Day 24 Notes
Day 24 Notes Bios 373
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Friday April 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bios 373 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Leger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see BIOPSYCHOLOGY in Biological Sciences at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Section 4 Study Guide: Day 22 (4/14): Born to Talk Lecture: Instinct and Learning Instinct: a behavior is instinctive to the extent that it develops without specific, individual experience o Need not be present at birth Learning: modification of behavior due to specific, individual experience Instinct works with learning o Basic behavior is instinctive, but not fully functional o Learning “tunes” the instinctive form (i.e. flight in birds) o Instinct vs. learning: false dichotomy Experience and communication Pure instinct: insects, amphibians, and most primates o Eastern phoebe song: even deafened/isolated phoebes sing perfectly well Experience: o Experience used, but not required: Brownheaded cowbird instinctive song works, but punished by other males. Final song: learned variant of instinctive form (less attractive, less aggression promoting) o Experience required: Whitecrowned sparrow no exposure to song simple abnormal “song” (not functional) Females do not find attractive experience required for successful mating Will not learn other species song if exposed to simple abnormal song o Human language nonexposure to language simplified, grunt like sounds (due to deafness) o Instinctbiased learning Instinctive attention and imitation o Whitecrowned sparrows (WCS) again: Can learn any WCS song, but won’t learn other species’ songs even when interspersed them o Similar to human language development o On the other hand, some species will learn almost anything (lyrebird) Instinctive adaptation for speech o Perception babies can take spectrum of sounds (continuum) and break into distinct sounds o Phonetic contrasts: i.e. /l/ vs. /r/ /letter/ doesn’t mean letter, means sound made o Hear it or lost it! (difficult to recognize slight differences in other languages) o Helping mother nature: moms talking to their babies Universal vowels: /a/ (not), /i/ (feet), /u/ (food) Only vowels found in all human languages Hyperarticulation: lengthen the vowel and increase pitch (when saying universal vowels) o Production o Babbling typical repetitive sequencing of sounds /dadada/ comes early o Hearing is not necessary, but helps maintain babbling (eventually stops) o Parents “reward” more maturesounding babbles o Manual babbling: found in all babies, but especially in deaf babies Very similar to vocal babbling: number of units, repeated o Perception and production o Perception facilitate production, but does not guarantee it o Perception of others’ speech is often better than one’s own i.e. /t/ vs/ /k/ “otay” vs. “okay” and “stool” vs. “school” /t/ develops before /k/ o Sensitive periods o Of sparrows and people: 3 weeks vs. 1214 years o Compensatory development sensitive period present, development doesn’t start at beginning of sensitive period (deaf) but can later (surgical correction) development occurs faster than normal Readings: Instincts newborns crying, cricket chirps o Not instinct learned behaviors that have become automatic (driving a car) Learning is required for development of communication skills o White crowned sparrows learn songs through experiencing songs of other males, without this experience they cannot replicate a satisfactory mating song WCS trick young into singing other songs o Live performances sing other species song o Artificial songs through splicing WCS song with elements of other species o Learning process can sometimes override intrinsic systems Language perception o Vocal onset time before air release occurs and vocal cords vibrate o 2 categories: 030 ms bin, 3060 ms pin o Auditory and visual attention in babies sound perception o Brain lateralization: forward left stimulated, backward nothing stimulated Language production o Deaf children still babble, hearing is not required to develop language skills (signing) Sensitive periods for language development o Right hemisphere can perform tasks if left is unable to (injury, disease), easier for children to recover o Ability to speak a 2 language drops substantially after early teens o Deaf children to regain hearing find it hard to learn a language if restored after early teens Younger the better for learning language Day 23 (4/19): Language and Brain Lecture: Research Techniques Neuropsychology assessment assess symptoms and link with sites of brain damage Electrical stimulation during brain surgery, individual differences in size and location of languagecontrol regions Brain imaging allow visualization of brain in action, location shifts with language task Functional MRI sex differences in laterality (males more lateralized then females) o Language mostly on left of brain, some in right for women o Distinct areas for native vs. 2 language in “late bilinguals”, 1 area in “early bilinguals” Language Disorders and Neuropsychology Temporal lobe comprehension. Frontal lobe production Broca’s aphasia (expressive aphasia) Paul Broca of “big brain” fame, problems with language production o Due to damage of front lobe in left hemisphere, comprehension fine, but can only speak one word o Four symptoms: Anomia trouble recalling certain words Ex. Nouns (common or proper only), verbs, and adjectives Agrammatism “telegraphic” speech, bare minimum amount of words, only nouns and verbs No use of conjunctions (and, but, or) Grammatical word endings often dropped (ing, s) Articulation problems Speech apraxias slow, labored speech, more mispronunciations than normal Could this be due to damage to the motor cortex? NO o Retain motor abilities of mouth/tongue for everything but language o Ex. Blowing out candles, make nonlinguistic sounds Comprehension problems Difficulty deciphering some grammatical forms unless words are unambiguous “The girl ate the ice cream.” Easy “The girl chasing the body.” Tough Wernicke’s aphasia o Damage usually of temporal lobe in left hemisphere o Three symptoms: Impaired comprehension suddenly native language seems foreign Hearing is fine, can’t recognize end of sentence cues Can’t respond to simple commands Sometimes limited to specific linguistic categories (nouns, verbs) Fluent, but meaningless speech (unlike slow, labored Broca’s aphasia) Rate, rhythm, and intonation patterns are fine Ex. “This year the last three years, or perhaps a little more, I didn’t know how to do me any able to.” Selfcomprehension is poor No self corrections Conduction aphasia o No production or comprehension difficulties o Problem is repeating what was heard, odd answers to questions “What time is your appointment?” “My dentist is Dr. Howard. Do you know her?” o Due to damage of arcuate fasciculus a band of axons that connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas Dyslexia reading impairment without sensory, motor, or IQ deficits o Synonyms: developmental dyslexia, congenital word blindness o Not alexia (loss of reading skills due to brain injury) o Not just a reading disorder, also Slowed naming of pictured objects Difficulty manipulating phonemes Adding of deleting phenomes “prot” without /r/ “pot” Problems constructing “Spoonerisms” o “I need to shake a tower” “Brocked by Neblaska” Swap first sounds of “catsad” : “satcad” Problems making word blends “trapped” and “captured” “traptured” Reading problems: o 2 types of reading: Phonemic reading sounding out Whole word reading needed for words that violate pronunciation rules (yacht, knife) o Some dyslexics have one problem, but most have both Conclusions Extensive brain tissue is devoted to language processes Distinct systems for different language processes (lose 1 and not others) Next time: are these symptoms unique to humans? Readings: Modules of language: speaking, comprehension Speaking o Selecting words lexical retrieval accessing words from memory Proximal parts of the brain are responsible for retrieval of a group (people, animals) Can lose one set of words, but retain others (i.e. lose nouns, retain verbs) o Saying words clearly articulation problems speech apraxias o Problems with word sequencing and grammar o Broca’s aphasia damage to left frontal lobe (damage to same are in right did not produce symptom) Comprehension o Receptive aphasia fluency and pronunciation are okay, content is problematic Dyslexia problems taking visual stimuli (letters) and associating them with language sounds o Partial genetic link, concordance rates are higher in identical twins o Symptoms can be reduced with practice When deaf people have a stroke, they experience similar damage to people who can hear Structures in the left hemisphere are responsible for production or comprehension of language Day 24 (4/21): “Fine animal, gorilla” Language Evolution Views Uniquely human hypothesis: language evolved only in the human lineage, after divergence from other mammals Prehuman hypothesis: language evolved prior to the human lineage o Some features shared with other species o Several variations of hypothesis, depending on timing Language possibly evolved similar to brachiation (monkey bars movement) o All apes can brachiate, including humans o Therefore, shared common ancestor of all apes was a brachiator o Some apes have gone far with brachiation, as we have with language Evidence about Language Evolution Design feature analysis o Design features characteristics of language (i.e. vocal auditory) Are any design features unique to human language? (compared to other animal noises) Predications Uniquely human hypothesis Yes Prehuman hypothesis No o Design feature I: productivity Creative use of signals humans can make up new sentences, thoughts Productivity in animals: Washoe (chimp) “water bird” Koko (gorilla): “you dirty toilet” Putting multiple signs together to form new meanings Criticism: incomplete and biased data o II: syntax ordering of components of a system Rigid syntax components are fixed (ABCDE) Flexible syntax components change order (BAECD, ABDCE, etc.). 2 types: Type 1: Finite state grammar orderings of the components can be stated in probabilistic terms (A more probable than B…) o Ex. Brightrumped Attila Type 2: Phrase structure grammar embedded or dependent clauses o In all human languages and in computer programming language o That we know of, doesn’t occur in any other species Ape vocal language o Could we teach an ape to talk? Uniquely human: no language abilities in apes Prehuman: some language abilities in apes o Early ape language studies Strategy raise young chimps in normal human environment Kelloggs and Gua Hayes and Vicky Results: disappointing, lots of work for little result High larynx problem all nonhuman primates have a high larynx throughout life Precludes making many speech sounds Humans babies have high larynx, older kids and adults have low larynx (finished at about 4 years old) Adolescence:: males drop further and enlarges o Ape sign language Main studies: Washoe (female chimp), Koko (female gorilla), Nim (male chimp) Results: fairly good sign usage (vocabulary and grammar) But, does sign use imply understanding? Private use: Koko and Washoe sign with no humans present, indicator that animals could have an evolved nervous system that understands the value of signs o More recent studies Herbert Terrace and Nim: tried to teach Nim sign language Conclusions: a case of “Clever Hans” Clever Hans the smart horse? o Oskar Pfungst skeptical psychologist o Horse could only answer because was replicating trainer’s behavior (Koko also) Kanzi male bonobo (pygmy chimp) Exposed to language before talking (production), keyboard used for “speaking” After mother died, Kanzi was as proficient as mother when starting Able to comprehend spoken language: two anecdotes and formal tests Conclusions Diverse species have some abilities known to occur in human language Taken all this to an extreme, but whether our language is unique is still debated o Other species may have limited ability (jury’s still out) Readings: Design features studying the presence or absence in communication systems of different species o Rapid fading sounds are short lives o Semanticity words have a semantic relationship to its referent (mammals and birds) o Displacement communicate about things/events that are distant in time or place Ex. Honey bee dance, may be exclusively human Do apes brains have similar brain structures? (Broca’s/Wernicke’s) o Asymmetry in Broca, Wernicke, and other language areas (left > right) o Asymmetry in humans and nonhumans doesn’t mean structures are used the same Language has also been studied in parrots (can answer simple questions and speak) and dogs (able to follow complex commands)
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