentchild interactions Aggression Direction of correlation unclear Kids reenact What they see Often portrayed as funny acceptable amusing Heavy constant violence content on TV Desensitizationhabituation to violence on individual amp societal levels Many children start playing computer games around 25 years Majority of children use computers for internet amp games Content affects development 14 Some games may promote perceptualspatial skill development May increase processing speed Exposure to violence may also increase aggression 10 eXperience pathological addiction to games like gambling Time playing interferes W time studying May be used to improve academicsinschool learningachievement
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