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All Class Notes SMPA1050
Popular in Media in a Free Society
Popular in Public Relations
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Date Created: 02/23/15
12714 History of Media in the US 0 Who can be the who 0 Candidate Expert Newscaster Character on a TV show Politician Citizen A person who creates the message delivered by someone else Speech writer PR representative 0 A group or organization TV broadcast writers OOOOOO Editors Owners of a media organizations Govt Says what 0 Info 0 News 0 Persuasive advertising 0 Representations To Whom o The audience General Speci c target quotElitequotaudience o Intended audience 0 Actualaudience o In whatChannel 0 TV 0 Print 0 Radio 0 With what effect 0 Why 0 Entertainment 0 Information 0 Aetualperceived 0 Major events in the history of US media 0 1920 s After WWI technologies developed during the war were used in the consumer market Only AM radio Everyone is trying to broadcast on the same frequencies 1927 FRC Federal Radio Commission to regulate radio Hollywood becomes Hollywood Controversy should radio have advertising What should the advertising look like Networks develop NBC and CBS Programming on radio is pretty cheap everything is live Theater attendance for lms is growing 0 1930 s FM radio develops better signal Advertising changes sell sell sell Advertising agencies produced programs Popular program Amos amp Andy Audience research services begin 1930 First regular network newscast Lowell Thomas The newspaperradio wars Communications Act of 1934 gave FCC power over radio telephone and telegraph 1938 War of the Worlds Forced networks to be careful about what they put on air and to not broadcast fake news 1939 World s Fair public demonstration of television 0 1940 s FCC sets standards for television broadcasts NTSC National Television Standards Commission During WWII voluntary censorship NBC Red and NBC Blue forced apart by FCC Shortage of paper during the war meant advertisers turned to radio Popular programming Milton Berle 1948 rst network television season Late 1940 s Cable Television which you read about Hollywood studios can no longer be vertically integrated o A company integrates forward and sale or backward controls production 0 1950 s Frequencies were reserved for educational television Frieda Hennock rst woman to be appointed FCC commissioner makes educational television her cause Color TV is being developed not quite there yet Until now radio is a family medium Now it becomes a more personal medium Advertising moves to what we know today commercials instead of sponsorships Radio listening declining Theater attendance is declining Television audiences are growing Programs and commercials are live Videotape introduced quotI Love Lucyquot becomes rst lmed TV program not live Hollywood begins to produce television programs 0 1960 s Color television introduced to households Hollywood starts to provide lms to television Radio networks decline it s all about television now Congress passes a law to eliminate cigarette advertising from TV and radio takes effect in 1971 0 1970 s Households watching about 6 hours a day 1975 HBO begins satellite program service 1975 VCR households can tape programs 0 1980 s CNN Ted Turner rst 24hour news network MTV network introduced in 1981 Early in the 3980 s cable was only in 2 of US homes Digital TV develops High De nition TV develops 0 1990 s Telecommunications Act of 1996 Cable television grows to about 75 of US homes Advertisers start moving to cable TV Internet 0 2000 s The Internet Age New ways to watch TV listen to music etc quotNet Neutralityquot debate service provider could not discriminate who postsis published on the internet Fundraising over the internet Legacy Media moving to the Internet CBS ABC Disney Smartphones 12914 The Media System in the US The Television Market A Network is a Program Provider The OwnerAgent Logic 0 O 0 Economic Logic The owner is the quotprincipalquot the person who has the controlling interest in the organization The agent is the person is the person the owner hires to manage the organization They have different motivations Their decisions might be different The Business of the Media 0 O 0 Organizations in the media history The economic logic of media in the US Advertising The Audience 0 The economic briber of media in the US Research Firms 0 Measure the audience learn about the audience of broadcastings Media Organizations 0 National Networks Broadcast Cable Internet Reaches the whole country 0amp0 owned and operated stations are owned by a national network Syndication When you sell a column or television show in different markets aka different TV stations in different places intergeographical transactions Offnetwork syndication Sell a TV show to different networks to play reruns later on Firstrun syndication produced by 1 person rstrun episodes are aired on different stations Local Broadcast station and cable systems Broadcast station local news Cable system who you pay your bill to Advertisers 0 National Apple Car companies Kraft Gieco 0 Local GW basketball games RCN Dentist or Doctor Car salesmen 0 Regional Who Sells o 0 Rep Fl 0 o o by pu Who Buys o 0 Ad Ag Regionspeci c food chain Tobacco free California Political TriState area ads Snow tires reach only states with snow lnHouse Local TV station has salespeople who go out to mom and pop shops trying to sell ad time Does local and national rm Station hires to sell ad placements to bigger companies can only represent 1 station Only does national National Spot Market quotNationalquot means nationwide quotSpot quotNational Spot Marketquot means getting a national audience is another term for local market rchasing time lnHouse If you are a national network you have an inhouse sales team Works strictly for one company ency Can be locally or nationally based Represent advertisers in different markets Middleman between advertisers and networks They have clients who request what they want the Ad Agency to do with their ads who they sell them to for how much and when 21214 Multiple choice 4050 questions 75 minutes All readings and from class Know authors of articles Napoli McQuail Know basic points of articles Important Dates 1996 Telecommunications act 1935 Original Communications Act Federal Communications Act 1927 Federal Radio Commission How did cable get started Geostationary satellites Satellite airwaves high frequency vs Cable wires vs Broadcast airwaves Broadcast networks vs cable networks carry network systems from cable systems Broadcast networks CBS NBC FOX ABC CW Cable networks can be carried by satellite as well 12214 De nitions Concepts and Stuff Like That 0 What are media 0 Distinguish by technology Print newspaper lm broadcast anything that uses air waves cable actual cable cord satellite uses high frequencies internet 0 Or by content news quotentertainmentquot primetime television broadcasting commercials 0 Media Industries Newspaper Magazine Film Television midlevel frequencies Radio Satellite Broadcasting 0 Media have different characteristics Different coverage areas 0 Local 0 Regional 0 National 0 Global available to all countries ie Internet Different audiences 0 Important Characteristics of Media in the US Forpro t businesses Regulated by the government FCC Federal Communications Commission Supported for the most part by advertising Andor paid for by subscribers Protected by Freedom of Speech 0 One important de nition 0 What is quotcommunicationquot Harold Lasswell s 1940 s de nition involves the following elements 0 Who Says what 0 In what channel 0 With what effect 1940 s WWII propaganda current events Hitler 0 And why DrPhalen 0 Two important concepts 0 Concept 1 Marketplace of ideas John Milton from the 1644 Areopagitica Ideas are traded like products in a market so the competitive model is marketing is a good metaphor to describe the importance of NOT censoring ideas 0 Who cares o Milton s thought is typical of the philosophy that created the rst amendment 0 Concept 2 Freedom of Speech 0 If people are free to speak ideas will circulate and the truth will prevail Does this marketplace of ideas metaphor really apply 0 Milton would say yes speech was the only way to share ideas in his time 0 But wait 0 Falsehood can gain a strong grip on people 0 Truth can be silenced by force o It can take a LONG time for truth to win 0 And besides 0 Speech is only effective when it s heard 0 Some speech can cause harm Lies slander and Libel Hate speech 0 WHICH IS NOT THE SAME AS DISAGREMENT Yelling re in a crowded theater State secrets Pornography What role do the media play 0 Normative what they SHOULD do Get unbiased info and entertainment to people facilitate the marketplace of ideas Hold government accountable Foster a politically active citizenry 0 Actual Get entertainment and info to people but have to work within limits like pro tability deadlines regulations external pressures etc Try to hold government accountable sometimes but they have to rely on government info Might foster a political active citizenry Might not 0 In 2014 0 Most of what we know comes through some sort of media 0 Ergo the possibilities and limitations of media affect the marketplace of ideas 0 Conclusions 0 We don t have a totally quotfreequot marketplace of ideas and we probably don t want one anyway 0 We have a regulated marketplace for media and a regulated marketplace of ideas To protect people from certain kinds of harm To even out the playing eld a little because access to the media outlets gives some people too much power 2514 The Public Interest 0 Public interest convenience or necessity PICON 0 Law that dictates what broadcasters have to do NOT applied to cable 0 Mark Fowler Public interest is what interests the public 0 Opposing view Public interest is that is good for the public 0 Created by someone who thinks they know better Localism o The Napoli article 0 The geographic point of origin bene tting the local community has to be produced in the same community 0 Have to provide information that is relevant to the community Diversity 0 We think about diversity as a good thing but so we all mean the same think by quotdiversityquot 0 Similar to change 0 Diversity of ownership 0 Who what types of people own the market 0 Diversity of content 0 Radio jazz music country music rock music etc So 0 Most people agree that public interest ocaism and diversity are good things but the questions are 0 What do they mean 0 How do we measure them Social Responsibility 0 CSR 0 Corporate social responsibility 0 While rms have a nancial responsibility to their shareholders 0 As quotcorporate citizensquot they also have a responsibility to operate in a way that bene ts society making positive social economic and humanitarian contributions 0 Are media organizations different 0 Every type of rm is different but media hold a privileged place in society Media are the central operation of a democracy Media in uence the way we live our lives Media represent us to the rest of the world Media represent the rest of the world to us Media and CSR 0 Media organizations are the gatekeepers of information 0 Media organizations in uence the news agenda what we think about 0 By their content choices they can signal which options are acceptable The Hutchins Commission 1942 the Commission of Freedom of the Press was formed to study whether freedom of press was threatened in the US Group of intellectuals and some others to study the question of the free press vs the responsible press Hutchins was quoted saying quotFreedom requires responsibilityquot The commission wanted to make the owners of the press responsible and still maintain freedom of the press Press meant all forms of media and the ideas apply nowadays to though new and emerging media The press have the job of forming public opinion Responsibility of the common good the good of all the in individuals in a society The report says to maintain a free and responsible press the media have to do the following 5 things 1 Provide a truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day s events in a context which gives them meaning 2 Serve as a forum for the exchange of comments and criticism 3 Project a representative picture of the constituent in the society 4 Present and clarify the goals and values of the society 5 Provide full access to the day s intelligence Media and Cooperate Responsibility Cultural concerned voiced by inside and outside of media 0 Graphic sexual content diminished respect for the human person 0 When Hollywood is portraying actual people or events they don t represent these people events truthfully 0 Hollywood sometimes lionized evil 0 Portrays of ethnic and religious groups are often dishonest These causes have been taken up my groups like Parent organizations Muslim organizations Christian Churches Senators and Congressmen etc Media have the responsibility to contribute positively to society through news and entertainment programming Media should serve the speci c needs of the community News 0 To cover the important news stories 0 Report the truth 0 Inform people of critical events Entertainment 0 Represent people and events truthfully Fairly represent minorities and other groups in society To fairly represent ideas To avoid exploitation od persons COO 2314 More About the Media Business 39 lt o O O Media is a commercially supported industry 0 Advertisers buy audience 0 National regional and global markets 0 Advertisers can advertise on National the cable network syndications broadcast network internet Regional national spot through rep rm Loca local broadcast station local cable system Types of media organizations involved with buying and selling K middlemen between advertising buyers and sellers 0 Types of market 0 O O O O 0 Geographical state region a speci c area entire nation Markets de ned by types of media broadcast television market cable market Demographic market kids college students adults 50 A market de ned by media content kids programs for kids news sports Time or day of week daytime prime time weekend When advertising is purchased in relation to when it actually airs far in advance within a few months 0 When ads are purchased 0 Upfront market Media tries to convince advertisers to buy ad time for a show that is airing next year Types of shows are sold at the same time advertisers who want to advertise just to kids men women etc Each network has an upfront presentation where they try and sell ad time to prospective advertisers NBC will have one CBS will have one Fox will have one actors from all the bog shows come and do big presentations for advertisers o Scatter market Buying ad time a few months in advance 0 Opportunistic market When something suddenly becomes available BroadcastingCableSatellite o Differ by How signal is sent How service is regulated o Broadcasting Uses airwavesthe spectrum Regulated by Congress and FCC All stations are licensed to a speci c geographic area Have to abide by all rules set down by FCC 0 Cable Used physical connections wired or ber optics to send programs to subscribers homes Congress and FCC regulated NOT licensed by the FCC but SO have to follow some rules Also regulated by local governments grant a franchise to a cable company for a given number of years usually 25 years 0 Satellite Uses the spectrum like broadcasting but the signal is sent from a quotgeosynchronousquot satellite Services like DirecTV and DISH network send programs to the satellite to homes Satellites are also used to get programs from producer to exhibiter HBO Starz Regulated by Congress and FCC NOT licensed by FCC but DO hae to follow some rules 0 Local news content 0 This research was about local news so that means they studied individual markets 0 Politicaladvertisements 0 Individual districts and local media 0 How the ad market rally works 0 Personal friendships 3514 Wag the Dog Came out around the time of the Monica Lewinski Scandal Plot President was accused of sexually harassing a re y girl trying to get reelected PR creates war in Albania Themes powerful people with a lot of money can make a large impact you cant always trust what the media are saying it s pretty easy to get people to believe anything government is untrustworthyall they want is power it s all about crafting the message issues are often entertainment the media can create propaganda trivialization of human life How does the lm affect your own understanding of news Democracy in America Chapter 11 Alexis de Tocqueville French came to US to study prison systems Writes about the political sphere of press how other industries affect it It s not just news its about entertainment Freedom of the press 0 Not much deep argument 0 Journalists are uneducated and vulgar 0 But newspapers are very powerful o The more ideas in circulation the more stable the society isgood Tocqueville appreciates freedom of the press 0 He likes freedom of the press more because of the evil that it prevents than the good it does 0 Take the bad with the good When quotthe peoplequot govern o The press circulates facts 0 People can develop their own opinions o quotThe tribunal of public opinionquot 0 Universal suffrage and censorship can t coexist Freedom of the Press Ideas in circulation Citizens choose their opinions But they become attached to them Out of pride more than conviction Gans quotFacts do not always alter opinionquot Democracy and the News Gans Working theory if citizens pay attention to the news they will make a more informed decision Gans 4 roles journalists ll o Messengers for political elites o Messengers for citizenry 0 Disaster messengers o Watchdog Digital technology and the Internet 0 New players in the quotnews spacequot May be good or bad More commentary Voices from different groups that may not have previously been involved Not all sources are alike Quality vs Quantity Challenge to credible news organizations People make bad choices 0 Lower visibility of the news Citizen has to seek it out 0 Reduction ofjournalists Journalists are quotprofessionals trained to inform society about itself One characteristic of good news 0 Able to distinguish what is newsworthy 22614 0 De ne the news 0 How do we de ne this 0 Current events 0 Events going on domestically and internationally Stories that are relevant to the audience 0 Something that was different than yesterday change 0 Information 0 Ideas 0 Stories that tell us something 0 David Brinkley quotnews is what I say it isquot 0 News is de ned by the media itself a media de ne what is news 0 Phalen says that news is what journalists say it is o Readings about the news 0 Journalism news sources and public relations Objectivity values and ideology Gans GANS IS IMPORTANT Media bias Schudson He said She said 0 What they are about 0 Journalistic practice and how that practice professionalism affects the information we get through news channels 0 The news is 0 Event centered Driven by events e press conferences Protests Announcements Etc 0 Negative More likely to focus on whats wrong than what is right 0 Objective Or detached quotI am not involved in this just want to report what s therequot 0 Technical More focused on strategies and tactics than on policy Of cial Dependent on of cial sources News Bias 0 O Enters because journalists work within the system of newsgathering and reporting Not necessarily because of personal viewpoints and politics Selection 0 0 Which stories to cover How to frame those reports Based on little tacit theories about what exists what happens and what matters Golden Mena O The midpoint between 2 extremes Where the best news comes from where a lot of people think the news should be What quali es as News 0 00000 The news picks up exceptions more often than rules Con ict Scandals The weather Crisis Sports Entertainment Limits on News Coverage 0 O O Budgets Time Sources who is available to you A shortcut to get information 0 What is the Information Subsidy Because it is costly to get info and take 5 a lot of time corporations put out press releases about speci c issues to provide a shortcut for journalists The Challenge to All This 0 Challenging he said she said journalism Are objectivity and fairness merely masking lazy thinking Does every argument have equal merit Should we be demanding a quotjournalism of truthquot Who are we listening to as quotcredible sourcesquot 31914 Theories about how media affect media readersIistenersviewersusers Theory 0 A useful simpli cation of reality 0 It s not something abstract and impenetrable There is nothing as useful as a good theory Theories About Media 0 Researchers in academia and business want to know how media affect citizensconsumers They conduct all kinds of research to explain how media serve or don t serve society Businesses conduct research all the time but it s proprietary Academics publish so we know a lot about what they study 0 Research in Media and Public Affairs focuses mainly on news Theories to explain 0 Media content what gets into the news 0 For example Why is this content present and not something else 0 What role does personal opinion play in a journalist s work 0 Public opinion what effect media content can have on the way people form opinions How peope process the news what do they understand 0 For example 0 Do people believe everything in quotthe newsquot 0 Do they understand the details of a story or just the main idea 0 How media affect society as a whole patterns of media use 0 Do people seek out stories that con ict with their worldview 0 Or do they stick with stories that reinforce their worldview Theories we ll discuss today Magic Bullet Selected and Limited Effects Twostep ow of information Uses amp Grati cations The theory of Unintended News 00000 OOOO Distortion Gatekeeping Agenda Setting Spiral of Silence 0 Magic Bullet Theory 0 O O O 0 Media are very powerful Individuals understand the news in similar ways Individuals respond to the news in similar ways Effects on thought and behavior are direct immediate uniform and powerful This has been discredited Selected and Limited Effects Theory 0 O O O O O The psychological makeup of individuals varies considerably from person to person There are many social categories with their own subcultures Different subcultures have different beliefs attitudes and values People exist in social networks People are selective in what they pay attention to and in how they interpret news The power of media is limited limited effects 0 The TwoStep Flow of Communication Theory 0 O O O 0 Some people don t pay much attention to the news Others pay a lot of attention to the news and become the information quotgoto persons in their social networks These quotgoto persons become opinion leaders because others trust them and rely on them for news So the lst step is from media to opinion leaders The 2nd step is from opinion leaders to others in their social networks 0 Uses amp Grati cations Theory 0 O Katz Blumler and Gurevitch 1974 spelled out the research agenda of this approach According to them grati cationists are concerned with 1 The social and psychological origins of 2 needs which generate 3 expectations of 4 mass media or other sources which lead to O 5 differential patterns of media exposure or engagement in other activities resulting in 6 need grati cations and 7 other consequences perhaps mostly unintended ones Basically a person has some need they think media can ll mostly not a conscious need This person chooses media based on that need Different people have different needsso choose different media Early Research on Uses amp Grati cations Theory Columbia Office of Radio Research Paul Lazarsfeld amp Herta Herzog Soap opera studies in uenced by psychology 0 Why do women listen to soap operas Hypothesis to address some need 0 They conducted interviews to nd out Wilbur Schramm Children s use of television The Theory of Unintended News Distortion O O O 0 Walter Lippman Herbert Gans and others News is biaseddistorted due to the demands of journalism This means bias isn t just the fault of opinionated journalists In other words news distortion is due to the way journalists do their jobs Deadlines Sources Story quothooksquot Beats Reputational concerns with colleagues Advertisers Space andor time limitations Gatekeeping Theory 0 O 0 Within news organizations certain stories are selected and others are eliminated from consideration The stories that are selected are told in speci c ways So The public gets a partial view of what is happening in reality Agenda Setting Theory 0 Because of gatekeeping news organizations report only some stories from all those that are possible The choice of position and length of story gives the report more or less prominence This means that News organizations set an agenda of news items reported to the public This affects readerslistenersviewers by shaping their understanding of what is and is not important The news agenda becomes the public s agenda The news media don t tell us what to think but they tell us what to think about 0 Spiral of Silence Theory 0 O 0000 People want to be popular and respected They pay attention to which opinions and ways of acting are accepted by society They act accordingly in order to retain respect and esteem Which opinions can a person express The popular opinion gets louder Less popular opinion gets quieter o What Has Changed With New Technologies 0 O O O OO Budgets at major news organizations dropped Consumer expectations have changed immediacy of news Information overload To cope people choose certain possibly narrow channels a quotchannel repertoirequot Attention spans are shorter Stories have to be visual More time quotplugged inquot means less time to THINK 41614 Audience Research Part 1 o The Importance of Audience Research 0 Economic measurement gives value to time o SocialCultural measurement indicated the tastes and contentconsumption patterns of audiences 0 Political Measurement can tell us something about the health of the quotmarketplace of ideasquot 0 Categories of Audience Research 0 Applied vs Theoretical Applied Practical Speci c to a particular question or problem 0 Ex Effectiveness of a campaign likability of a celebrity ratings Theoretical General explanations of quothow the world worksquot 0 Can be very practical Often done in academic settings Ex Effects of violence factors predicting music preferences These types of research cant be identi es by research method alone e same methods can be used for either 0 Quantitative vs Qualitative Quantitative Reduces objects of study to numbers 0 Use of statistics to analyze Advantage of generalizability Qualitative Data are nonnumeric ex Field notes 0 Difficult to generalize from ndings 0 Great for details and insights or from interviews These categories of research can be distinguished by method usually 0 Quantitative Surveys experiments content analyses 0 Qualitative Interviews participant observation focus groups ethnography You can code qualitative data to do statistical analyses In industry qualitative means the type of characteristic you are measuring 0 Ex Psychological states 0 Some academics would call this quantitative because it can be expressed in numbers Moral of the story know what people mean when they use each term 0 Micro vs Macro Distinguished by level of analysis 0 Micro look at audience from inside out individual viewerlistenerviewer o Ethnology interviews 0 Macro look at audience from outside in how audiences behave as a complex system 0 Ratings collective behavior 0 Syndicated vs Custom Syndicated Sold to everyone who subscribes Everybody gets the same information Custom 0 Only available to the organization that contracts for it 0 Information speci c to a problem or question 0 Primary vs Secondary Primary Going to the source measuring the audience collecting the data and analyzing it Secondary Using the data that has already been collected to discover new insights Ratings Research 0 Syndicated although custom research projects often purchased by clients 0 Quantitative Multiple Methodologies o The currency of exchange in electronic media advertising 0 0 Audience Research rms 0 Nielsen Media Research TV Arbitron Radio NielsenNetratings Internet Comscore Media Matrix Internet 000 0 Methods Strengths and Weaknesses 0 Passive Household Meters gets connected to TV set measures when set is on and what channel it is tuned to Strengths o Nonintrusive Accurately measure when set is on or off Weaknesses 0 Anyone in the room 0 No persons data 0 PEOPLEMETERS Placed and connected to set has buttons press button that says you re therenot there can tell when set is on what channel is tuned to who is in the room originally made by British company Nielson copied them US companies switched to Nielson model Strengths Persons data combined with set usage data Weaknesses Respondent Fatigue 0 Some age groups just won t use it correctly 0 Diary a diary that gets mailed to you and you ll in the charts with what you listen towatch one adult is supposed to ll it out for the entire household Strengths Lots of persons data 0 Cost Ef cient Weaknesses Accuracy of data 0 Respondent Fatigue Deliberate lying 0 Software for Internet Measurement have to ask your permission to download software on your computer Strengths o Relatively nonintrusive Collects a lot of data Weaknesses Can t measure work usage usually 0 Not everyone will participate privacy 0 Personal PEOPLEMETER little meter that you carry around with you at all times and it measures every signal that you cone in contact with all day long put in charging dock at night and it sends daily information to headquarters Strengths o Relatively nonintrusive Crossplatform measurement Weaknesses Respondent Fatigue 0 Will respondents keep it with them 0 May pick up signals respondent doesn t hear 0 Telephone Calls Calling you and asking what you listening to on the Radio and watching on TV Strengths Accurate Weaknesses o Telemarketing Fatigue 0 Intrusive Can t reach all homes 0 o Facial recognition and eye movement monitoring Strengths o Nonintrusive Weaknesses Privacy concern 0 Technology not accurate 32614 Media and Public Opinion 0 What is a journalist 0 Someone trained to inform society about itself 0 With the information they provide people make decisions and form opinions o What is quotPublic Opinionquot 0 The distribution of opinions and attitudes held by the public 0 Social Scientists study opinions about 0 Issues 0 Government 0 Politicians o What is the relationship between media and public opinion 0 Media affect public opinion 0 Media report public opinion Ideally we form our opinions based on factual information o The media are a major source of information for society 0 Speci cally we get information from news programs 0 News Programs o Is news quottruthquot Important philosophical distinction Ontology what something is Epistemology how we know something 0 All the problems that affect whether or not a story is true are about epistemology Researchers don t just study quotwhat is the opinionquot expressed but 0 They look at stability 0 And intensity 0 And trends 0 They use data from for example 0 Opinion polls 0 Research on attitudes 0 Research on campaigns 0 James Bryce amp Walter Lippmann o How is public opinion formed 0 How do the media in uence public opinion 0 Both Bryce and Lippmann were in uenced and limited by the times 0 Late 18th century amp early 20th century 0 Newspapers 0 Feedback mostly limited to the voting box 0 Bryce o The media report and comment on various individually held opinions 0 They circulate opinions that may con ict with each other 0 Opinion is formed in staged The individual Reacts to information and forms and opinion about it Opinions become widely circulated in the media and disagreementscontroversies become evident o Lippmann o The media create quotimages in peoples headsquot that may or may not correspond to reality 0 He identi ed steps in the process of news production Monitoring Gatekeeping Selection 0 These 3 steps affect the way people understand events Pictures in their heads pseudoreality Flawed public opinion leads to awed public opinion 0 Many contemporary scholars have built on Lippmann s ideas HerbertGans Michael Schudson Work routines lead to limited stories 0 Using the same sources over and over 0 Reporting their own beats whether something is newsworthy or not Journalists write for other journalists Money and time are scarce they affect which stories are written and how they are constructed OO Newsmakers try to in uence public opinion by controlling journalists O Staging events 0 Cultivating an image with pictures and rhetoric designed by professional communicators By granting or denying access 0 By controlling the release of information ex Waiting for the weekend 0 0 So what about public opinion in the modern media environment 0 What has changed Instantaneous communication But differences in access to information Anyone can create news 0 2 concepts to consider in the new media environment 1 Information overload 2 Bounded Rationality people choose what s best for them but they are limited and do not always know what is best for them 0 Both will affect the formation of public opinion people can choose to listen to only one point of view consistently they can pay attention to a limited number of stories 0 A Paradox More information could mean citizens are less informed now than they were when media options were fewer 42114 Audience Research Part 2 Calculating audience ratings 0 Emerging Technologies 0 Remember We talked about different de nitions of Market Broadcast ratings data are collected for different geographic markets 0 The national market Networks 0 The local markets individual stations 0 Sampling Obviously you cant monitor every television viewer and radio listener The audience measurement companies take a sample of the population in each market and monitor that data use the data to estimate the ratings for the entire market This quotworksquot if the sample has these characteristics 0 Respondents are chosen randomly everyone has an equal chance to be chosen 0 The sample is representative of population ex Same proportion of each demographicsocioeconomic group 0 The sample is large enough to get an accurate read on the population Television Ratings 0 National 0 One sample for the entire US 0 And the quotentire US meansquot Approx 1156 million TV homes Approx 294 million people 2 years old Measuring method Peoplemeter Measuring data 247365 SeptemberMayBroadcast Year 0 Local Markets 0 210 local markets 0 May have 220 TV stations 0 Different sample in each market 0 Measurement methods diaries or diaries plus passive HH meters or peoplemeters The rst question you should ask when given data is quotwhat is the information based off ofquot o Households People over 2 years old 0 Also where is it coming from o It is a national rating or a local market rating 0 Interpreting the ratings 0 Ratings Ratings the audience size estimates are de ned in the same way for national an local markets Used to buy and sell advertising time 0 Ratings De ned A rating is a percent 0 The percent of any population that is watching your program 0 Television households 0 Persons 2 0 Men 1824 0 Teens Based on any population you choose The number of people or households watching my program divided by the total number of people or households in the market Based on all households in the market do not have to be TV households 0 What is a good rating Monday April 7 2014 Live Same Day HH NCAA 124 0 Big Bang Theory 43 0 Dancing with the Stars 93 0 Ratings for different populations NCAA HH124 A18 49 62 BBT HH 43 A184916 quotquot You can infer that viewers between the age of 1849 were probably watching NCAA Championships instead of BBT 16 of all households 1849 were watching BBT 0 Shares De ned A share is a percent Percent of your population actually watching TV at the time 0 Used to program and predict ratings 0 Shares are always higher than ratings 0 Used to see how popular your show it Example 19 rating show 55 million people 0 294 million population 0 There were 172 million watching TV at the same time o 5517232 Share is 32 0 Your show had almost 13 of all people who were watching TV that night 0 A program that aired at the same time was much less popular than your show 0 Rating and Share for a program are usually written like this Celebrity Apprentice 1932 This says that your program earned a 19 rating and a 32 share 19 of all households were watching 32 of people watching TV were watching 0 PUTHUT PUTPeople using television 0 The percent of your population watching something on television during a given time pedod o In this example 172 million294 million 60 of people watching something on TV HUT Households using television 0 The percent of your population watching something on television during a given time pedod They vary a lot 0 By day of the week 0 HighestSunday 0 Lowest FridaySaturday By time of the day 0 Highest at 9 pm EST 0 By season where there is weather 0 Higher in winter than summer 0 Relationship RATINGSHAREPUT SHARERATNGIPUT PUTRATNGSHARE 0 Convert all percentages into decimals before doing the math 0 The challenge of measuring emerging technologies 0 Some changes in the TV market 0 Some trends and challenges for media measurement Growth in Spanishspeaking populations Time shifting via DVRTiVo Viewing on computersmobile devices Demand for individual commercial ratings Mobile measurement quotSingle sourcequot audience measurement integrated with purchase behavior Loca peoplemeters nGame Advertising Staggered series start dates How do you account for binge watching on Net ix
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