Non Human Primates
Non Human Primates APY203
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KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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Date Created: 02/24/15
Non Human Primates 16th extant Objectives O 0000 O 0 What are primates What major categories of nonhuman primates What makes him different Why are we primates Why study nonhuman primates Why are so many endangered Things we have in common with all vertebrate classes Things we have in common with all mammals L p63 relatives by noses Traditional primate taxonomy vs alternative taxonomy Differ only in placement of tarsier No one identifying character 0 Major trends jp136 Lp61 Built for life in the trees our ecological niche O O 0 Anatomy rather primitive and generally pentadactly 5 digits Retention of primitive bone structure Robust clavicle Emancipated forelimbcan raise arm Flat nails no clawsexcept grooming claw Nail grows from bone not nail bed Tactile pads for traction Hang on to branches traction Highly mobile digits opposable and prehensible bend back against itself NOT OPPOSABLE THUMB Elaborate visual powers Frontation of eyes to front of head Stereoscopic binocular color All for depth perception Reduction of muzzle and reliance on sense of smell Progressive development of large and elaborate brain brain to body ratio Not absolute brain size but relative brain size High brain to body ratio Differential teeth 3 kinds f generalized detention j144 Dental formula 0 O O Ow 21232123 Nw 21332123 Primitive mammalian 51344134 Diastema gap in tooth row to accommodate large canine teeth Tooth comb lower incisors are long fragile used for grooming Behaviordevelopment Tendency towards erectnessfeeding Use fore and hind limbs for more than just locomotion Tendency to be social m plus female permanently associate w social groups Recognize each other as individuals Long life stages menopause playinfancy past reproductive lifespan Lack of dietary specialization generalized dentition O O O O O O Adaptation to life in the trees arboreal hypothesis j139 VS visual predation hypothesis we are geared toward living in tree and nding prey there angiosperm coevolution hypothesis primates as pallinators hypothesis Why study nonhuman primates 0 0000000 Behavioral and anatomical similarities closest living relatives Biomedical models of choice law that must test on nhp 1St Models for ancestors with similar anatomy Models for interaction with environment Understand range of variation since variation evolution Comparisons with other sociallyliving animals Own intruistic value Knowing them helps us de ne ourselves History of primatology O O Solly Zuckerman Social Life of Monkeys 1932 baboons What holds nhp together in groups is male dominanceaggression Fightingfornicating WRONG CRay Carpenter eldwork howler monkeys 1934 gibbons 1940 Establishment of Cayo Santiago PR Imported rhesus macaque Ww2 stopped funding Rebirth in 1960s plus macaques were still there Leakey39s Angels chimp gorillas orangutans Primate Daily Life 0 O 57 continents Humans only global species o Tropicalsubtropical latitudes little seasonal variation in temperature just rain seasonal variation Creates period of food scarcity Resourcefulness during this period primates Habitats 0 Primary rain forest nutrients are in canopy undisturbed w conUnuouscanopy 0 Secondary rain forest disturbednot continuous plus emergent trees 0 Woodland forest temperate zone synchronousdeciduous 0 Gallery forests shape is riverine o Savannaantiforest Less trees existing are armored against predators Grass resources tubers corns seeds Sleeping sites at a premium Beginning of human roots How they use the land 0 O O O 0 Day range daily path length L80 Home range entire area travelled in year Core area part of home range that has all resources necessary for a year Not matter if few visits ex last watering hole Territory speci c kind of land use Marked Patrolled Defended against same sex and species People not territorial Territorial shift mom and dad leave and give terr to offspring Increases tness because you are cutting their work 12 When we use space available to us 0 Activity patterns Nocturnal usually small large eyes Diurnal Cathemeral to reduce stress save energy according to tempany time L65 Crepuscular dawndusk avoid predators Diet 0 Omnivore fruiteaves insects o Frugivore fruit eater o Folivory leaves 0 Gummivory gum and sap trees 0 lnsectivory insects Locomotion o Arboreal quadrupedalism o Terrestrial quadrupedalism o Brachiationsuspensory L74emancipated forelimb Knuclewalking o Semibrachiation prehensile tail centralsouth Americanw 0 Vertical clinging and leaping O Habitual bipedalism humans Skeletal adaptations Why be social O 0000 O lntensely social Predator detection L84 Predator avoidance Environment for social acquired learning Improved access to pool of potential mates Potential care givers for young 0 Factors affecting social structure 0 Body size and degree of dimorphism o BMR basal metabolic rate amount of energy body spends at rest 0 Diet best prediction for body size 0 Distribution of resources clumped Patchy o Predation avoid 0 Relations with other species Poyspeci c foraging Monkey understand signals of deer Dispersal patterns who leaves social group when Males FemalesJ text Phiopatric born into natal group and stay in group forever Matriline females separate and form power group 0 With whom o Tendency to be social 0 Grouping groups by number of males One male groups 0 Pairs Harems Multimalemultifemale Males are uninvolved in caregiving exception possibly pairs Fissionfusion o Subgroup formation has no rules 0 Response to widely scattered food Polyandry o 1 female many males 0 Nutritional stress on female 0 Always have twins 0 Male care givers Males carry infants 0 Greater survivorship 0 Best for reproductive success Solitary but social 0 Basic unit mother infant pair 0 Separate territories by sex O O Noyau male s territory encompasses that of many females Monogamy pairs Primate social org Solitary but social Mother infant pair Separate territories by sex Multi Female philopatry Male dispersal Dominance hierarchy differential social in uence mostly peaceful Complex lifelong social relationships 0 Features of social groups O 0000 O Dominance hierarchies Perks of dominance access to better resourcesmates M vs f Internally inconsistent Male cooperation Younger sister ascendency every time a new daughter is born all fall below Male rank achieved after leaving natal group till then has mother39s status Collective rank rank group relative to one another Dominance rank is relative to time place and situation Matrilines who s your momma Highest stresscortisol levels are seen in alphas Alphas are groomed more choose travel patterns AggressionReproduction 1 Physically damaging aggression is rare agonistic a Unfriendly passive aggression Coalition formed kin rank in males Reconciliation is common special behavior af liative Aggressiveness is not linked to reproductive success Ritualized aggression a Can have agonistic aggression with clear winners and minimize physically damaging aggression P PP N Just 1 at a time K selected order Fewer infants more parent investment 0 Not life long exclusive pairs Only 14 monogamous species Cheating spreads genetic variability lnfanticide Males enter group and kill preexisting babies they not sire o Ones with natal coat Protect own offspring Shown to be a learned strategy Over emphasized in literature Males who grow up in group without infanticide do not perform it themselves 0 Hanuman langur Estrus hormonally matured period when f are ready for mating o Bleeding heart gelada baboons OOOO Grooming social cement Af liative behavior Demonstrates social bonds between animals Courtship tension reduction friendly making friends entering a new group Nonsocial fx keep clean Not have ticks keep pelage clean of sweat dadruff etc 0 Parenting Learned behavior usally all female Not unusual for 1St time moms to lose baby Alloparenting animal other than biological parent acts in a parent manner Allomothering female allopatry Advantages for quotauntquot learn how to parent 0 Infant gets to be aunted o Chance to learn other members of social group 0 Potential real aunt in case of parent death 0 As models for us Evolution of language linked to laterality of brain and handedness Complex social relationships over a lifetime prosocial behavior What they do not have menopause grandmother hypothesis Better at passing on knowledge wo sex Altruism 1 org sacri ces its tness for another Ex alarm bark Nature vs nurture Disproves survival of the ttest Tool use Macaques oss with human hiar harvest mussels with hammer stones Capuchins open nuts with hammer stones Chimps termite sh with stick crack nuts build nests Gorillas make depth nders for wading in water 0 Cool tool but is it culture Innovation new pattern is inventedmodi ed table 81 Dissemination pattern is acquired through imitation from innovator by another WHO Nongenetic transmission Standardization form of pattern is consistent and stylized Durability pattern is performed wo presence of demonstrator Diffusion pattern spread from innovator39s generation to next Tradition pattern persists from innovator to next Nonsubsistence pattern transcends subsistence Usually stops nhp from consideration of having culture Cannot be related to foodfeeding Naturalness pattern is shown in absence of direct human in uence PROSIMIANSTREPSIRHINE TRAITS noses toeses teeth Wet nose split lip Tooth comb evolved from feeding to grooming Mainly 36 teeth Whiskers vibrissae Retained 1 claw grooming claw Aka toilet digit on index toe Much smaller than anthropoids Babies Nesting arborea time shares Usually nocturnal Have nest in which you give babies Ex squirrels nest at night but bush baby s at day Litters 2 to 4 typically Mouth carry to move infants no mouth Navigating at night Tapetum ucidum eye shine Scents Hunting by hearing ayeaye Lemurs Madagascar origin Only diurnal prosimians Lorises from Africa and se asia india Galagosbush babies from Africa Radiation of living lemurs Lemur traits 3 activities diurnal nocturnal cathemeral Limited sexual receptivity based on photoperiod Little sexual dimorphism Wide adaptive array diet size movement Colorful Endangered Anatomy Grooming claw Wet nose More catlike face Tooth comb shared with lorises Mouse lemurs Nocturnal Noyau Insects fruits More babies 4 at a time with time share nests Pocket primates Understory habitat Fat tailed dwarf lemur Stores fat in tail for torpor Hibernate when its hottest so fat in tail keeps it cool Still clearly a primate Same hand proportions Move Depth perception Highly mobile digits Color vision Flexibility Nocturnal leaf eater lepilemur Unusual adaptation cannot see leaves at night Caecotrophy excrete pasteickselves and reprocess Multimalemultifemale Ayeaye No canine teeth or premolars Fox tail Bat ears Ultra middle digit Evergrowing central incisors woodchuck front teeth 10031013 Very specialized very vulnerable to extinction Daytht lndri Wall of sound proclaim territory 0 Family groups VCL Teeny tail Bamboo Lemur Eats bamboohas specialized gut for CN Red Ruffed Lemur Day nests Live in canopy Specialized ankle similar to human wrist Flexible social group nesters Black and white ruffed is variation Mongoose Lemur Smallest lemur Sexual dichromatism Collared Lemur Dichromatism Scent glands used to communicate Ring tailed lemur Uniqueness Female dominance tie between maternal condition and babies 0 Due to nutritional stress 0 Very short time period for them to conceivehave babies Terminal branch feeding Thin ne ending of branches Scent marking males Glands on wrist 0 Also for ritualized aggression Tarsiirs 159 2 grooming claws Secondarily nocturnal similar to nightmonkey both have diurnal roots and no tapetum lucidem Dry nose VCL Long gestation DNA eve fused frontal bone postorbital closure Complex brain vascularization Dental traits of chewing style and tooth shape Primitive traits Small body size Nocturnal but no eye shine Lack of sexual dimorphism Laterally placed incisors Faunivorous diet only meat 2 grooming claws Anatomy in action Little big foot Vcl O OOOOOOOOOOOO Power in legs Long naked tail for balance Grasping live prey Grasping branches Social life Some solitary others pairs Nesters to duet before bed Babies are parked not carried Mainland Strepsirhines 8 types Nocturnal quothips to toe furquot Parking Nests of trees Poisonous spit baths from mother Night in Africa bushabies Primary sense hearing hunt Urine washing keep hands sticlq and leave scent Potto slow deliberate climber high grip reduced index nger Slender lorisfast Slow loris called cryptic Flexible spine great grip Pygmy slow loris Anthropoidea o Hallmark traits Monkeys apes people sometimes tarsiirs Larger avg body size Complex blood supply Deemphasis on olfaction nosebrain More emphasis on eyes frontation color orbital structure Fused mandible more chewing pressure Generalized dentition NO TOOTH COMB Human no diasthema Womb built for 1 More life stages More parenting and allogrooming parental investment new world monkey atfaces big size all smaller than ow all diurnal except night m all arboreal at face with leafshaped nostrils ceboidea must be platyrrhini family from ow monkeys apes humans ischial callosities for sitting o callosus allow blood flow to continue sharp nose downward nostrils some with cheek pouches sexual dimorphism is common major division by diet leaf eater or omnivorous each diet subgroup has unique anatomical and behavioral adaptation specialization of cheeksgut gang of 5 hominoids largest body size no tails complex cognitive abilities and structure complex social lives short lower back shoulders for suspension long mobile forelimbs IMB well above 100 135 o humans 72 0 language ability not for spoken New World Monkeys Platyrrhini Ateloidea Characteristics Traits common to all anthropoid primates From very small marmosets and tamarins to 12kg howlers and muriqui Nocturnal rest diurnal Flatfaced g leaf noses Arboreal prehensile tail 21332133 or 21322132 Common marmoset sci model because has twins Silvery marmoset bugs body size linked to diet OOOO Fatherbrotheruncle Active parental investment Predation pressure Nutritional maternal stress 0 Mother has twins 2ce year Goeldi39s monkey is transitional between marmosets and tamarins Common squirrel monkey group of 200400 Free ranging group Show adaptability Saki monkeys sexual dichromatism no prehensile tail Arboreal quadrupedalism Uakari red shows centrality Titi monkey territorial shift dad carries infant connecting tails Semibrachiationhands feet tail 0 Traction pads on tail improve grip 0 NW monkey are not vcl o Muriqui Endangered Rainforests Fissionfusion Male cooperation Females disperse o Curled up tail nw 0 Black howling monkeycontact comfort Harem or mmmf Old World Catarrhini cercopithecoidea hominoidea 2 groups leaf eatersomnivore Widest distribution of all nhp Biomedical models of choice Rhesus macaque Frequent quotauntingquot Some w natal coat OOOOOOO Color where it counts 0 Facerump o Communicates speciessexage rankbreeding availability 0 Sex skin reproductive state at a glance lschial callosities Sharp nose White eyelids for communiation Savannah baboon 0 Sexual dimorphism o Mmmf groups 0 Female philopatry o Natal coat back hamadrayas baboon harem drilllargest monkey o are nose root of canine teeth 0 baboons and macaques old world monkey usually singlemalemultifemale or vice versa ow tail for balance leaf eating monkeys o colobus o pot belly o langur endangered due to habitat loss and hunting quotaunUngquot May have reduced thumb o Zanzibar colobus eat charcoal to detox chem in leaves Hanuman langur 0 Flexible social group 0 lnfanticide OOO Apes o Hominoidea o Traits of apes Large size no tail Longer interbirth interval and development Tool use cultural or traditional Restricted distribution Long lives Ability to sign prewired for language 0 Ultimate brachiators Gibbon highly reduced thumb Power in shoulders Lar gibbon Use wall of sound like indri Arboreal hypothesis Visual predation hypothesis Angiosperm hypothesis
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