hd fs notes with dates exam 2
hd fs notes with dates exam 2 HD FS 129
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Aileen Contreras Madrigal
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General Psychology 11762
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HD FS 129 Final exam study guide Lectures Video happy movie Marriage Gottman s research con ict communication Marriage 0 Living single has become a more viable option for people 0 20 years 50 will be single households 0 Why do you want to get married 0 Average duration of marriage is 9 years 0 By 5 years 22 of marriages have ended o In 1950 average age of marriage was 21 years 23 for men quotThing to doquot 0 To be an adult 0 For a sexual relationship 0 Today average age of marriage for women is 26 years Not dating people for the rest of your life If you meet the right person soul mate 0 To nd your other half someone who completes you 0 Expectations of marriage very high so is the divorce rate 0 Andrew Cherlin o The MarriageGoRound the state of Marriage and the family in America todav Americans get married more divorce more and have more live in partners than people in any other western industrialized nann 0 Pair quicker divorce quicker and pair quicker again 0 When it is just 2 people you and the other person are the only people affected 0 Children who have experienced multiple transitions at home Have more behavior problems in school E Have sex at an earlier age 0 Children enter adolescence earlier Less likely to graduate from high school More likely to have a rst child outside of marriage 0 Children born in America are far more likely to see their parents partnerships break up than are children in most other countries Cherlin s advice is to SLOW DOWN a Don t rush into marriage a Don t be so quick to move in a Love 0 Limerance happens to everyone Distracts from children E Children get confused 0 Myths about marriage 0 Con ict will ruin your marriage E Con ict is healthy No two people do not have con ict E It is how you handle the con ict that matters a 1St acknowledge it 0 Don t hold it in 0 People all ght differently it is healthy as long as the people are okay with it o Affairs are the main cause of divorce E Typically the sign of something else going wrong in the marriagerelationship E People cite being faithful being the one of the most important things 0 But affairs are not the ending force of a relationship sometimes 0 If people get through it the relationship becomes stronger 0 Men are not biologically made for marriage E Men remarry quicker after divorce Women initiate divorce more often than men E Men are more likely to not live alone 0 The best marriages are when couples have the same interests E Not necessarily true 0 If partners have different passions you can diversify 1 Still need same values and belief systems 0 Pros and cons to both having similar interests and not 0 What makes a marriage work Gotmanns Research 0 Solving solvable problems E Domestic Violence 0 Can t x that E One partner wants children one doesn t 0 Should be talked about prior to marriage 0 Can t x Chronic illness with a spouse or a child 0 Autism downs syndrome 0 Parents handle in different ways 0 Can t x Task Sharing 1 Solvable 1 Who does what chores E Someone who already has kids or an exwifeexhusband 0 Solvable o Blend families FinancesMoney o 1 at what couples ght about 0 Solvable Long distance 0 Solvable 0 Move to same place Lifestyles 0 Smoking drinking obesity 0 Solvable E How you handle con ict with the other person 0 Solvable All conversations to have prior to getting married o If maybe about children hold off on marriage 0 Letting your partner in uence you Bad marriages have one partner not willing to share power a The person who holds the most power is the person who cares the least about the relationship 0 That person is unwilling to let hisher partner in uence them 0 Ex 12 introverted l2 extroverted 0 Allow partner to in uence good thing 0 No one is perfect 0 Be open to not being RIGHT about everything Creating a shared meaning of marriage 0 No quotonesize tsallquot o If both partners agree on what their meaning of marriage 0 What do the partners want from the marriage 0 Time of crisis who to turn to 0 Similar interests or not 0 Turn toward each other rather than away The person you choose to marry you want to spend the rest of your life with 0 You should like each other be friends treat them with the best 0 But we treat them the worst sometimes too Turning towards each other means that we are on the same team 0 Show them with the same respect and kindness ignore pettiness o Ignore the childish almost sibling rivalry 0 But we all know that if anyone tried to harm them we would kick their ass Because family will always be there 0 Friendships you have to work for Don t know if they will always be there An unhappy marriage increases as individual s risk of getting sick by 30 and can even shorten a person s life by 4 years 0 People in marriages that have high levels of con ict that is being dealt with in the wrong way suppresses the partners ability to ght illness and causes depression Pew research survey results O In the 50s 60s and 70s The consistent top two reason for choosing to marry were 0 Having children 0 Creating stability Presently The top reason for choosing to marry 0 Personal happiness and ful llment 0 The more you spend on a wedding the more you likely you are to get divorced 0 Not focusing on the marriage more on the party 0 Planning lasts for forever Think about the marriage more or equal to the wedding The percentage of americans who consider children as very important to a successful marriage has dropped from 65 in the 1990 s to 40 in 2011 Sharing household chores has moved up in importance from 47 in 1990 to 62 presently Women who work full time and then work at home 1 Creates marital satisfaction to decrease More sex in marriages where household labor is equal Career women s marital satisfaction decreases when marriage involves an unequal division of labor 0 Pew Research Center 0 na 999969 Being Faithful Happy Sexual Relationship Sharing Household chores Adequate income Good housing Shared religious beliefs Shared interests Having Children i Children quotfreequot now versus Children less before Agreement on politics i In numerical rated order ii Important to both partners Divorce Judith Wallerstein s study impacts of divorce on children 0 Divorce 0 Judith Wallerstein Study began in 1971 lnitial beliefs 0 Divorce was a brief crisis 0 Divorce rate would drop Study 0 Sample 0 60 families 131 children 0 Homogenous group very similar Well educated middle to upper class no prior emotional problems no stress other than divorce quotDivorce under the best circumstancesquot 0 No stress other than the divorce Wallerstein expected her study to end in a year 0 Used interviews and questionnaires to measure adjustment 0 Follow up at 18 months most individuals in the study were still in crisis Adults still angry lives not back together Chldren quotseemed to be a on a downward coursequot 0 Toddlers quotbabies holding up the worldquot Through their play they see the issues They felt like their world was falling apart l 0 Got funds for another 5 years with 90 participation 0 People weren t doing well so stayed until the crisis was going to solve hopefully o 90 is a seriously high retention rate for a study thatlong 5year results 0 Children 0 13 doing well after 5 years 0 40 still had signi cant problems 0 Remaining kids had some problems 0 Majority of children wanted parents to remarry each other Even if they remarried other people 0 Majority felt parents had given priority to adult needs over children s needs Children felt pushed aside and felt parents were only concerned about themselves Parents not making decisions based on what children want 0 Adults 0 50 of men 75 of women felt more content 0 50 of men 25 of women felt just as unhappy 5 years later Only 10 of kids felt relief when parents divorced o Divided Loyalties Kids are put in the position that if they give sympathy to one parent they are disloyal to other Kids do what is expected of them put your needs infront of theirs 4915 Divorce cont 0 Issues children have to deal with o Adjustments Being forced to move Having two parents in two different homes Depends on custody dad on weekends mom during week Having to adjust to parents new lovers Kid s don t understand how to treat the person 0 Parents are in imerance and ignore child Carving out a new relationship with father Wallerstein found that adolescence begins earlier in divorced homes 0 Causes to grow up faster More household chores 0 Parents are not as good of monitors for what children are doing Kids can squeeze by parents easier and get in trouble more o en 0 Sample included a bunch of kids in all different ages Study progressed and studied the children for twenty ve years Wrote The Unexbected Legacy of Divorce Orginally thought divorce was a brief crisis that would solve itself 0 1525 years later children still had repercussions on children of divorced families 0 All children had issues 0 Differences in issues with different ages 0 Age related reactions to divorce 0 Preschool Fear of abandonment Little kids don t want to do anything wrong because they think their father will leave same with mother Confusion about visitation Dif culty in comforting self 0 Still little kids they don t understand emotions Kids need parents to help calm their emotions 0 Holding child to self regulate and learn how to calm emotions o 58 years Preoccupation with feelings of rejection guilt and loss 0 Kids feel like it s their fault Fear of being replaced Males have intense longing for their father 0 912 years lntense anger Psychosomatic symptoms Rashes without explaination o Anger 0 Anxiety 0 Manifests in a physical way Acting as caregivers to adults to exclusion of own needs 0 Adolescence Worry about their own relationships Because they understand complexity they have dif culty sorting through issues 0 Emerging adulthood Sleeper effect 0 Anxiety about their own successful involvement in romantic relationships Females Preoccupied with betrayal o Jealous clingy convinced relations weren t going to last partners were going to leave Males Avoid relationships or are reserved in relationships Attachment 0 Secure attachment D mom leaves D insecure attachment 0 Attachment changes when divorce happens 0 quotGrowing up can be harder for children of divorce because they must deal with psychological issues that children from wellfunctioning intact families do not have to facequot Not true for all marriages If your experience is that you feel pretty fucked up and your parents are still together Kids that dealt with divorce see more though 0 If divorce is followed by inept parenting andor continued con ict divorce or detrimental High con ict in a marriage is detrimental 0 Should parents stay together for the sake of the children Some parents stay together until all children are out of household 0 Children are aware of con ict 0 Kids feel like they are keeping the parents together Metaanalysis of research ndings 0 Young adults who perceived their parents marriage as high in con ict fared better if their parents divorced and the con ict ended 0 Children who see the con icts and see the resolution tend to do better than children who don t Resolution is some sort of contact between parents when they do that after a ght the children do really well 0 However young adults who perceived their parents marriage as low in con ict fared worse if their parents divorced Helping Children Cope with Divorce 0 0 Understanding Divorce Kids should be told as soon as the parents are separating Stability Kids need to know that parents are still committed to everything the children do Dealing with loss Have to have time to deal with parents not being together as a unit anymore Kids need to be allowed to acknowledge how powerless they feel Kids need to be kept informed to feel like they have information and power Mothers and daughters are at risk for being overinvolved in each others lives Kids need to hear an apology from their parents 0 quotI m sorry our relationship is ending and that it is really hard for youquot 0 Parents regret things that they decided when they were hurt Dealing with Anger Incredibly confusing for children They don t understand how the people they love the most are making them so hurt Parents must acknowledge they are the cause to the kids 0 So children can process it Kids need to be told it is not because of them Accepting permanence of divorce Very rarely do parents remarry Kids even 5 years later want them to remarry even if the parents are with other people 0 Kids have some desire to see family intact Taking a chance on love Parents have to tell children that they are not going to make the same mistakes as them Poor adjustment to divorce in children is associated with O O O O O 0 Continuing con ict between parents Can get nasty Decline in parental support Parent there to help with every day needs and attachment Loss of contact with noncustodial parent Unless parent was abusive Economic decline Accustomed to one lifestyle and then changes Decline in parental supervision Moving Children with divorced parents experience more problems in the following areas than children from intact families 0 Depressionanxiety 000 0 Academic achievement NOT IQ No longer having resources Selfconcept Health problems Social competence Psychological problems 0 Adults demonstrate great variability in their reactions to divorce 0 Poor adjustment to divorce in adults is associated with Lack of social support network Economic hardship Not wanting marriage to end ldentity intensely tied to being married History of psychological problems Viewing divorce as a personal failure Presence of children s behavioral dif culties Continuing con ict with exspouse adult who didn t want divorce gets hurt more When you don t forgive the only person you are hurting is yourself 0 This is also better for children Letting go of the con ict is the best thing after divorce Diversity of adult life styles Eric Klineberg s study gay and lesbian unions Diversity of Adult Lifestyles 0 Living Single Way more popular than it s ever been Going Solo Eric Klinenberg 2012 Professor of Sociology at NYU 0 1950 22 of adults 2164 yrs old were single Accounted for 9 of households 2012 50 of adults are single Accounts for 28 of Households Why would people like to live alone No stress of having to take care of anyone but yourself No children Advantages of Living alone Pursue one s own schedule Make decisions independently 0 When married you have to make even the smallest decisions jointly Privacy and Solitude 0 Two people in marriage have to decide that they want alone time Living alone adults are primarily women 55 Living alone is on the rise why 0 Sexual freedom 0 Technology Not the same connection as in person Makes people much more independent 0 Longer life span 0 Less desire to have kids Most people having kids are going to have a partner lnsemination is not very common 0 Cohabitation Differences in why we cohabit and when we cohabit are associated with different outcomes 0 Some good some bad outcomes 0 Length of time varies dramatically 0 Months 0 Years Depends on the reason Presently 7090 of couples live together before marriage Income Differences Dr Sharon Sassler Cornell University 0 Group differences in Outcomes of Cohabitation for three groups Working Class Cohabiters combined income of 38971 0 Poverty is 19000 MiddleClass cohabiters combined income of 67672 SenalCohabter Someone who quickly moves in without commitment or idea of marriage 0 Findings Workingclass couple move in together more rapidly than middleclass couples Bc working class couples said money was the reason 0 Using two salaries to pay one rent or oil bill or grocery is better than one cheaper Workingclass couples cited nances as a main reason to cohabit Workingclass couples were more likely to divorce than middleclass couples 0 Money is hard to deal with always stressed Not moving in for reasons that have to do with love if nances are main reason 0 Stress makes people desensitized Paycheck to Paycheck o Follows a woman who is working class with two kids and is divorced o Meets guy and moves in bc of money doesn t end well Middle classcouples decision to move in together was more deliberate thought out o More because of love may even be engaged Middleclass couples are more likely to see cohabitation as a step to marriage Serial Cohabiters view cohabitation as a test and are more likely to divorce than middle class cohabiters Use living together as a test rather thanlove Testing how compatible l more likely to divorce 0 Gender Differences in ndings Males are more likely than females to express lower levels of commitment After moving in together females were more likely to experience weightgain and more housework Gender roles more pronounced Reasons for Cohabitation o Utilitarianlj Finances Any couple can cite this Working class more likely but everyone can cite o Intimate involvement Strong commitment in long term not ready to get married 0 Prelude to marriage Engaged set a date no reason to wait might as well live together 0 Alternative to Marriage 0 Gaylesbian unions John Gottman Parents just decide to not get married D still happy about it It works very uncommon Be together for 40 years because we just don t want to get married Similar on a day to day basis to heterosexual marriages Union like marriage or actual marriage More exible in gender roles Chores divided amongst two people of the same gender 0 Can trade chores more easily Value monogamy No difference between mental health or developmental outcomes of children raised in gaylesbian households when compared to children in heterosexual households 0 Some research says that these kids do better than children in heterosexual relationships 0 Choosing lifestyle more deliberately so the decision to have and raise children would be more deliberate as well 0 Options D surrogacy and adoption 0 Adoption very expensive Overwhelming majority of children growing up in gaylesbian households are heterosexual o Sexuality is not a choice 0 Girls experiment more in adolescence than guys with lesbian parents Bc girls have more face to face and open relationships Gaylesbian couples are better at communicating than the best heterosexual couples gottman s longitudinal research quot5 Good Thingsquot that healthy relationships provide according to gottman o Aliveness Empowerment Knowledge about other and self Sense of worth Sense of greater connection Mid life development generativity versus stagnation Levison s developmental tasks of O O O O adulthood personality quotThe three grand essentials of happiness are something to do someone to love and something to hope forquot Alexander Chalmers Midlife Development 4065 yrs 0 Generativity a capacity to care for others in a broader way than previous stages To nurture that which outlives the self Ex reputation in a job what you stand for in yourjob giving to charity research 0 Stagnation being selfcentered and selfindulgent with a lack of concern about contributing to the welfare of society What can be generated 0 Children Ideas Products Contributions to communitycharity Contributions through teachingmentoring What else OOOO Mentoring o Generativity requires a quotbelief in the speciesquot Even if they don t have children they believe in humanity What makes us happy 0 Family 0 Meaningful philosophy of life 0 Purposeful work A prestigious carrier or something that makes you really happy Ex astrophysicist changed to chef Developmental Tasks of Adulthood Levinson o Young Old Finding positive meaning in being older For a certain amount of time you can have a pretty youthful image Women have a hard time letting go of youthfulness Older men marry younger women Easier for men to deal with than women 0 Men deal better with health Older women marry younger men 0 Women focus more on vanity than health Either nd the truth about yourself or put up a guise Meaning in just life or what it looks like 0 Destruction Creation Becoming more aware of how we have acted in a harmful way toward others and trying to correct it Building people up around us rather than putting people down Good people aren t born they become good people 0 Through what they do and how they think 0 Do this by stopping the selfcenteredness o Masculinity Femininity becoming more androgynous Men can soften temperamentally and emotionally More nurturing Gradual drop in testosterone Women turn more towards career tough assertive leader When women take time off from career before even having kids 0 Pull back from work 0 Engagement Separation Resolving issues of work and family Middle age father may start spending more time with family Women may turn back to a career they had prior and then went back to work Stability v Change 0 Stability adult personality is stable over time 0 Change adult personality is a continual process of change and growth Childhood really emotional growing up regulating feelings Behavior can change both how you feel and how you think Sadly some people never know how to self regulate The more parents help children selfregulate the more the child learns how to 0 Don t let the children just deal with it themselves 0 Do people change 2000 40 yr ods Think about their personality 0 52 stayed the same 0 39 changed a little 0 9 changed a lot 0 So 91 felt personality was relatively stable 0 Five stable factors of personality OCEAN Openness o Imaginative or practical 0 Variety or routine 0 Independent or conforming Don t have to be at an extreme for any of these Conscientiousness o Organized or disorganized o Careful or careless o Disciplined or impulsive Extraversion o Sociable or retiring o Funloving or somber o Affectionate or reserved lntroverts are the ones that are coming up with the really really good ideas because they spend time alone and think it out Extroverts think celebrities Agreeableness o Softhearted or ruthless o Trusting or suspicious 0 Helpful or uncooperative Baby goes with the ow Adults similar Neuroticism o Calm or anxious 0 Secure or insecure In job relationships Correlated to attachment 0 Selfsatis ed or selfpitying In general Agreeableness and conscientiousness increase in middle age Neuroticism declines Extraversion and openness either do not change or decrease slightly 0 Personality is responsive to life experiences change but that change exists within boundaries 0 These changes which have been veri ed crossculturally could be said to re ect a quotsettling downquot or maturity o A person who scores high or low on a particular trait is likely to retain that standing throughout adulthood Jon s lecture on fatherhood roles of father in history father involvement 0 Why Study Father involvement I 1970 s doubt as to the importance of father involvement I 1990 s no more doubt as to the importance of father involvement 0 How many males do we have 0 How many of you intend to become fathers 0 How many females do we have 0 How many of you intend to become mothers I How do we study father involvement 0 Quantitative reports mother amp father 0 Survey 0 Time Diary 0 Qualitative observations and interviewing 0 Absolute v Relative involvement I Theoretical framework of father involvement 0 Engagement direct interaction e g caretaking play and a ective component 0 Accessibility availability potential for interaction 0 Resonsibility resources for the child a I Descriptive results in general 0 Fathers spend less time with their children than mothers in all 3 domains 0 Father involvement has increased over time in all 3 domains 0 Fathers are more likely to be involved in dual eamer households than father earning households I What is the role of the father 0 Colonial times all powerful patriarch but fully involved 0 Industrial times breadwinner 0 Sexual revolution nurturing father 0 Today Multidimensional father like mothers I Do fathers parent differently I Domain specific interactions with children 0 Play gt caretaking 0 What makes a dead beat dad I Unemployed not paying child support 0 Disciplarian 0 What about a father primary caregiver 0 Direct versus Indirect systems framework I Direct effects 0 Father child interactions 0 Playing communication I Indirect effects 0 Coparenting 39 0 Economic support n r O Predictors of and barriers to father involvement I Psychological factors I Child s characteristics I Social support I Institutional practices and public policies I Community cultural in uences murd f h e lml j tuti ns l l t palingquot Famer iild s iiiquotlam 0 Individualistic factors I Dad factors Motivation Efficacy Depressive symptoms Modeling or compensating own father s involvement Attitudes about masculinity I Child Factors 0 Social Support Gender maybe Biological relationship to father Temperament I Maternal gatekeepin g Father child relationships contingent on this Poor coparenting marital relationship I Mothers views of father involvement father involvement was okay the way it was I Men s social networks provide less encouragement or resources for parenting 0 Institutional practices I Paternity leave Paid or unpaid How long Repercussions I Flextime I Child care availability weenie In Pane P ATEEle flue 1 UE inn 39 UK Ea f Chna it Niamey 43 Austrla 13 f W weuden E1 O Broader social context I Community and culture 0 Ideas about what constitutes a good father 0 Around helps with homework instills rules etc 0 Consequences of father uninvolvement I Quantity versus quality Father absence Lack of a coparent 0 Con ict with the mother 0 Lower household income I increased maternal stress 0 Child feelings of abandonement I Cognitive competence empathy seX stereotyped beliefs internal locus of control I Warmth and closeness I Parental monitoring I Father infant attachment Sexual socialization self objectification Sexual Socialization Making sense of what we do Internet porn lol Porn lovehate 0 Pro porn very into 0 Hate porn very against 0 Hate to love want to stop but can t feel guilty 0 Hate to hate they think they should like porn but don t Open minded to it but skeptical 0 Don t care Is porn good or bad 0 Industry 0 Content What porn is putting out there 0 Distribution Good or bad for society 0 Individual Physiological Psychological Behavioral Developmental Relational Moral Political Societal Chronological Youth and media use 0 O O 0 Kids spend an average of seven and a half hours per day with media 95 of teen have reg access to internet 37 own smart phones 23 own tablets Media D society Or Society D media 0 ConsoHdann A few people are in charge of what goes on media 0 6 companies 0 Views are consistent with pro t margin of companies Sexually Explicit Material Online O 0000 O 0 We ve had porn for as long as we ve had photography Sex depicted in art erotica Painting for rich people Pictures of naked people in big cities 40s A lot of money off of selling sexualized women to men 0 Pin up girl 0 Sex Mag Playboy 1958 Beginning of porn industry 50s began wide spread of porn distribution HusUer First hard core mag All naked girls Over time bodies become thinner and sexual ideal changing Pubic hair change New trend What changed pornography forever 0 The internet 0 Trends 1985 5year 2005 5week 0 Triple A engine Available 0 Anyone can get it 0 Google anything and come up with porn Affordable Cheap or free 60 for dvd or vhs Anonymous 0 Pornographic Websites 2000 16000 2005 170000 2012 5689000 Internet pornography 0 Combined all kinds of weird porn with normal porn or whatever quotFisting double penetrationquot Top 10 Sites 0 Amateur Content 0 Revenge Porn 0 Pirated content Porn is a BIG business 0 Corporate America Publicly traded corps Responsible to their stock holders 0 Increasing pro ts 0 How s the pro t 37 billion Millions spent to make sure porn studies are not released publicly More than Hollywood and gaming industry combined How do you increase pro t as a producer 0 The latest new way to have sex extreme sex Gang bangs amp double penetration ATM anus then mouth 0 Oral infections disgusting Drugs used to facilitate extreme sex Oxycontin valium alcohol cocaine 0 Humiliating When does porn become violent 0 Popular pornography content 0 Verbal aggression 48 Insulting 488 Threatening 1 Using coercive language 16 0 Physical Agression Porn sexreal sex 0 Porn is not about sex or nudity 0 Porn is the Commodi cation of sex Sex turned into a product 0 Need more variety of sexy The Brain on porn 0 Physiological responses to sex and pornography The brain on Lovesocial Neuroscience Oxycontin o Cuddle hormone o Bondinducing o Monogamy Vasopressin o Monogamy Dopamine o Lust v Attachment Attachment stay together and make family Serotonin o Lust Releases neurotransmitter combination that is not the same as sex or masturbration Serotonin Adrenaline Testosterone Dopamine Endorphin 0 Combination stimulate o Create a stimulant like a drug Is porn addictive Dopamine transmission in nucleus accumbens Shows tolerance Porn arousal more like stimulant arousal than sexual arousal o Addiction is similar to cocaine 0 Similar dopamine production gt sex Dopamine search for females perfect online 0 One person doesn t excite you very much 0 1000000 other receptive females Pornography amp Naltrexone For porn addiction Porn induced erectile dysfunction 0 Men reported impotence to get Viagra o Impotence only occurred when they attempted sex with partner and no porn 0 Pornography dependency o Erections were reestablished after 3060 days of no porn A sexualized world 0 Sex sells Food Alcohol Perfume Jeans gang bang o Cultivation theory use images in the media to create reality in an unconscious way Gender Sexual Socialization 0 Girls Nice and patient with partner Even if partner is an awful person 0 Beauty and the beast Twilight 5O shades of grey o BDSM domination fetish Can be the bad girl and be really sexual Get messages really early 0 Breast implants before high school graduation Labiaplasty o Vagina looks like before it hit puberty 0 Not biology Anal bleaching kardashians Taught from very young age that their bodies are the most important aspect of themselves Seek male attention and approval keep changing yourself if needed Be pretty and sexy but not slutty 0 Female sexuality Female sexuality is constructed to inauthentic Social construction of faking Orgasms Cosmetics tanning waxings Acting sexual v being sexual Striptease classes 0 Duck face 0 Selfsexualization and selfobjecti cation Lowers self esteem Associated with depression body monitoring and eating disorders Increases body dissatisfaction Associated with less sexual health behaviors lmpairs mental function 0 Women s college basketball teams 0 Take strip tease class Teams tank because they think they aren t feminine enough Male sexuality Really hot and strong or really rich O 0000 Have to pretend you are until you have power Dominate Be aggressive Emotionless sex Sex is not about relationships Like relationships better but would never tell their friends Masculinity is an act damaging to men Sexualization of Girls 0 Little girl grown women whats the difference dressed alike 0 Women dress like minors o Minors dress like women 0 Reaction to sexualization of youth 50 of participatnts were shown images of adult women who were dressed to look like sexualized versions of little girls 50 nature images 0 Those who saw sexual images found detriment and were attracted to younger girls Teen porn is the sexualization of sexual abuse You me amp your porn 0 Pornography and romantic relationships 0 Having sex outside of relationship Brain doesn t understand real sexual experience v virtual sexual expenence o Pornography distress User Decreased sex drive with partner Lying Guilt Anxiety Emotionaldetachment Decreased respect Partner Paranoid Decreased trust 0 Anxiety Jealousy Insecurity o Anger 58 of divorces cited internet porn use contributed to the divorces 0 There is hope Couples who quit pron Better communication 0 Better emotional and sexual intimacy Better emotional and sexual intimacy MORE sexual satisfaction 0 MORE sexual arousal Mutual trust and respect 0 MORE foreplay Cyber aggression o Cyber aggression o Cyber bullying 0 Sexual cyber aggression Slutshaming Revenge Porn What can you do 0 Stop faking orgasms O 00 Call out a friend if heshe calls someone a slut Don t click on anything that your mom would think is violent or degrading Respect the person you are having sex with even if you just met him or her Do not have sex with someone who is drunk or let your friend do so If someone tells you that they have been raped or assaulted quot not your fault help themquot Do not forward or post nude pix Take a 30 day break from porn Masturbate without porn Hope vs despair Death and dying O O O Integrity v Despair late adulthood old age 0 How did I live my life o It doesn t mean you do not have any regrets You felt that you lived an honest life and were true to yourself 0 You nd meaning in it 0 Grab life by the horns live the way you want to live it Hope and Faith v Despair Old age old old age 8090 Don t fear death Embracing everything 0 Not everyone gets to this stage Transcendence quotBeing readyquot In general Agreeableness and conscientiousness increase in middle age Neuroticism declines Extraversion and openness either do not change or decrease slightly Personality is responsive to life experiences change but that change exists within boundaries These changes which have been veri ed crossculturally could be said to re ect a quotsettling downquot or maturity A person who scores high or low on a particular trait is likely to retain that standing throughout adulthood Top 5 regrets of people who are dying O O Research came from people who knew they were dying Theme of people talking about life their regrets quotI wish I d had the courage to live a life true to myself not the life others expected of mequot The career that they wanted Follow my own dreams quotI wish I hadn t worked so hardquot No one on their death bed says they wish they spent more time in the of ce O O O Need balance between work and play quotI wish I had the courage to express my feelingsquot Afraid of con ict 0 1St step to building a better relationship when letting emotions out quotI wish I had stayed in touch with my friendsquot quotI wish I had let myself be happierquot Happiness is a choice Controversial Depression and anxiety are real 0 So is a person s ability to take control of those things 0 Positive or negative outlook on the day Cumulative topics Breastfeeding WHY do we parent 0 O O O Altricial born in a helpless condition requiring prolonged parental care Precocial active and able to move freely from birth requiring little parental care Physical needs Every child needs the same basic physical needs across cultures Socialization Very different among cultures How do we parent 0 000000 0 When to feed the baby What to feed the baby Where to put the baby Where does the baby sleep When does the baby sleep What to do when the baby cries What is the baby s schedule Who will take care of baby when mom and dad aren t around Parenting is a biological and evolutionary task that has evolved through culturally driven ideals and beliefs What does research say about sleeping arrangements 0 O 0000 Shorter nightwakings Lighter sleep for mom and baby Babies sleep on back better for no SIDS and sleep apnea 66 of the world cosleeps We push independence at such an early age and we create less independence Higher levels of independence in preschool Increased cognitive competence Greater selfesteem James McKenna 39If you have a baby sleep with it Just because we have evolved our systems are not physiologically ready to endorse independence Breast is the Best 0 Breast milk is entirely better for babies than formula Colostrumlj breast secretion before milk Newborns are hardwired to nurse Not automatic but a learned behavior Size does NOT matter Great for babies immune system Colostrum l 39babies rst immunization lots of antibodies Whenever mom s get sick the antibodies also go to the baby for what the mom has Kids that breast feed have lower levels of allergies asthma ear infections Continuous v Scheduled Feedings Humans have 80 water in breast milk Babies should breast feed every 3045 minutes More fat in milk the longer it takes to digest Continuous or on demand Takes babies about 2 weeks to gain back their birth weight 0 Scheduled Takes babes about 23 days to gain back o If continuous feeding Fat and protein in breast milk makes gain weight Smarter babies When to wean 36 months in this culture 10 still nursing at a year Breast feeding should go to 2 years with food Weaning begins as soon as solid food is introduced typically between 46 months Still good for 18 month olds and very good for mom Mom s get help with uterus contractions Disadvantages to having a Child Disadvantages O O O 0 Loss of freedom being tied down Financial strain Family work con ict not enough time to meet both childrearing and job responsibilities Interference with mother s employment opportunities and career progress Worries over children s health safety and wellbeing Risks of bringing up children in a world plagued by crime war and poHuHon Reduced time with husband or wife Loss of privacy Fear that children will turn out badly through no fault of one s own Sexual life in emerging adulthood Romantic and Sexual Relationships in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood mostly heterosexual Everything is different according to the person Overview 0 Romantic Relationship in developmental context 0 Nonromantic sexual relationships 0 Sexual health and sexual development Romantic Relationship in developmental context 0 Mutually acknowledged ongoing interactions Both agree in relationship 0 Affection current or anticipated sexual behavior 0 Distinctive intensity quotIimerencequot Intrusive obsessive thoughts Involuntary Need for reciprocation 0 Beginning of relationshiphoneymoon stage 0 My heart stops when you look at mequot tumblr pintrest etc When and why do we start dating 0 Why don t we start dating in preschool Lifelong process Dating begins in adolescence 0 Combination of familial biologicalcognitivesocietal o Puberty D emergence of sexual feelings 1 Cognitive understanding of romance 0 As we get older we understand and make more appropriate choices for romantic partners 1 Familial expectations 0 All families are different when they are allowed to start dating 0 Societal expectations 0 Age of marriage earlier etc Dating begins in adolescence What is a normal heterosexual development path for dating 0 Jon Bon Jovi High school sweet hearts Married Still together with kids 0 This is not always likely 0 Taylor Swift Goes through many people and changes who their true love is 0 Typical timelines Age 15 a First kiss rst date Age 17 0 First time saying quotI love youquot 0 First sexual intercourse E Age 18 0 First serious relationship Cohabitation around age 22 on Age 26 rst marriage 0 For women E Age 28 rst marriage 0 For men 0 Stages of dating E Initiation 0 Middle school years crushes no touching etc Af liation a High school 0 Lots of mixed sex peer groups 0 Romantic partners found Intimate 1 College 0 Couples branch off 0 Their lives go more towards their relationships rather than f ends E Committed 1 Deep attachments to partners 0 Caregiving behaviors o Emotional and physical intimacy 1 Marriage 0 Gay and lesbian are have different stages because they have to establish their sexual identity E Selfidentify from adolescence E Always know Sometimes takes years 0 Usual with a female friend before parents E Development for Gay and lesbian adolescents 0 Age 8 0 First aware of difference Age 10 0 First samesex attraction Age 14 o Firstself labeling Age 14 0 First disclosure Age 15 0 First disclosure to a parent 0 Age 1718 0 First samesex relationship Why is dating in adolescence important 0 Development of sexuality 0 Sexual and romantic identity development E Who we re attracted to What do we need in a partner E How to solve con icts together How much independence you have Romantic competence 0 Attachment Shift from parents to partners as a secure base to explore the world 0 Healthy Unhealthy anxiously or avoidant attached 0 Positive Effects on developments 0 Positive Affect o Happier Selfesteem Social Competence Negative Effects on development Depression Con ict and mood swings Nonromantic sexual relationships What other types of relationships are there O 0000 Hookups Booty calls Onenight stands Friends with bene ts quotSex with an Exquot No future All classi ed as hook ups Hooking up Taking over college campuses The end of Sex 0 How hookup culture is leaving a generation unhappy sexually unful lled and confused about intimacy E The end of courtship 1 By now traditional dating is gone and hooking up is in place Hookup land 0 AKA college 0 Drunken hookup begins relationships 0 Lots of confusion o Ends with leaving tooth brush at partners place i The end of courtship why college hookups aren t what you think 0 The majority of college students have hooked up 0 Contemporary college students more likely to have casual partner friend as sexual partner 0 The majority of college students have also been in a long term relationship 0 Only 8 of people have had hook up sex with someone they weren t dating 0 Majority of sex during college occurs in romantic relationships 0 College students think their peers are hooking up more than they are 0 Single college students about 50 are hooking up Not happening every weekend 0 1 hook up per year for women 0 3 hook ups per year for men o In romantic relationships much lower o Is hooking up bad for college students It depends o On Attitudes toward hooking up 0 On reasons for hooking up 0 Internal motivation versus externalpeer factors 0 On alcohol use 0 People who drink may nd sexual partner that would not have happened if drinking 0 People go out with the intention to hook up and then blame it or endorse it with alcohol use Also depends on motivations Less likely to use condom E Complication in consent 0 Drunk no legal consent 0 Outcome of the hookup 0 Some end better than others 0 Future interaction best kind of hookup o Hoping for a romantic relationship from hookup leads to more let downs Girls more likely to feel used Navigating hookup culture 0 Decision making Attitudebehavior consistency Alcohol use Kissing 1 People are less likely to kiss their partners from worst hookup to best hookup 0 Listen to your gut 0 Communication E Consent 0 Where is the line 0 Don t know partners limits Using protection Expectations for the relationship 0 Make clear to partner Sexual health and sexual development 0 So many sexual behaviors Kissing Touching above clothes Touching under clothes O Fellatio Cunniligus How do sexual behaviors develop across adolescence 1415 0 First kiss i 1415 a French kiss a 1516 0 Touch breast 1516 0 Touch penis 1617 a Vaginal sex 1718 0 Oral sex How do sexual behaviors evolve across the college years E Correlation between sexual behavior and getting older in college a Lower in beginning of college How do sexual behaviors evolve across the college years how recent Narrower the time window the less likely people will be to participate in sexual behaviors How do sexual behaviors evolve across the college yearsdaiy prevalence Any given day only about 12 kissing 7 touching 4 having sex Some positive correlation with getting older and sex increasing over college years More romantic relationships increase with age Some increase with being independent The rst time having sex 0 O 0 Sex and emotional health the rst time People who have sex early feel worse about their rst time 0 More regret 0 People who have sex early have more depression or feel more uncertain People who initiate sex late feel worse about their rst time also 0 40yearold virgin Girls feel worse than boys Physical pain Not liking the person was the top reason for feeling guilt for both boys and girls Girls cite physical pain boys cite not feeling satis ed as top physical complaints Is the rst time important 0 O Satisfaction with the rst intercourse predicts satisfaction with later sexual satisfaction comfort with sexuality years later Guilt with respect to rst intercourse predicts lower sexual satisfaction comfort with sexuality years later o Condom use during the rst intercourse predicts subsequent condom use 0 LOL orgasms Women unlikely for rst time Rose s tips for a good rst time 0 Wait Like the person better yet love the person Don t get drunk Use a condom Remember the sensual triad E Communication Relaxation Lubrication Temperament Temperament an innate style of responding to the environment o It is internal 0 Initially independent of parenting 0 Pretty quickly parents will have a care and the child will show her temperament Aspects of temperament 0 Activity levellj Does the child have a high to low ratio of active periods to inactive ones 0 Rhythmicity Does the child have regular body functions such as sleep and hunger o DistractibilityD Does some type of stimulation from the environment easily create a change in the child s behavior 0 ApproachWithdrawal D Does the child move toward a new person or object or does he or she hesitate Nove y o AdaptabilityD Does the child handle changes in his or her routine and environment with ease or dif culty 0 Attention span and persistenceD Does the child play with a particular toy for a long period of time or a short period of time o Intensity of Reaction Does the child have a high or low energy level when exhibiting emotions such as crying or laughing 0 Threshold of Responsiveness Does the child require a great deal of stimulation in order to respond 0 Quality of Mood Is the child generally happy irritable calm or frightened Categories of Temperament OOOO 0 Easy 40 not upset by novelty regular in sleeping eating and elimination usually cheerful 0 Slow to warm up 15 slow to accept novelty lower activity levels adjusts slowly to new experience 0 Dif cult 10 irritable hard to soothe irregular in eating sleeping and elimination o 35 cannot be classi ed a mixture of temperamental responses 0 A child s temperament and the parents responses to that temperament interact to produce particular outcomes Goodnessof t creating child rearing environments that recognize each child s temperament and encourage adaptive functioning 0 Push a little but not too much not too young either Highstrung parents would be a poor t for a dif cult challenging baby they might become very punitive and critical of the infant which would only serve to aggravate an already dif cult temperament Parents of dif cult babies should be patient consistent nonpunitive Dif cult babies are at risk for an insecure attachment Easy babies are easy to parent consistent sensitivity not hard Dif cult babies it is hard to be consistent o Trickl call it challenging don t refer to as dif cult o Reciprocal ln uenceD The individual in uences and is in uenced by his or her environment 1 TEMPERAMENT o The relationship between spouses can affect the way a parent relates to the child 0 Marital relationshipltgt Parenting ltgt child behaviorgt a circle 0 Dif cult babies put stress on the relationships 0 Impatience needs patience Even though it is frustrating 21215 0 Longitudinal study about Temperament o Capsi 2000 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology University of WisonsinMadison Is temperament predictive of development Longitudinal Birth21 years Representative Sample 1037 children Measurement instruments Psychological tests Interviews with subjects parents peers and teachers Resu s Dif cult 0 Age 3 Irritable impulsive emotionally unchangeable dif culty in staying on task dif cult to manage 0 Age 18 Aggressive impulsive con ict in interpersonal relationships Identity 0 Age 21 Con ict in interpersonal romantic relationships unreliable more likely to abuse alcohol and to have been red from a job What kinds of parents and teachers 0 Usually irritable people when dealing with disruptive children 0 Take away recess detention suspension expel Parents yell spank etc They need 0 Be patient 0 Set up for success 0 Catch them being good At risk for aggression bad with relationships 0 Therapy Slowtowarm children 0 Age 3 shy fearful ill at ease with novelty 0 Age 18 Overcontrolled cautious nonassertive followers rather than leaders 0 Age 21 Lower levels of social support more likely to be depressed less af liative lacking lively interest and engagement in the world At risk for depression social anxiety not engaging in life 0 Therapy When both of these children have a good nurturing experience these kids end up doing better than kids with an easy temperament 0 Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis 0 Dif cult child l in bad environment really bad 0 Dif cult child l in good environment do really really good They will have learned how to face challenges and know how to overcome it and have a positive intensity 0 Gender identity D one s sense of being male or female or neither or both Transgender proper pronoun is they Not tied in to female or male sexual preferences Sex gender sexuality 0 Gender Rolel a set of expectations that prescribe how females and males should think act and feel What we expect from someone is according to their identity Gender socialization begins prenatally quotHe kicks a lot he s gonna be a soccer playerquot Hormones can tell about boy or girl Outside the world Nursery colors Baby shower gender implemented Patterns colors toys Is this all because we are comfortable and are afraid of progressiveness Gender identity is typically in place by age 3 Before this at age two they don t diversify a difference between the genders I m a boy or I m a girl forever Girls will want to wear pink frilly dresses Boys want to wear sporty stuff They will not do anything of the other gender 0 Gender lntensi cation Hypothesis Adolescence is a particularly important time in gender socialization Adolescence begins the questioning tom boy ish etc Psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced in the transition from childhood to adolescence Pressure to behave as boys and girls increases in adolescence Tomboy girls D weirder as gets older 0 Now it is all sexually oriented Why lntensi ed socialization pressures to conform to cultural expectations of what it means to be male or female NOT biologypubertyhormones 0 Not raging hormones or built in 0 Ex high school for prof Good athlete But basketball team perceived as lesbians Once sexuality came into the picture she would not cross the line She didn t like other s perceptions Girls become more selfconscious from 6th8th grade physical attractiveness o More sexuality issues Girls become more adept and interested in forming intimate friendships 0 Boys also start to recognize feelings aren t important or necessary only girls and homosexuals have them Can t be perceived as GAY OO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Both girls and boys begin to describe themselves in more feminine gentle affectionate and masculine ways tough aggressive 0 Only way girls can be tough are in sports 0 Girls get more leeway to be androgynous but still have to be sexy while they are being tough Achievement becomes more genderstereotyped 0 Boys Interest in mathscience combative sports video games 0 Girls Interest in more social sciences less physical contact sports Adolescents tend to embrace gender stereotypes more than children Identity A persistent sameness within one s self and a sharing of one s essential character with others Who am i What is different about me What do I want to do with my life What kind of people do I like What kind of person am I What do I need to be happy What kind of romantic partner do I want to be Do I want to have What are my values What kid of work do I want to do Identity issues Vocational issues Political Ideology Spiritual Ideology Self in relation to others Sexual Identity Ethnic Identity Interests Body Image The Process of Identity Formation Involves Crisis A period of role experimentation and active exploration of possibilities or alternatives 0000 0000 0000 000000 00 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOO Commitment Making a choice among alternatives Identity Statuses Identity AchievementD commitment made and crises experienced The individual has resolved hisher identity crisis and made commitments to particular goals beliefs and values Moratorium No commitment made and is experiencing crises The individual is actively raising questions and seeking answers Enduring commitments have not been made Foreclosure Commitment made and no crises experienced The individual seems to know who shehe is but has latched onto an identity prematurely without exploration Diffuse No commitment made and no crises experienced The person has not et thought about or resolved identity issues and has failed to chart directions in life Most adolescents move from foreclosure or diffusion to either achieved or moratorium between midteens and midtwenties One can be in a different identity status for various identity domains Achievement and Moratorium Statuses Higher self esteem Feel more in control View education favorably More capable of sustaining intimate relationships Foreclosure Status Dogmatic rigid defensive Fear rejection Diffusion Status Less capable of intimacy Avoid making personal decisions Poor academic performance Poor time management More likely to abuse drugs and alcohol Relationship between parenting style and identity status AuthoritativeDemocratic parenting correlated with Identity Achievement Authoritarian parenting correlated with Identity Foreclosure Because they are scared to question things Permissive parenting correlated with Identity Diffusion Friends with their kids more so than being their kids parents Id ego superego O O O O 0 Three structures that form personality ID D present at birth our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain to express the self Superegol in place by 36 years old Constraints placed upon the child by parents and the demands of society The rules 0 No hitting Don t take other people s things 0 Sharing is caring Bedtime Healthy food Parenting makes a huge difference Telling someone the rules and enforcing the rules are two different things 0 Children learn rules by them being enforced Grows over time Egol begins to form in infancy the way in which we cope with our lnstinctual Drives ID and the demands made by parents and society Superego Tempertantrums l parents either give in or give up parents play superego Ego mediates the super ego and the ID Ego in the middle ID D urges drive Superegol parents said no not going to give in 0 Set by parents caregivers teacher Egoljl decides what to do 0 Behavior what actually happens Attachment Attachment categories 0 O Securely Attachedl use mother as secure base exhibit distress at mother leaving and stop exploration and seek contact during reunion about 60 of children Key is D does the baby seek comfort from mom and is the baby comforted by mom when she returns Consistently sensitive Insecurer attached avoidant D rarely cry during separation and avoid mother at reunion indifferent to or dislike physical contact about 20 Might lean away from closeness Consistently insensitive attachment lnsecurely attached ambivalentl intensely distressed by separation yet during reunion they seemed to be ambivalent toward mother Sought contact and pushed mother away about 10 Resistant Have had inconsistent caregiving Depressed mothers o Insecurer attached disorganized D show confusion as main response to ac ons Not frequent Most likely linked to severe neglect or maltreatment Abuse Baby that froze bizarre behavior Because of technology parents on phone when infants and toddlers are around 0 Parents are too involved with technology while around their children 0 This pattern of parenting is not adaptive for children 0 Secure kidslj less dependent on teachers in preschool more cooperative and peaceful responsive to friends requests 0 Insecure kidsD more dependent more aggressive with peers more withdrawn 0 High investment parenting l the more sensitive in the rst couple years they better the child in the future Can infant form multiple attachments 0 They are highly selective in their choices of attachment gures 0 Not all social relationships can be identi ed as attachments 0 Not all attachment gures are created equal Research design Happiness
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