Class Notes PSYC 3188
Popular in Attitudes Toward Death and Dying
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 72 page Bundle was uploaded by Cole Campeas on Monday February 23, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 3188 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Pamela Woodruf in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Attitudes Toward Death and Dying in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Class Notes
Yes, It is very detailed and accurate. I'm in the class now and this is literally a word for word document of everything she says!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/23/15
Death and Dying 01172012 117 On average men live to 76 women to 81 quotDeath is the leverer of all personsquot 0 death is ultimate certainty we all die but the ultimate uncertainty most of us don t know when we will die Only members of animal kingdom aware of death from young age 0 source of great anxiety Many words involve death in our society 0 Dead ahead dying to meet you dead end job Greek words Hypnos sleep Thanatos death 0 quotbrothers in Greek mythology People now usually die in institutions rather than at home Herman Fifel 0 quotMeaning of Deathquot 0 takes from psych sociology anthropology 69 KublerRoss quotOn Death and Dyingquot New ethic in 1954 0 Prototype of dialysis machine 0 Keep people alive Confronting own death 0 First experience o How do you want to die Death related behavior type AE in crossing the street only extremes mentioned 0 Type A o Stayed in crosswalk waited for light etc o Concerned about life death 0 Wanted to ensure saffety 0 Type E o Willing to cross street at any time 0 Not too concerned with safety Sex discrimination after death 0 Men much more likely to have photo 0 Women usually written up in terms of her husband Children s understanding of death 0 Ideas lled with paradoxes Development 0 Learn to differentiate itself from surrounding 6 mo2 yrs Aware of alternating states wet dry dark light quotAll gonequot 0 Between 3 and 5 Dead are alive in another place Dead are bored Why can t dead come back 0 Between 6 and 9 personify death image from video games cartoons believe death will only occur under certain circumstances believe they will avoid death by following rules 0 Age 10 Universal personal abstract Talking to children about death Don t use euphemisms Be straight forward Teachable moment for child to potentially take action on death 0 Squirrels on H st Death is NOT sleeping Ok to say it is usually older people but children will die Let them accept death Pets 0 Proper burial 0 To tell or not to tell 0 Ok to allow children to see sorrow in death Attending a funeral 0 Adult should accompany child Must be willing to leave when child wants to leave 0 Dead body needs explaining Don t have them kiss it Child may feel responsible 0 Let them know nothing they did or thought could have caused it 0 Take them to nursing home or cemetery Don t be concerned about traumatization 0 We face many in life 0 Better to try and talk about it 0 Much exposure to death Images of death Connectionseparation 0 Connection is around others see them and feel them 0 Separation anxiety around being alone Movementstasis 0 Movement is life 0 Stasis is death 0 Integritydisintegration o Integrity is whole body 0 Disintegration is wounds and death Adolescent and death 0 Not usually an issue Idea shaped by life experiences Greif in the child Bowlby quotAttachment Separation and Lossquot 0 Child will be in state of denial o Bodily distress somatic distress Nightmares 00000 O Not feeling well Anger at being abandoned anger after suicide is rational Hostility towards others for letting it happen Guilt I caused death Replacement gures Trying to carry out wishes of the dead person Worry Freud daughter Anna O 0 Found that worst possible outcome for child of dead parent would be to hold on to fantasy Best possible outcome would be investing their commitment in someone else Children rebounding from death Rebound faster than adults 0 Children will take parents literally Life Span Romans lived to around 22 years 0 During Am Revolution was around 36 years 0 1900 47 years 0 Today average is 79 0 Early 50 of deaths were children 12 and younger Today 70 of those who die are 65 and older 0 1900 85 die at home 0 Today 25 die at home Baby stillborn lssued death cert not birth cert Truth telling Vernick and Karonwhen kids told they were sick kids were more cooperative and made everything easier Children with terminal illnesses Doctor usually tells parents and then children Dr at Stanford tells child over 5 rst and asks how to tell the parents Adults begin to believe that it is their fault for the death 0 Should be assured that nothing they did caused disease 0 Difficult time retaining info in that state 0 Make treatment very clear 0 Must be patient 0 Adults often go into extreme denial Lying to children does nothing They will eventually understand Children understanding disorder allows them to cooperate Between 510 0 Fear is of treatment Adolescent 0 Fear is of death to themselves or others Pa rent offers safety Cavenaugh Children at all points desire to be understood Allow for children to get affairs in order Children fear not having a parent there Unfair association 90 of children believe that children get sick because they are bad 0 Let children select when they take a bath or choose from menu themselves Talk through the problem with the child o If they re wrong don t tell them right away 0 Be accessible 0 User friendly clothing Non verbal cues Take note of body language 0 Artwork Spinetta Help kids reintegrate in school between treatments Growing concern over isolation Keep those you love close Study 0 50 children 610 25 terminal with leukemia 25 chronic non fatal disease dolls of mother father doctor nurse placed in a diorama ask children where they would want dolls to be terminal children placed adult doll further away from bed than the not terminally ill terminal children facing isolation 0 those who are similar would be more relatable OOOOO Hospice 0 near death 0 take machinery out of room 0 clean sheets pajamas 0 parents should then be separated Fear of death 0 unknown permanence separation from those you love 0 completely universal Expressing fear of death avoid hospital funeral home 0 face death 0 extreme sports 0 re ghter Freud 0 two basic instincts 0 all life forms return to stability of organic state 0 Life instinct Eros o Thirst hunger sex 0 Death instinct Thanatos o Bullying torture ghting cruelty 0 Can turn inward Being a patient 0 Isolated o Restrictive o lndignityhumiliation Physician holds great social control The dying patient Restructures way of looking at life Goal is care and comfort as well as cure Can experience early social death 0 Nobody will address the patients as if they are alive Secret awareness 0 Keep it from victim Suspected awareness o Nobody tells dying but they suspect Mutual pretense awareness 0 Everyone knows but doesn t talk about it Open awareness 0 Everyone knows and talks about it Death trajectory Lingering trajectory 0 Social death 0 Positive gives family chance to say goodbye Pointed trajectory o Risky procedure 0 Might save life or result in death 0 Time to talk Dangerpedod 0 Will patient withstand stressful event 0 No time to talk 0 Crisis trajectory 0 Danger at any time o Aneurism random event 0 Will die trajectory o No way to save person 0 Provide them with comfort Unexpected quick trajectory 0 Procedure results in crisis Learning that you re dying From doctor Gentle abrupt etc 0 Could be from self 0 Mobility decreasing 0 Feeling sicker When does dying begin 0 After tests 0 Once given prognosis Once you accept the facts When is dying ok 0 When the patient says so 0 Physical discomfort Feel worthless Shenidmann 0 Survivor is patient once person dies 0 Many times survivor or one that is close to death will worry about physical appearance and being physical o Often times just any contact will lessen burden Burdens of the patient 0 Social stigma with disease 0 Often times we believe that there is a possibility that they might transmit the disease when we know much better Stages of dealing with death 0 Denial o Emotional buffer Anger o Resentment towards anyone involved Bargaining o Attempt to make a deal with fate 0 Let me live until 0 Depression 0 Increases once health begins to noticeably deteriorate o Reactive never again will I be able to o Prepatory I will never be able to Acceptance 0 Dealing with impending death 0 Just because you accept doesn t mean you like it 0 Analysis of stages of dying o Kalish 0 Labels are unfair to the dying 0 Not everyone experiences stages 0 Didn t permit individualized dying Weissman 0 People shouldn t have to die based on preestablished stages 0 Proposes stages Crisis U Need crisis help Livingdying n Integrate dying into life Terminal phase U Need support and approval Kastenbaum o No evidence people go from stage to stage 0 Evidence is anecdotal o A person s total life is excluded when you force stages 0 Acknowledge contributions of KublerRoss Alt treatment 0 Therapeutic massage 0 They are touchable o Relaxing Self hypnosis o Allows one to move past dealing with death 0 Acupuncture Meditation Aroma therapy 0 Limited by nausea Animal therapy 0 Enjoy company of an animal Selfhelp groups 0 Relating to one another Hospice Care 0 St Chritopher sDame Cicely Saunders 0 Had no impact on the dying 0 At age 39 she went to medical school and nally had in uence over the dying o Palliative care Stop pain 0 Home Care 0 80 of dying in US have home care 0 Look over house and make suggestions 0 Doctor able to bring in meds to help with symptoms 0 lnanent 0 Free standing hospice o 20 go to inpatient 0 may visit at any time o able to take steps to make sure that people remain mobile HIVAIDS Became known 1981 Estimated 11 million cases Leaves person helpless Sometimes exposed to persecution Disempowering Alienates those who suffer from it Screaming room Diagnosed with a type of pneumonia that con rms AIDS Issues with ying Barbara and Walter don t get along well Peter unable to support himself in California with Barbara Possibility of getting AIDS from intervenes drugs or anal sex Barbara feels as if she is an infant s mother Peter continues to have memory problems 0 Massive strokes Peter had herpes proctitis Forced to be on intravenous nourishment Peter says that the people in his support group that have died just didn t have the right attitude Refuses to cry most of the time Autopsy Post mortem Procedure 0 External exam Look for bruising injuries Growths or discolorations o Dissection and exam of organs Yincision Start at shoulders meet at sternum end at crotch Each organ weighed or described Organ usually sliced where they connect at one end Microscopic exam of tissue 0 Slides need to be stained o Tissues cut thin enough to examine Toxicology and cultures 0 Urine samples 0 Cultures looking for fungus infections viruses 0 Blood samples from chambers of the heart 0 Toxicology looks for drugs time consuming 68 weeks Methods 0 Virchow Remove organs one by one o Rokitansky Remove all organs at once and lift them out Reasons and purposes 0 Autopsy normally done in situations of murder unattended deaths suicides and dying in solitude 0 Effectiveness of new techniques Documents of Death 0 Death cert 0 Physicians involved with death ll out and sign cert 0 State seal on it 0 Need to make multiple copies to send to agencies like insurance Disposal of the remains o What you want done with the body Obituary 0 Printed without cost 0 Photo if well known person 0 Biography 0 Age and cause of death optional 0 Death notice Look like classi ed ad Pay by the line Color or bampw photo Usually gives date of death List survivors o Arrangements of funeral service 0 Last will and testament 0 Determine disposition of your property 0 Testateintestate Died with will lntestate means no will O 0000 State will take over if there is no will 0 Testatortestatrix Testator is lling out the will Testatrix is female lling out the will 0 Executorexecutrix Designated person to carry out will Harvesting the dead 0 Organ donation Donate organs after death Put on drivers license Will not happen if family doesn t want it 0 Body donation History of the funeral Iraq 60000 years ago 0 Buried with tools proving belief in afterlife o Bodies remained intact Egyptians 0 Simply buried in the sand 0 Bodies preserved so that the soul could return to it after travelling in time o 70 days to preserve o liquefy brain Greeks 0 Family would use perfumes and spices to mask smell 0 Cremation allowed soul to be released from body Romans 0 Burial and cremation 0 Had undertakers Hebrews 0 Given cloths over heads 0 Wrapped Christians 0 Body washed and rubbed in alcohol 0 Wrapped in cloth 0 Leonardo da Vincivenous injection 0 Preserve body by injecting with alcohol 0 Used for anatomical sketches US 19th century 0 Family does prep for family 0 Coffin made 0 Used formaldehyde Functions of the funeral o For individual 0 Remind us that we are mortal 0 Show one is worthy of celebration For society 0 See family 0 Reunite 0 Mirror of values and expectations we have of each other O O Rite of passage Funeral Directors 0 Body removal 0 0 Pick up in inconspicuous van Give death certi cates Preneed or at need 0 O O Preneed funeral planned before death At need death has already occurred and family plans it Usually takes around 2 hours pick casket pay for services 0 Embalming O OOOOOOOOOOOOO Room must have keypad lock Must be soundproof no windows and good exhaust fans Takes around 2 hours Body at 38 degrees Full length waterproof suit worn Formaldehyde used Hair is washed Hands at the waist Usually right over left Around a ball of cotton Massage body to relieve rigormortus Head goes slightly to the right Breasts pulled into place Lips shaped with putty and sealed O O 0 Tube of embalming uid pushed in curated artery Try to match skin tone of life Blood pumped out Restorative Art 0 If missing body parts from accident Make Up 0 00000 O Nair used on unsightly hair Waterproof pants Underwear and clothes Socks on feet shoes not usually used Accept clothes Jewelry must be clari ed must sign release form For showing or for burial as well Beautician Usually like to work from photo Dressing Casketing O 0 Place pillow in casket Phases of the funeral Viewing held for 2 hours night before funeral O 0 May have afternoon and night Could also be one hour right before service Potential police escort for cars Set up in advance Removal and prep of body Visitation Rite Procession Committal Memorial societies Help you plan your own funeral Cremation Becoming more common Must be in rigid container 14001800 degrees Fahrenheit 16 lbs of bone frag and ash calcium phosphate is left have to cool down for several hours Cemetery ground burial 0 standard mausoleum 0 column burials Tombstone headstone grave marker 0 Believed to hold down spirit 0 Could have symbol 0 Burial at sea Navy Marines Merchant Marines Casket always wood Cryonics Burial in O 0 Has holes and bricks added 0 Ceremony takes place on death 0 Coffin slid off of deck Freezing Must chill body very quickly Put anti coagulant in blood Placed in bag Put in freezing storage tank like a bat Liquid nitrogen Sometimes heads just taken lllegal to freeze someone before they die Only 100 people frozen that we know of space Two tubes labeled and put in rockets Cremated remains launched about 400 miles out Orbit from 6 yrs to 24 yrs 0 Mummify Done in far less than 70 days Bereavement ln state of loss Something or someone has been taken from you Separation from someone status change 0 Widow widower etc Grief 0 Eric Lindemann Coconut Grove Fire 1942 0 Mass General hospital 0 Began study of patients with severe burns or amputations 0 Coconut grove re occurred during studies 492 people died Able to interview all survivors Survivors reported somatic distress Preoccupation with vision of the dead Strong feelings of guilt Irritable and restless Cognitive distress Sleeplessness Grief suppresses immune system Mourning Depends on culture 0 Certain customs show morning 0 Western tradition wear black ag at half mast Funeral marches requiems o Griefwork theory Freud Adaptive response to loss Quite normal 0 Expressing emotional pain 0 Difficult and time consuming 0 Could take up to two years Goal is to accept death quotemancipation from deceasedquot Pa rkesgriefwork Study on death of a spouse Psychosocial transitions Identi ed 3 components 0 Preoccupation 0 Repeated experience at time of the death 0 Attempt to explain loss Impact on survivor Stong sense of guilt Need to blame Feelings of helplessness Regrets Need to understand why Grief with sudden death Grief with predictable death Heightened concern Rehearsal for death Stages of Grief Denial Guilt Anger 0 Depression 0 Relief Reestablishment Longrange effects Yearning Hallucinations Broken Heart syndrome 1967 o It is possible to die of broken heart Suppressed immune system 0 Heavy output of cortisol stress hormone Behavioral changes 0 Recovery from grief Death of a spouse 0 Unreslolved grief Unexpected grief syndrome a Disbeliefanxiety Con icted grief syndrome a Death ends troubled relationship Chronic grief syndrome a Surviving spouse very dependant n Inability to function after death 0 Death of a child 0 Knapp Beyond endurance Desire to never forget Wish to be with the child May neglect health Doesn t matter if they have other children Search for meaning behind death 0 Shadow grief Never totally resolved Emotional dullness Dull ache in background of one s feelings Fairly constant Grief in the elderly Bereavement overload 0 Extreme grief behavior 0 Many deaths in a short amount of time Delayed grief reaction Spontaneous occurrence Being in certain location psychotherapy Disenfranchised grief reaction Keeping emotions to themselves because not socially acceptable Five situations 0 quotthe otherquot sti birth relationship like a coworker person killed while doing something wrong COO 0 may not be entitled to feelings Do animals grieve Yes Silverman Silverman Widow to widow program 0 Nationwide Grieving is hard work Being bereaved leads to series of changes and people learn to deal with feelings Life transition crisis altered relationship people help each other Helping the bereaved quotIf there s anything I can doquot 0 Not helpful 0 Most bereaved concerned to ask for help Be present 0 You can provide some sort of support Don t say quotI know how you feelquot Think before you speak Listen nonjudgmentally Be patient with repetitions Talk about dead person Offer to help do things for the bereaved practical things Keep asking to do things with you 0 Will turn you down in the beginning but may really want to Immortality Belief that clinical death is not the end of life all together 70 of people believe there is an afterlife Transending death Physical immortality 0 Through biological children 0 Organ donation o Cloning Psychological immortality o Continuation of thought after death Spiritual immortality 0 Soul continues 0 Experiencing oneness with god or nature Social immortality o How you continue to live on through others Memories What people think of when they think of you Groups to which you belonged Name History books Having name on a plaque Economic immortality o Immortal through money OOOOOO 0 Something named after you because you donated something Afterlife Toynbee consciousness o All living orgs exert themselves to be alive 0 What happens to consciousness o Denial Freud annihilation o Denial 0 Can t deal with thought of oblivion 0 Why we have to create a God who is a father gure Ghosts 0 Life of a spirit 0 Power over the living 0 Receive sacri ces from the living 0 All over literature Religion 0 Help deal with death 0 Push resurrection afterlife etc 0 Hope of afterlife used to control people s behavior British society of psychical Research 1882 o Founded by group of scholars and scientists 0 William James 0 Found that person weights 1 oz less after death Orginially believed they let soul escape Exposed phony mediums o The Near Death experience NDE 15 million people said to have experienced completely heterogeneous Raymond Moody quotLife After Lifequot 0 00000000 0 Found people who had had near death experiences Selected 50 to write up out of 150 Person could die but manages to survive Differing situations Hearing yourself pronounced dead Feeling of peace Tranquility Calmness Sound Ringing or buzzing or chimes Sounds close to the ear Feeling yourself move through dark passageway Most common experiencesexamples O 0 Out of Body Experience autoscopic experience You can tell others what s going on Seeing bright light Meeting others spirit people dead friends or loved ones Panoramic memory life review Life ashes before your eyes Usually chronological order Seeing cities of light Feeling of having great knowledge like LSD A border a If you cross that line you are not going back a Texture difference Being told by dead spirit relative god that you have to return Having changed attitude about death Not always fearing death Kenneth Ring Studied experiences Steven Vecchio core elements Albert Heim Experiencing death Climbing Slipped off of a cliff o Fell looking upwards Looks like head will strike pile of rocks Series of autoscopic events 0 Young child in school university has image of man telling his family he s dead 0 Final beauty and music Clouds with pink tint lush music Interested in interviewing others Olkar P ster Friend of Freud Depersonalization as defense mechanism during near death 0 Feel detached from mental processes Shock Believe that you can explain experiences without agreeing to life after death Endorphins o Mimics opiates 25 of people reporting OBE are cardiac arrest patients Russell Noyes Serves to alert body during crisis Neardeath experience is intense emotion Michael Sabom Cardiologist Looked at chart notes after heart stopped Doesn t believe in NDE Has not convinced him of life after death Near death experiences not experiences after death 23 of people recessitated have no memories ls death a wall or a door Feifel Suicide Shneidmande nition Categories Committed Attempted Threatened ldeann Sociological model Durkheim Le suicide 1897 Suicide Shneidman s de nition the human act of self in icted self intentioned cessation Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death Last year 15 million attempts Insurance concerns Often times means the ultimate sin Most attempts occur on Mondays between 10 and noon in the spdng Categories Committed o The person is dead Attempted 0 They tried to commit suicide Threatened 0 They have talked about it o quotif you leave me I ll kill myselfquot ldeann 0 They have been thinking about doing it Sociological model Durkheim Le Suicide 1897 Suicide result of a break in ties with society Connectedness to society Topology o Egoistic Person is underintegrated Don t have enough involvement with society Personal energies concentrated on self Little concern for community 0 Altruistic Overintegrated Excessive concern for the community Suicide by convention The Great Death Group values predominate o Anomic Usually result of tragedy and broken social ties Person experiences anxiety isolation loneliness aHenann Life is purposeless o Fatalistic All opportunities blocked Only way out Psychological model Freudpsychoanalytic o lntroject the love object symbolically put person inside of us 0 Eros and thanatos external pressures become too much Sociocultural factors 0 Living in dysfunctional enviro 0 Stress to succeed Menniger 0 Wish to kill hatred 0 Wish to be killed Guilt 0 Wish to die Helplessness Kastenbaumcultural meanings of suicide Sinful o Religions look down Criminal 0 Early times families couldn t inherit 0 Laws against it Weakness or madness 0 Think of it as cowardly 0 Must be mentally ill Great Death 0 Ritualistic Rational Alternative 0 Quality of life worse than death Kastenbaum individual meanings of suicide Reunion 0 Way to join deceased Rest and refuge 0 Way to ee burdensome situation Revenge 0 Expressing resentment towards being hurt or rejection Penalty for Failure 0 Response to disappointment or frustration Mistake 0 Attempt just a cry for help 0 Not intended to be fatal Other contributing dynamics Stressors in life addiction Attmpters Most that attempt try again Subintentioned suicide Smoking or use of alcohol to help speed up demise Choice of method Police officers use guns Drug addicts take drugs Doctors use morphine Chosen for impact on survivors Committed vs attempted 41 male to female commitment 41 female to male attempt Choice of method Most are rearms Order of lethality Just how effective a method isethaity Firearms Carbon monoxide Hanging Drowning Suffocation o Helium into plastic bag very effective Impact 0 Golden gate bridge 15000 lbssq inch of force Fire 0 Works best when covered in a ammable substance 0 Fatalistic suicide for monks Poison Drugs 0 Barbiturates most effective Gas 0 Natural gas 0 Head in oven Cutting o Often times not able to cut deep enough to stop coagulation o In bathtub Electrocution o Appliance into bathtub Suicide notes Only 20 left note 30 leave multiple notes 30 don t say why they do it Retaliatory abandonment Suicide in response to someone special 0 quotlove objectquot o interpreted as rejection 0 Individual regains control over the situation by doing the rejecting Retro exed murder 0 Inverted homicide 0 Rage towards self Reunion 0 Belief you will be with someone who you love who is dead Rebirth 0 Go to be with Goddivine being Selfpunishment o Superego comes into play 0 Can t live up to own expectations Punishment for society 0 Often times mentally ill 0 o Anger towards society Justi able solution 0 Typically in elderly or terminally ill 0 Gain control 0 Seen as a better option 0 Hunter S Thompson Used many psychoactive drugs Anger of old age 67 Ashes shot through a cannon Childhood and adolescent suicide Considered between 915 0 Attempts do so much damage many need to stay in hospitals for very long times 0 Factors 0 Adolescents more likely commit suicide rather than very young children Low selfesteem Poor relationship with peers loner teased Overly high expectations Overly high expectations of parents teachers coaches etc Declare independence Possibly reunited with loved one Belief of invincibility o Heartbreak Cluster suicide 0 By county rather than school usually OOOOOOO o Suicide pacts 2 or more doing it at the same time Warning signs 0 Withdrawal from family and friends Difficulties with sexual orientation Depression Decline in school work Increased use of substances Giving away prized possessions 0 Random signs of affection Suicide by cop Threaten officer with what may look like gun Often leave note in pocket Shooting in self defense Suicide prevention First suicide crisis center in LA in 85 200 in US Primary function is 24 hour hotline SPAN suicide prevention active network Need to know age and sex Know plans 0 Speci c or vague Know network Prior attempts OOOOO Suicidal thoughts Emotional traumas Bereaved survivorssurvivor victims Guilt shame stigma relief etc 0 O 0 Many different emotional issues Search for meaning Long term and incomplete grief Increases likelihood of suicide attmpts Shneidmanpostvention O 0000 Need counseling Take them seriously Hospitalization Generate alternatives External support important but cannot alone sustain will to live If they do commit suicide it is not your responsibility Donald C Father and son looking at farm Gas leak on farm Father killed when starting car 0 Father died immediately Eye removed Stubs for ngers Extreme burns Put in a bath every day to stop infections 0 Also removes necrotic skin 0 Extremely painful Wanted to die Gained sight Went to law school Still alive Had documentary written about him Religious guilt The Right to die Euthanasia means happy death peaceful death some believe quotmercy killingquot Voluntary 0 Person is rational and asks to die Involuntary 0 Can t ask 0 Maybe infant o Persistant veg state Active 0 ln hope of ending life soon Passive 0 Don t start a treatment or withdraw a treatment 0 Ex pneumonia don t give drugs and let condition run its course History of suicideeuthanasia Greeks Socrates Plato Aristotle 0000 O Suppo ed Defective children should be allowed to die No attempt to save invalids Right to easy death Could apply to Senate to be euthanized Romans Seneca 0 Why wouldn t you choose simplicity over torture JudeoChristian no condemnation O 0 Not condemned at rst Six examples of suicide King Sol Samson etc o Judas St Augustine O O O O Suicide is a detestable wickedness From City of God Not to kill Deprives person of opportunity to repent We should endure suffering St Thomas Aquinas O O O O Agreed with Augustine Sin against self neighbor and God God alone should decide when people die Adopt greater evil to avoid lesser evil Usurping God s property Sir Thomas More 0 Devout Catholic 0 Refused supporting King as head of Church of England 0 Could have spared his life but stood up for his beliefs David Hume 0 quotEssay on Suicidequot 0 Man who retires from life does no wrong 1872 word euthanasia used 0 First time word is used 0 Belief that euthanasia should be legal in France Orgs working to legalize euthanasia Arguments by opponents to legalization Human life is sacred God is the only one who can take life Pope Pious Xll 1957 Pope during second world war Didn t help save many Jews Didn t allow many measures outside the ordinary o Considered attempts at suicide PopeJohn Paul II 1995 Evangelium Bitae Euthenasia is a sin However you re allowed to use drugs that may shorten life if experiencing intense pain Rule of double effect Whether one potential harmful action is preferable to another Fletcher 4 points 0 act must be good or neutral 0 agent must intend good effect 0 evil effect must not be means to good effect 0 proportionally grave reason to take the risk must look into gray areas work with old man looking to die stuffed tissues in mouth and nostrils Fletcher horri ed by stopping of death Forcing people to suffer is degrading and cruel When are you dead Would try to wake bodies from dead Pour boiling water on body to see if it jumps Kastenbaum Not viable 0 Nothing will keep person alive Conditional viability 0 Persistent vegetative state 0 Requires constant life support Physiological viability 0 Only needs to be kept warm and have nutrition NG nasogastric tube a Nose to throat into stomach PEG requires surgery a Cuts thorugh abdomen into stomach U Tube put in place a Comes out abdomen 0 Still on life support Recovery with signi cant impairment 0 Walk and talk again but not very well Recovery with minimal impairment 0 Never quite the same 0 Full recovery Shock trauma units Save rate by going in helicopter over ambulance o 70 save rate 0 What kind of person will they be see levels above Harvard Ad Hoc Committee to Examine the De nition of Brain Death 1968 Unreceptiveunresponsive to painful stimuli No movement or breathing when o ventilator No re exes Measure brain waves and see nothing No circulation of blood in brain 0 Ensure body temp is not low 0 No barbiturates De nitions Cardiopulmonary 0 Heart and lungs not working Decerebrate 0 Brain dead Neocrotical 0 Lower brain functioning but higher brain functions do not exist 0 Vegetative state PVS Persistent vegetative state Some movement and function No higher processing Arms and legs may contract Uniform Determination of Death Act Deadi o No circulatory or repertory function 0 No function in brain 0 Not Prolong dying So much focus put on keeping alive DNR do not recessitate Intensive care nursery For young kids Advanced directives Living will natural death directive o What you want if you cannot speak for yourself O Surgeries hydration nutrition Durable power of attorney for health care 0 0 Those that act in regards to the living will cannot be prosecuted Someone needs to carry out your wishes Does a person have to be dying to have the right to die Karen Ann Quinlan O 0000 00 000000 0 O O Adopted at 4 months old Described as very bright and talented Worked in ceramics factory Eventually laid off Shared multiple times that she would not want to be kept alive on machines Mixed vaium and alcohol Partygoer noticed that she wasn t breathing and began mouth to mouth Ambulance came and put on ventilator n drug induced coma Went from 120 to 60 lbs in 5 months Very little brain activity Court case over whether or not to let her die Judge ruled that they couldn t remove ventilator and went directly to NJ supreme court who ruled that parents could remove ventilator Took her off and breathed on her own for a little Died June 11 1985 ten years after quotsleeping beautyquot syndrome we always think they will wake up and be the same Nancy Cruzan 0 Jan 111983 00000 OO Terri 00000 000 CO 26 yrs old Carstded Found head rst in creek Paramedic restored breathing after 15 mins Husband gave up guardianship to parents and then divorced her Received nutrition through PEG Court ruled that tube could be removed Accepted evidence hearsay that she wouldn t want to be kept alive if she couldn t live and at least halfway normal life Missouri state judge wouldn t allow it and appealed to M0 supreme court and US supreme court referred them to the lowest court in Missouri again and after a retrial the feeding tube was allowed to be removed 12 days to die Schaivo Married both wanted child Had trouble conceiving Prescribed fertility medication Terri collapses one morning and has suffered extensive brain damage even though able to breathe Persistent vegetative state Law suit against fertility clinic 1998 petition to have tube removed parents opposed Tube was removed parents went to court and got it put back 2000 trial questioning guardian parent tod husband to move on Parents believed that she would come out of it Oct 15th 2003 tube removed parents go to the press Jeb Bush goes to Floridian congress passes Terri s law tube replaced Legislation found as unconstitutional 000 0 March 2005 feeding tube removed for 3rd time DC gets involved Senate passes law that it needs to be heard through congress Signs aw allowing tube to be removed US supreme court refuses to see it March 26th 2005 Parents relent Died March 31st Brain weighed half of what it should have Lived 2540 in persistent vegetative state Jamie Butcher o Euthanized o Involuntary 0 Parents decided he was going to die 0 Passive treatment withdrawn 0 Stayed at home for 7 years Dax Cowart 0 Was not near death but wanted to die because of pain Doctor assisted suicide It s over Debbie Dr Anonymous OOOOOO JAMA article Pg 278279 Young woman in cancer unit She says let s get this over with Has nurse draw up very large neede of morphine Question of projecting personal beliefs on her 0 Didn t ask others for their opinions o Dian and Dr Timothy Quill O 0 000000 0 Dr is hospice doctor Asks for something that would allow her to take her life at some point Family agreed with plan Painful cancer treatments Given barbiturates for sleep Would say to friends quotthis is our last visitquot Sent husband and child out for ah hour Took a barbiturates No autopsy because hospice doctor Cremated Jack Kevorkian O O Retired pathologist Willing to assist people in death 0 Janet atkins approached him 0 O Had Alzheimer s Recorded her wish of having her life ended Euthanized Janet Atkins Had patient with neurological problem Couldn t turn the things on himself Doctor Kevorkian turned machine on therefore convicted of second degree murder 0 Murder or Mercy Bob Murray o 505 Voluntary through writing Had PEG Taken off of ventilator Given large dose of Morphine This didn t kill him Phillip Goldman 0 Has brain cancer at 6 mo old 0 Involuntary 0 Passive lack of hydration Terri Thaylor o 21 0 Power of attorney to her sister Debbie o Euthanasia not carried out o The night she dies she thrashes is not peaceful Jeanette Brown 0 59 0 Cancer discovered in pancreas o Husband promised to end her life Didn t o Euthanasia never carried out Emily Gilbert 0 Alzheimer s osteoporosis OOOO o Husband doing personal care for a very long time o Involuntary State initiatives for death with dignity Physician assisted suicide in Oregon Won on ballet in 1997 Patient must 0 Ask doctor in writing once ask doctor in person twice 15 days apart after person has been con rmed by multiple doctors as having no more than 6 months to live and being told about hospice Not many people ask 88 applied and granted barbiturates and only 60 took them in 2009 Attorney Ashcroft said any doctor who wrote prescriptions in Oregon that lead to death would lose their ability to write prescriptions and potentially go to prison for 20 years Attorney General of Oregon stopped that Ashcroft appealed states ruled against him Ashcroft took it to supreme court but by 2004 out of office Alberto Gonzales took office and continued the appeal 6 to 3 upheld Oregon s law 0 Justice department couldn t punish those doctors in Oregon Straight euthanasia Shortening life in terminally ill Doctor assisted Euthenasia in persistent vegetative state Abortion Spontaneous abortion miscarriage 0 Something went wrong with the birthing 0 Most cases women want baby o 20 of pregnancies end Induced abortion 0 Something to end pregnancies Reasons Women have always had same motives o lHness Poverty Advanced age or extreme youth Already has too many children Disgrace of bearing illegitimate or racially mixed child Fear of revealing in delity o Rapeincest History of abortion Hot coals Sharp stick Blunt force Douche with lye or soap Aristotle and Plato accepted it Forbidden in Asyria Jews condemned Christians claimed infanticide Some believe that you can abort before baby gets soul men 40 days after conception women 80 Others believe that once you feel kicking no more abortion possible Pious lX OOOOO 0 Soul is there at conception 0 Always murder 0 Individual states began banning abortion all states in civil war had banned it only exception is to save mother 0 Dangerous practice at the time Widely held belief that sex for pleasure is bad and pregnancy is punishment for that pleasure Roe v Wade 77 allowed abortion 0 Vote 72 Justice Blackmun o Argument over whether or not woman has the opportunity to choose whether or not to keep a baby 0 Have to consider health of mother Methods of Abortion Dilation and Curettage D and C o Dialate and scrape 0 Woman put into twilight sleep 0 Cervix dilated o Curved scraper used Suction vacuum aspiration 0 Done in clinic 0 Done up to 12 weeks 0 Woman usually tranquilized 0 Series of tubes put in through vagina to dilate cervix o Other end of tube attached to pump Saline o Needle put into uterus o A liter of ambiotic uid taken out o Saline solution replaces uid 0 Woman will deliver dead fetus Hysterotomy cesarean section 0 Small cut put above pubic area 0 Cut into uterus o Tongs go in and crush head 0 Pulled out of tiny incision Dialation and extraction DampX 0 Also called quotpartial birth abortionquot 0 Fetus pulled down feet rst 0 Small hole drilled in soft scull and brain extracted Dilation and evacuation DampE o Dilation of cervix o Fetus cut into pieces in uterus 0 Pieces pulled out Drugs RU486Mifeprex 0 One blocke progesterone o Other drug induces contractions 0 Through 8 weeks considered embryo 0 Created in 92 used widely in Europe 0 lnteruteran device stops pregnancy In 2010 over 80 of abortions done in rst trimester Views in favor and against Majority of Americans are prochoice Prohibiting abortions o Infringe on marriage privacy 0 Return to back alley abortion 0 Have irregular babies 0 Discriminates against poor 0 National Right to Life committee 0 History of militant groups blowing up clinics 0 Many argue that the fetus can feel it 0 Issues over how you can treat a fetus Other issues 0 Webster from Missouri fucking things up 0 Supreme court said physician has to test for viability at 20 weeks 0 Requires ultrasound and taking thin needle and taking sample of cerfactid Father doesn t have to be noti ed 0 Has to wait 24 hours from noti cation to have abortion 0 Many emotional trouble for both parents Homicide 0 Killing Criminal and non criminal justi able self defense 0 When it s justi able 0 To protect property 0 Self defense 0 Prevent felony 0 Killing enemy in wartime Murder 0 1st degree malice of thought capital murder means capital punishment as potential sentence 0 manslaughter negngnce voluntary manslaughter n ex man kills after nding wife in bed with another involuntary manslaughter a drunk driving Statistics 0 men 5x far more likely to kill 0 men 3 times more likely to be killed 0 home is most common place for murder 0 Women usually killed in bedroom 0 Men usually killed in kitchen 0 Southern states most likely to have murders Kitty Genovese Bystander effect Paranoid schizophrenic began stabbing her People s windows were open Took her 30 mins to die 0 Screamed repeatedly 0 People didn t want to get involved Mass murder 0 Several people dying in one event 0 Va Tech Ft Hood columbine Usually murdersuicide Serial Murder 0 At least 3 with time in between 0 Zodiac Jack the Ripper Son of Sam Dahmer O Collective murder 0 One or more killers killing more than one person in a brief time 0 Charles Manson Genodde Mass killings based on race Ethnic cleansing Bosnia Holocaust 0 Rwanda 0 Serbia 0 Turkey exterminates Armenians Type of genocide Assassination Presidents have been assassinated Terrorism 911 1993 world trade center Capital punishment Hamurabi Ancient Rome woman took keys to wine cellar without permission could be killed Could be punished for any crime against church or state in middle ages Massachusetts as a colony only had 13 capital crimes 0 Adultery blasphemy idolatry sodomy witchcraft etc o Often tortured before being executed Stoning etc Cruci xion 0 Death by asphyxiation Historycruel and inhuman methods approved Furman vs Georgia 1972 abolished death penalty 0 Vote 54 0 Reinstated 1976 Views in favor and against 4 countries have highest amount of executions Saudi Arabia lran China US majority support it believe it s retribution Methods of execution Hanging 0 Drop 0 No circulation of blood 0 Breaks neck o twitching Shooting 0 Tied to chair 0 5 people in ring squad 0 only one has live ammo o Electrocution 0 Copper disks attached to body 0 Strapped into chair 0 Examine o Odor of burning skin 0 Lethal gas 0 Large chamber 0 Tied to metal chair 0 Metal bucket lled with sulfuric acid 0 Lethal injection 0 Strapped 0 Sodium pentythol puts to sleep Not manufactured in US Europe produces it but doesn t want to sell to US because of use 0 Pancurium Bromide paralyzes 0 Potassium chloride stops heart War Often seen as political murder 0 Objectives 0 Kill enemies 0 Produce death 0 Socialization to death work Euphemisms o quotfriendly requot 0 quotcollateral damagequot 0 quotmopping upquot kill everything 0 Enemy as inferior o Racial slurs 0 Used as a way to make enemies unworthy of concern 0 Ethnocentrism Patriotism 0 War to protect nation 0 Rationalize through patriotism God s on one s side Correctness of one s leaders 0 Must question anything illegal or morally wrong 0 quotRabbit lessonquot 0 kill a rabbit Death Work 0 some feel a calling 0 for others it s a necessary job to survive slavery during a draft 0 unfairness Johnny Got His Gun Trumbo 1939 Became example of war 0 Strong antiwar message 0 Not always available to purchase Nuclear Holocaust Manhattan project 0 Washington Los Alamos Oklahoma 0 Working on atomic bomb 0 Testing done in New Mexico Hiroshima and Nagasaki 0 People literally vaporized Growth of nuclear weapons 0 Many nations looking to build nuclear arsenals Other forms of global annihilation God asteroids global warming Disasters 0 Natural o Earthquakes mudslides tsunamis hurricanes Man made 0 Global warming train wrecks plane crash 0 Chernobyl Japan lgnore warnings After the disaster Pine Injured dying survivors Stop looting maintain dignity of victims 0 Protect area for investigation Survivors could experience guilt Carson amp Butcher Shock stage 0 Comfort help them Suggestible stage 0 Able to follow directions 0 Give them direct orders to save them 0 Recovery stage 0 Reestablishment 0 Need to talk about disorder PTSD Startled by everyday things 0 Could have been loved one or maybe not Aging and death 0 Aging can be painful and humiliating Gerontology Study of aging and the aging process Types of aging Functional aging 0 Can you work with the same amount of efficiency 0 Social aging o What is role of older person Psychological aging 0 Being able to cope with age 0 Biological aging 0 Problems with health Ageism Discrimination based on age Erikson Integrity vs despair o Integrity allows them to make sense out of life 0 Despair doesn t allow for satisfaction Butler Life review Re ect on accomplishments and failures 0 Integrate meaning of their life Disengagement theory 0 Low life satisfaction Activity theory 0 Did they do something worthwhile in middle age Elderly as crime victims 0 Impact of crime far more severe on older victims 0 Sorrows of the elderly 0 Surviving when other family doesn t 0 Pain decline in energy and strength illnesses get uglier re exes slow senses less acute Won t be employed dependent on others Social DeathClock Many things are unacceptable for people to do when they re older 0 Ex sex Psychotherapy Freud 0 Old people couldn t form good therapeutic relationship Jung 0 Treated many elderly patients 0 Should be willing to try and work with them 0 Common themes 0 Older people are ery dif cult to treat Living situation 0 Homes 0 Very expensive 0 Hospice home care is most desired Assisted living 0 Assistance at all times 0 Nursing home 0 5 of elderly 0 hard for person to maintain sense of being active and being useful Death 0 Much more salient Constant reminders of proximity to death Considered less tragic than in other groups Suicide 0 Balance sheet suicide 0 What is acceptable 0 What are chances of improvement vs intolerable aspects Ars Moriendi the art of dying 0 Art of dying 0 Die bravely accepting death Momento Mori o Interpretations of the death state Interpretations of the death state 0 Enfeebled life 0 Diminished 0 Shell of what they used to be Continuation 0 Life goes on 0 Party continues different location 0 Source of problems change Perpetual development 0 Birth into spiritual existence 0 Higher consciousness Waiting 0 Being in suspended animation 0 Waiting for next event 0 For Christians could be resurrection Cycling and recycling 0 Rebirth o What will you come back as o Reincarnation Nothing 0 Existential 0 That is the end Virtual therefore not death 0 Death is something without dimension and place Conditions that resemble death 0 Inorganic and unresponsive o Liken death to something similar to a stone 0 quotI am a rock and a rock feels no painquot 0 deathmechanica failure 0 Sleep and altered states of consciousness 0 Sleep is universal analog of death 0 Snow White 0 Near death experience 0 Hallucinogens Beings who resemble or represent death 0 Skeleton 0 Skull and crossbones o Grim reaper Death as a person 0 Macabre Seeing death as old and ugly Usually a male 0 Gently comforter Old but someone soothing Coming gently 0 Gay deceiver Male or female who is young Alluring and appealing fascinating 0 Automation Anybody on the street approaching you Conditions that death resembles Social death 0 Treated like you re already dead 0 You don t exist anymore Phenomenologicaldeath 0 Part of the self total self Part of person dies to them a Ex breast removed due to cancer feeling like they re not whole 0 Whole self takes on dead persona Depersonalization Death as an agent of personal political and social change 0 Great leveler 0 Democracy of death 0 Nobody is immune to death Great validator 0 Death can con rm status of person 0 Person celebrated through funeral Unitiesseparates o Allows you to reunite with someone God Allah loved ones Ultimate problemsolution o Seen as ultimate solution to problems Holocaust 0 People see death as worst enemy Ends opportunity to achieve Aren t able to get everything done that you would like to Ultimate meaningless event 0 Void that swallows all without a trace The death systemde ned o Manner in which we comprehend our death and live our dying Orientation towards death Sociophysical network by which we mediate our relationship to mortality Components of death system 0 People Begin with person who dies Others are effected Funeral home employees Lawyers accountatnts Health care providers 0 All people who are involved in any stage of the death 0 Places 0 Hospital room hospice place in house morgue funeral home cemetery etc 0 Times 0 Day of death becomes anniversary Objects o Casket etc 0 Symbols 0 Weeping willow skull and bones Functions of the death system 0 Warnings and predictions 0 Cigarette packages warn of death 0 Hurricane warnings 0 Looking to prevent death 0 quotif you don t you willquot 0 Preventing death 0 Immunizations Caring or the dying OOOOO 0 Hospitals do bulk of work 0 Families may do it without hospice Disposing of the dead 0 Cremation in and aboveground burial etc 0 Social consolidation 0 What is done to help survivors after death 0 Making sense of death 0 Thinking of why the death happened 0 What is the larger signi cance 0 Killing 0 Killing by state 0 quotlegitimate killingquot 0 war Appropriate death Weisman o Relinquishing control 0 Letting go of relationships Horrendous Death Leviton Death on very massive scale that comes suddenly Ex 911 Death in future Meaning of death
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'