First Exam Notes
First Exam Notes TC 101
Popular in TC 101 Understanding Media
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Meg G on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to TC 101 at Michigan State University taught by R. Ratan in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see TC 101 Understanding Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Michigan State University.
Reviews for First Exam Notes
What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/22/15
TC 101 Exam 1 Notes Week 1 Agricultural Age Industrial Society Information Society Agricultural Alphabet and writing materials were created and used Industrial 0 Telegraph type writer etc were invented Information Worker Create process transform or store info 0 Ex college professors publicists advertisers college students sales people writers editors Forms of Broadcast One to one o Interpersonal One to many 0 Intrapersonal Mass media ie social media 0 Many to many 0 New mass media 0 Many to one o Newer mass media Old amp Busted v New Hotness Old Media 0 Radio TV newspaper Film 0 Massive scale 0 Mediated Gatekeepers 0 Analog New Media 0 Internet 0 May be smaller in scale 0 Often unmediated 0 Digital Types of Communication Synchronous instant 0 One to one conversation telephone Skype 0 Many to many meeting town hall Google hangout Asynchronous delayed 0 One to one text emaiI voicemai 0 One to many most TV broadcasts YouTube newspaper 0 Many to many bogs FB Group wikis SMCR The Guiding Model 0 5 source 0 M message o C channel 0 R receiver Encoding takes places between message and channel decoding takes place between channel and receiver Media Economics forces that allocate resources to satisfy competing needs 0 Decisions based on supply amp demand Economies of Scale 0 ln media the cost of producing an extra unit is always very low Technological Determinism technology determines what people do 0 Media determines culture 0 Ex The Matrix computer effects how people live in daily lives 0 Ex Brains adjusting to concentrating for short times makes it harder to focus for long periods of time Political Economy maintain social order via hegemony 0 Karl Marx s Das Kapital 0 Rich control the poor through social aspects aka social media 0 Hegemony status quo Feminist amp Ethnic Media maintains patriarchy andor racial hegemony Looks genderracial roles amp portrayals in media Analog communication uses continuously varying signals corresponding to the light or sounds originated by the source Digital means computer readable information formatted in ls and Os 0 As technology advances more things are becoming digital and analog is dying out 0 Face to face communication hand written notes etc are analog Convergence the integration of mass media computers and telecommunications 0 Firms like Apple Google and Facebook thrive while other more conventional media rms struggle Narrowcasting targets media to speci c segments of the audience 0 The de ning aspects of the new media are that they are digital interactive social asynchronous multimedia and narrowcasted Net Neutrality means users are not discriminated against based on the amount or nature of the data they transfer on the Internet 0 Internet providers should remain neutral in handling info on the Internet to avoid favoring content provided by their af liates and business partners and charging their competitors and the public excessive fees Diffusion of Innovation Media Scholar Week 2 Need for Cognition A psychological trait 0 People with high need for cognition enjoy thinking pay more attention to the news are more analytical conform less to others opinions bc they have their own Agenda Setting Theory 0 News media does not tell people what to think it tells them what to think about 0 Relates to gatekeepers o Creates bias Ex political races Framing way to spin the news effect what people think different than bias o Is a news story s speci c focus 0 Ex celeb in rehab focus on why they got there or focus on how they re getting better Spiral of Silence 0 People w minority opinions fear speaking out bc of fear of social isolation o What makes it spiral o No supportfear of social isolation less people express minority becomes smaller spiral downwards o Supportopposite Selective Exposure attention to different news content is in uenced by attitudes interests beliefs and values Emotion amp Attention to News 0 People pay more attention to negative stuff ie Rubber necking when car accident happens watch the accident not the road when driving by or quotif it bleeds it leadsquot 0 Violentarousing stories draw more attention 0 Ex JFK v Nixon 0 TV viewers watching debate thought JFK won but radio listeners thought Nixon won 1st televised debate The Werther Effect the more media coverage of suicide the higher rates of suicide 0 Makes you think about it Print Media Books Newspapers amp Magazines 0 Preinformation society 0 Cave drawings l papyrus books printing press 1st printing press was wood amp invented in China 1st movable was made of clay 1st metal was made in Korea Turning points Growth in Literacy 0 Literacy for the elite 0 Books were rare mostly Bibles amp Pre 1100 mostly in Latin 1200 s1400 s writing printed in local languages mostly bibles 1300 s1500 s trading routes open amp universities established 0 1450 Gutenberg Press 0 1455 Gutenberg Bible published 0 1602 First modern library Oxford 0 1846 Rotary press 0 1940 s Offset publishing American Reads 0 Mostly bibles or religious tracts o Almanacs magazines local only pamphlets Thomas Paine 0 Copyright 1790 Rise of Newspapers 16001750 s No freedom of the Press 0 Publishers received licenses of publication John Peter Zenger39s Trial 0 1733 openly critical of British gov t and Gov Crosby policies 0 Charged with seditious libel Found not guilty bc what he was saying was true First Amendment freedom of speech press religion etc allows publications without gov t control approval or in uence PostRevolutionary Newspapers 0 Literacy increases 0 New York Herald 1st modern newspaper newsroom spot news beat reporters 0 Beat reporters focus on a speci c topic Civil War journalism 0 Wire Services 0 Field reporters AP reporters of a separate entity that help local papers get coverage of nation wide events Concise writing style because AP reports transmitted through Morse Code 0 New Diversity expand on New journalism Post Civil War 0 Current events gt editorials o Anticorruption o NYT v Tweed Ring News serves as watch dog Muckraking investigative reporting aimed at uncovering corruption and bringing about reform Ida Tarbell discovered corruption in oil industry and went undercover to a Women s Insane Asylum Upton Sinclair author of The jungle about grotesque meat packaging Changes in Postage Law Impacts Sales 1700 s1800 s few magazines survived because shipping costs were so high 0 Postal Act of 1879 special postage rate to magazines 0 Magazines PennyPound o Sevenfold increase over 40 years Yellow journalism Turn of the 20th Century Sensationalistic reporting in late 19th century sex drugs love crime etc o Pulitzer v Hearst o Hearst quotYour furnish the pictures and I ll furnish the warquot No war in Cuba gets pictures and writes like there is anyways 0 Ex Tabloids Responsible Journalism Pulitzer Prize Respect for the journalist Objectivity Social responsibility model 0 Not just reports truthfully but reports the facts News in Information Age 0 Industrial Age info was scarce expensive institutionally oriented designed for consumption 0 Information Age info is abundant cheap personally oriented designed for participation Technology39s impact on publishing 0 Lower barriers to entry ie computer to plate technology Easier distribution ie Amazon Easier consumption ie Kindle 0 New median landscape ie convergence NOT COVERED Conglomerates are big businesses or corporations that own seemingly unrelated holdings They are made up of diverse parts from across several media industries and involved in multiple areas of business activity Gatekeeping lntellectual property a creative work of art writing lm or software that belongs to a legally protected owner 0 Individual authors amp photographers have rights to their work for up to 70 years after their death bc of copyright 0 Newspaper magazine business models 0 New york herald Penny press Week 3 Media Literacy the ability to understand the in uence of access analyze evaluated respond actively to AND CREATE Understand the in uence of media on individual attitude and social perspectives which varies in strength according to interactions between media individuals and society 0 Access begin engaging with incuding amp beyond simply having hardware media Analyze have the ability to understand and recognize patterns 0 Ex regarding education amp regarding patterns Criticaly Evaluate to use your quottrust meterquot to assess the quality veracity persuasive internet etc of media 0 Ex looking at how many people have downloaded a torrent 0 Talked about ethos and logos wasn t paying attention see if in book to read Respond Activey consciously use and engage in discussionsdecision making about media o Create generate content that facilitates selfexpression and cultural participation through media NOT COVERED Uses and grati cations future Agenda Setting Theory selecting and calling to the public s attention ideas events a As summarized by political scientist Bernard Cohen quotthe press may not be successful much of the time in telling people What to think but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers What to think about Gatekeepers good example list in book Reporters and program hosts decide whose perspectives on a story to present and whose to ignore Editors of newspapers books and magazines screen the information that gets to readers and decide where to place stories and other material 0 Owners executives and producers lter information for radio and television programs 0 Government agencies may put pressure on the press and television and radio stations not to broadcast certain information 0 Advertisers and political groups may in uence which messages get through Theory of Media Cultivation claims that TV promotes a worldview that is inaccurate but the viewers nonetheless assume re ects real life claims that TV creates a synthetic reality that shapes heavy viewers perspectives and beliefs about the world 0 George Gerbner the idea that consumption of entertainment media can change people s attitudes Cultivation process is gradual and cumulative Mainstreaming a process by which mass communication stabilizes and homogenizes social perspectives what happens when people of different groups are exposed to the same media Resonance the extent to which media representations are congruent with personal experience what happens when a person s reallife environment strongly resembles the environment depicted in the media Hegemony is the use of media to create a consensus around certain ideas so that they come to be accepted as common sense Sex in second life side box thing p 239 Sexism in video games and quotsecond lifequot games 0 Second life is highly sexist Unique features of social media 0 Blurs production and consumption 0 Nowadays Alter conceptions of space lnvite supersaturation Encourage multitasking Promote visual thinking Media Ethics 0 Morality judging right from wrong 0 Ethics moral rules of conduct that guide actions 0 Media Ethics moral rules of media professionals Are media ethics codi ed in law like in medicine 0N EXAM 0 Ex Law prohibiting cigarette advertising libel laws 0 Not always codi ed in law media ethics are guided by 0 Community standards 0 Professional practices 0 Personal values Ethical Principles Golden Rule quotDo unto others as you would have others do unto youquot Aristotle s Golden Mean moral virtue is an appropriate location between two extremes 0 Keys moderation and balance Veil of Ignorance Rawls 1999 the journalist should ignore the differences of race and class and treat all members of society equaHy o What about an unsolved recent crime Does race need to be mentioned in the story about a rapist Categorical Imperative Immanuel Kant Act on the maxim which you wish to become a universal law NO EXCEPTIONS 0 Should fact checking be universal Yes is a universal law for many media outlets up until a certain point Mostly limited because of time and availability of sources Utility John Stuart Mill 0 Seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number 0 Ex Reporter has a tip about a terrorist attack According to this principle should she publicize it Pragmatic Ethics John Dewey o The ends justify the means Ethical principle depends on the situation 0 Ex In political media Whistle blower NOT COVERED Society of professional journalist39s code of ethics Seek Truth and Report It Journalists should be honest fair and courageous in gathering reporting and interpreting information PG 480 Reader 1 Junket an expensepaid trip intended to in uence media coverage PR Ethics P 497 Reader 1 Advocacy Honesty Expertise Independence Loyalty Fairness Advertising Ethics p 491 Harmful products ex Cigarettes Stereotyping ethnic and sexrole stereotypes 0 Consumer privacy getting your info when you make a purchases and using it to make a pro le for you Intrusiveness are there places that should be protected from ads Subliminal Messages in Media ex in moviesTV Deceptive Advertising quotpu eryquot exaggerated assertions Ethical Entertainment p 489 0 Who s responsible for media effects Is it the game creators producers writers etc responsibility to lter what they make in order to protect the younger generations from the violence vulgarity etc Ethical Limits to free speech 0 lndecency is a sensitive issue in terms of free speech ex JT amp Janet Super bowl or MA ipping off at Super bowl media showing blurred out images or no images at all Con dentiality Protecting sources in order to have respect from others who may have inside information about important series Con ict of Interest Freelancersjournalists allow someone else to pay for their expenses in return for a biased article 0 unkets expensepaid trip intended to in uence media coverage Week 4 Radio and Recorded Music History Stuff 0 1836 Samuel Morse invents electric telegraph 1877 Phonograph invented by Thomas Edison 0 1896 Gugliem Marconi invented wireless telegraph initially used Morse Code used for shiptoshore technology 0 1888 Paraf ne Cylinder invented 188019005 The cylinder invented 1901 Morse Code broadcasted from Canada to England rst long distance wireless communication 0 1906 Victrola one of the rst record based recording devices genres develop 0 1912 Titanic Sinks 0 Radio Act of 1912 Gov t takes control of radio regulation Licensing doesn t begin until 1923 0 World War o 1917 Navy controls Radio Patent disputes standardized technology Forced Marconi Italian to sell to GE US 0 Radio Act of 1927 o Creates FRC Fed R Commission 0 Standardized band and frequencies 0 By 1924 record sales dropped in half bc music could be transmitted through the radio 0 Industry recovers by licensing music to radio stations Advertisementsupported Radio 0 First introduced in the US Sponsors support the radio leads to wider distribution 0 Radio make more can create more stations 0 Advertisers have direct access to consumers for rst time ever 0 Awareness of national issues increases and is easier spread o Create cultural identity a common cultural identity 0 Public Radio NPR purpose is to inform public on news current events etc upholds responsibilities of a 39watch dog unbiased o No advertisement 0 Politics amp News on the Radio 0 Ex FDR s reside chats Edward R Murrow s Boys amp WWII Radio Facts 0 AM amplitude modulation height 0 FM frequency modulation frequency measure in Hertz Hz 0 Growth of FM stations saved radio 0 High delity sound more station per market segmented audiences more genres TV Video Killed the Radio Star 0 1948 TVs came into the living room 0 Many radio programs transition in TV 0 As the world turns Gunsmoke Radio networks become TV networks 0 RCA CBS 0 Advertising followed audiences to TV Impact of Television 0 Radio program formats and talent move to TV 0 Radio networks parent corporations refocused on TV 0 Radio station forced to adapt 0 Become more local rise to the disc jockey quottop 40quot radio format radio becomes for music rather than info 0 Payola when record labels bribe DJs to play their songs Hybridizing Music Genres mixing and changing genres to make new genres Record companies own the majority of the recording industry NOT COVERED Format clock an hourly radioprogramming schedule shows DJ when to play certain kinds of music read a new item etc Nickelodeon phonograph or player piano operated by inserting a coin originally a nickel High delity accurate reproduction of natural sound Copyright the legal right to control intellectual property With it comes the legal privilege to use sell or license creative works Music industry associations RIAA amp other trade associations function as the industry s lobbying and legal arm 0 ASCAP amp BMI represent songwriters lyricists and music publishers and help them collect royalties on their music from live performances radio plays commercial usage etc Electromagnetic recording a method of storing information as magnetized areas on a tape or disk Film The rst moving picture was 25 pictures of a horse running 0 The 25000 bet was is the horses hoofs all came off the ground at once they do OneReelers amp Short Films 0 Vaudeville comedy and drama variety hours carnivals 0 Current ex SNL short skits 0 Become obsolete because TV allows for many channels so you can watch whatever genre you want 0 The Nickelodeon quotfeature lengthquot lms cheap 005 0 Before lm did Jukeboxes First Movies 0 quotThe Great Train Robberyquot 1903 very brief under 15 min 0 Used multiangle shots and narrative amp editing 0 D W Grif th quotBirth of a Nationquot 1905 0 Feature length multiple cameras amp angles most popular lm for 20 years racist view of reconstruction era rst feature length lm Special Effects 0 First sci quotA Trip to the Moonquot 1902 o Incorporated trick photography special effects double exposure use of mirrors slow motion fade insouts only 1 camera angle Talkies Earliest quotFrank Ott s Sneezequot 1894 o 1913 Edison produces 19 talking pictures in 1915 he abandons them thinking there s no market o 1927 quotJazz Singerquot birth of talkies 0 Not talking mouthing words then text comes up got singing in music to match up with mouth Edison Manufacturing Co Monopoly on camera 0 Patent lawsuit happy sued anyone who tried to make a camera lm Motion Picture Patents Company MPPC created by Edison 0 Uniform rental rates 0 Legal monopoly on equipment lm stock projectors etc Fewer people making movies less content quality goes down 0 Controlled industry enforced legally and with thugs o Lasted until the industry went form New Jersey to Hollywood Far away from Edison and thugs patents can t be enforced laws are looser because not as developed Yearly good weather could lm all year long variety of landscape for back sets Lots of sun super bright arti cial light not needed lms more clear 0 US v MPCC 1915 reduces market power of MPCC lllegal restraint of trade antitrust Technical Issues Talkies cameras were loud and actors had issues transitioning from just acting to having to talk most had terrible voices 0 Ex Clara Bow made fun of her and the issues with transitioning with Betty Boop Sound disk v sound on lm 0 Had to synchronize lm and record of voice tracks at same time to sync them up Sound on lm synced up for you but sound quality was much lower more wearandtear but easier to edit Early Studios 0 Big 5 LowesMGM Wizard of Oz Paramount Popeye Warner Bros Bugs Bunny Fox Shirley Temple 0 RKO Godzilla Small 3 0 Universal 0 Cmumbm OOOO 0 United Artists owned by Charlie Chapman and other actors Movie Ratings 0 Mutual Film v Industrial Commission of Ohio 1915 0 Outcome lms are business do not get free speech Hayes Code 1930 created wider censorship across more states 0 Production Code Administration 1934 Breen Era 0 Heavy censorship o Breen had a large role in the movie production of Casablanca Can t imply they had sex in Paris can t have sex at the end etc 0 Code rewritten 1956 because of foreign lms and TV Now allowed for interracial relationships adultery prostitution abortion etc Allowed the US lm industry to compete showed what sold more interesting 0 Sacri ced morals to promote business lolllz MPAA 1968 o Started w 4 ratings G M R X o PG13 added in 1984 bc of Indiana Jones Vertical Integration having a say in all aspects of the supply chain 0 Controlling of everything that goes into making and selling the movie all levels of production distribution and theater 0 Production Distribution Theater owned by production companies 0 US v Paramount 1948 sti ing the market studio have to sell one of the three levels of production All sold theaters except for Lowes Led to higher production costs fewer lms and higher price for movie tickets and fewer theaters Bene ts allows smaller studios to enter indie lms TV amp Home Video 0 Film losing to TV so they sold movies to TV networks and produced TV shows 0 Alternate Networks set up pay TV HBO and satellitebased cable movie channels VCR s 1980 s referred to as the quotBoston Stranglerquot of the lm industry because less people go to theaters and just wait to watch them at home 0 Causes legal challenges To make it work Disney okays rentals and home sales From Studio to Living Room 0 Studios produce 1525 movies per year 0 600 released each year Domestic theaters l foreign theaters l pay per view DVD rentals amp sales Pay TV Foreign TV US Network TV 0 Roughly 100 millionmovie lndie Movies not as big stats smaller paychecks story is innovative and more daring Movie Theaters 0 10 ticket rst week of run 0 750 to movie studiosdistribution 0 250 for theaters o Secondthird week 50 Concessions are how movie theaters make up the difference NOT COVERED Film Noir comprised the quotdarkquot moody American lms of the 1940 s often focused on detectives or similar themes Star System the lm studios use of stars popularity to promote their movies 0 Rudolph Valentino Lillian Gish Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin Film industry employment you should be in pictures 0 Acting became less stylized and those who didn t have the vocal quality couldn t survive 3D technology 0 Allow older lms to be rereleased w new technology and higher prices to be charged for 3D lms Lumiere brothers originated the movie projector in 1895 by shining a light through the strip of picture transparencies and enlarging the pictures with an optical lens Rear projection effects have images projected behind performers who are in the foreground Front projection effects lets actors be photographed in front of an image so that they appear as part of it lndie lmmakind cost you should be making pictures new technology has driven the cost down even more and the success of independent lms like juno and video rental chains promoting indie lms helps the industry grow Guilds o The Writers Guild and Screen Actors Guild strikes of 20072008 proved that the craft guilds still hold a great deal of power US Films as cultural imperialism Hollywood has some what of a monopoly over the global lm production some countries doing mixed movies Ex LOTR lmed edited etc in New Zealand in order to quotspread the wealthquot Week 5 Visual Media Television FCC Freeze 19481952 0 No new stations to est spectrum standards 0 Big 3 Networks est CBS ABC NBC 0 Some cities made community antenna television to receive distant signals 0 Similar to cable Everyone shares one big antenna and they share through wires 0 quotGolden Age 1950 s come about 0 I Love Lucy Leave it to Beaver Andy Grif th Analog v Digital TV 0 Analog TV 480 Horizontal lines 330 vertical lines 0 Digital TV required by law since 2009 increased resolution from 720 to 1080 horizontal lines 0 Improved sound digital CD quality improved color and brightness DTV amp HDTV 0 Digital TV does not necessarily mean high de nition 0 SDTV Standard de nition digital 169 ratio or 43 ratio 480i or 480 p 0 HDTV high de nition digital All 169 ratio 720p 720 progressive lines 1280 x 720 1080i 180 interlaced lines 1080p 1080 progressive lines INERLACED LINES ARE HIGHER DEF Rise of Cable distributors Small town success 0 Can get signal w cable in small towns 0 Multiple system operator MSO a cable television rm that owns two or more television distribution systems 0 Comcast 0 Time Warner Cable Mustcarry policy cable companies must broadcast local channeb Satellite An Alternative to Cable 0 1982 FCC authorized direct broadcast satellites DBS 1994 DirecTV launched services to the home 0 Two major service providers DirecTV and DishNetwork Television Industry 0 Content Provider 0 Broadcast networks 0 Cable networks 0 Content Distributor 0 Local stations owned or af liated w networks 0 Local cable service providers independent or part of the MSO 0 Satellite 0 Internet Broadcast Networks amp Stations 0amp0 owned amp operated 0 Most stations in big cities like NYC LA e WNBC NY KNBC LA 0 Network Af liates a TV station carries substantially one network s programming and commercials 0 Business Model 1 Network pays local af liated stations compensation fee to air their programs 0 Business Model 2 Or no payment Network leaves some air time for the af liates to air local commercials to generate revenue Cable Networks 0 Basic cable networks basic pay service 0 CNN ESPN Lifetime 0 Make money from Advertising revenues af liate fee from cable distributor 15 cents per subscriber goes to network 0 Premium cable networks pay additional pay service 0 HBO Showtime Cinemax No ads getting all revenue from subscribers make money from cable distributors Syndication Syndication rental or licensing of media products focuses on TV SHOW FirstRun syndication shows made especially for syndication WoF OffNetwork syndication shows produced by one network but played on another o Primarily daytime TV 78 pm Prime Time Access Rules Used to be required that networks had to run a show from someone else s channel at 78 pm TV Ratings Nielsen Media Research 0 Sampling recording from everyone would be too much info 0 Diary Feb May July Nov sweeps 0 Meters in more than 10000 households people meter 0 New device inaudible digital code embedded in program has unique code in it for different TV shows Con TV could be on but no one watching 0 Problems w Ratings Technology 0 Who is watching what Don t know who s watching or paying attention Facial recognition can help with that o How are we watching The second screen 0 Social ratings mentions on Twitter FB etc as a way to better info 0 When are we watching Don t watch at same time DVR Hulu etc 0 Importance of ratings 0 Advertisers negotiate ads rate with networks based on ratings 0 Cost per thousand CPM The dollar amount costs to reach 1000 viewers with an ad 0 EX hypothetical New Girl Rating of 10 1159 Million TV households in the US One household has 2 people on average 115912 23 M 23000 lot of 1000 TV viewers A 30second ad spot costs 419000 CPM is 41900023000 1822 How do networks make money PROFIT high ratings and low production costs 0 Games shows 505705 reality TV recently succeed w the formula TV Rating amp Share 0 Rating households turned into a given programall households w TV 0 Share households turned into a given programall TVs that are on NOT COVERED Community access means created by the community residents without the involvement of the cable operator Why quotTV Wastelandquot Finsyn rules 1970 Financial Interest in Syndication Rules pushed networks out of the syndication business Prime time access rule 7 to 8 pm time slot had to be lled with a show from a network to increase diversity Famiy viewing hour 1975 Noncommercial TV 0 Funding from local or state gov t as well as on air scheduled auctions and soliciting contributions form private individuals and local foundations Seek corporate underwriting of local and national programs for funding EXAM IS 50 MULTIPLE CHOICE
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'