Bio 152 Notes Chapter 23
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Bio 152 Notes Chapter 23 Hypothesis about allopatric speciation o Morphology indicates Species A and B are closely related Hypothesis about evolutionary history 0 Two species have common ancestry Charles Darwin 0 Darwin and the history of life on Earth and how he concluded his hypothesis Personal observations Galapagos islands and bugs Many colleagues information from geologist friends and fellow coHeagues Geological gradualism 0 James Hutton 17261797 Scottish Geologist Concept of geological gradualism o Lyell s Uniformitarianism Charles Lyell 17971875 0 British geologist Continuous change Fossils and Adaptation 0 Jean Baptiste Lamark 17441829 French Biologist Fossils show change over time Biodiversity is a result of environment Darwin Synthesizes Changed is gradual over time Time periods where long Species adapt to local conditions Therefore species change gradually over long periods Species originate and go extinct Shared features equals a common ancestry OOOOOO DECENT WITH MODIFICATION Darwin Concluded o Earth39s biodiversity resulted from decent with modi cation A phylogenetic tree diagram can depict species ancestry Decent with modi cation 0 An evolutionary pattern Observed in fossil record Supported by comparative morphology Tested many times 0 Most recent by molecular data 0 Never falsi ed Reconstructing Earth39s History 0 lnferences from genealogical approach There is only one accurate history of life on earth All extant species have ancestors Lineages of related species can be hypothesized Related species share features Shared features may indicate common ancestry Analogous Characteristics 0 Share a similar function but a different ancestry Homologous Characteristics 0 Share a common ancestry but differ in function 0 Using Homology to tract ancestry o Willi Hennig 19131976 Father of phylogenetic systematics Entomologist Developed principles to reveal ancestral plesiomorphic and derived apomorphic characteristics Shared derived features Synapomorphies Shared ancestral features symplesiomorphies based on homology Modi ed and still used today 0 Turning Evolutionary Hypothesis Phylogenetics into classi caitons o Propose hypothesis of evolutionary history phylogeny 0 Use only homologous features 0 Hierarchy should re ect hypothesized relationships 0 Classi cation summary 0 Based on phylogenetic hypothesis Included groups should be monophyletic Bring order to biological diversity Internationally accepted names Hierarchical Predictive OOOOO
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