Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PSY-P 101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
Reviews for Chapter 6 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/26/15
Chapter 5 February 19th Adults usually use more top down processing They are likely to see objects that aren t fully there Sensation our eyes takes in stimulus energies Perception our brain making sense of energies What is physically in the world is often different from what we represent in our eyes and brains Our representations views are often different from each others 2 Processes for Making Representations 1 Bottom up processing taking sensory info and assembling and integrating it quotWhat am I seeingquot 2 Top down processing using models ideas and expectations to interpret sensory information Is that something I ve seen before Allows for disambiguous based on context Dallenbach Figure i It is a cow and we can see it now that we know what it is Things that In uence Perception 1 Experience and Knowledge Effect There is a difference between adult and child experiences Maslow If all you have is a hammer every problem looks like a nailquot Importance of breadth and depth of experience and knowledge 2 Absolute Threshold Effect Minimum level of intensity for detecting a stimulus half the time We cant sense and perceive what we don t detect Anything below this threshold is subliminal 3 Priming Effect Can we detect below the threshold 0 Priming activation often unconsciously of associations that in uence perception memory and orresponses I Not all priming is unconscious o Subliminal Priming is possible because I Dual track processing I Processing visual and auditory stimuli I Popout effect 0 Single Detection Theory I No absolute threshold I Detection depends on many factors besides strength of stimulus I Parents of newborn babies are more likely to hear faint cries 4 Perceptual Set Effect What we expect to see in uences what we do see Example of top down processing 5 Context Effect Situation Circumstances in uences perception Optical Illusions 6 Emotional Effect People who are currently happy report life satisfaction Sadness like fatigue 7 Physical State Destinations seem farther when we are tired Confucius Man who run in front of car get tiredquot 8 Motivation Effect Something you desire looks closer 9 Cultural Effect East Africa looks like a woman balancing a box outside Western looks like a women is inside and sitting under a window 10 Illusion of Validity From David Kahneman s book titled Thinking Fast and Slow Perceptions are in uenced by our valid conclusions We are dazzled by our brilliance and hate to be wrongquot Kahneman Study about evaluating soldiers for advancement Things that In uence our Perception Motivation alertness experience expectations knowledge Sense of Sight Vision building perceptions out of sensory details processed in different areas of the brain Paralleling Processing processing many aspects simultaneously 0 Reading causes you to process letters words sentences meanings and pronunciations o Perceiving ying bird causes you to notice color motion form depth Color Vision Three Color Theory 0 Red green blue color receptor cones o Other colors created by light waves stimulating combinations of three colors Color Blindness 0 People missing red cones or green cones have trouble distinguishing between the two colors 0 Color blindness is typically in males OpponentProcess Theory One opponent color turns off other color 0 Black White 0 Yellow Blue 0 Red Green 0 Red turns off green Experiment in class Looking at black dot then back at picture Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as consequence of constant stimulation 0 Green color receptors fatigue so we see red 0 Ticking of clock eventually we don t hear it and are able to tune it out o Pebble in shoe eventually we don t feel it anymore 0 Pen stuck behind ear Sensory Adaptation amp Taste Plain water starts to taste salty or strange after eating really sweet candy because you have fatigued your taste buds Other Example Smelly or heavily perfumed people don t smell anything People don t smell their house Wired to detect changes Wired to adapt to constants 0 Which reduces our sensitivity Why doesn t object scene disappear when we stare at it Eyes are always moving and darting Our gaze jumps every 13 ofa second Vision Perception and Face Recognition We are wired genetically for face recognition Bottomup processing overridden by Top down processing Video of face mask rotating 0 Our brain filled in the depth 0 This test often fails in people with schizophrenia 22415 Effects with Optical Illusions Competing neurons What you think you see if often not the truth Vision and Depth Perception Image on the eye is two dimensional so we have to use depth cues to determine the 3rd dimension Baby used pattern on oor to determine depth Shadows in uence depth Visual Organization Brain organizes stimuli to construct meaning of energy stimuli to our eyes We for a gestalt an organized whole or form How do we form this 1 Figure Ground Perception I Picking out objects and figures standing out against their background I Some art muddles by giving two equal choices of what is the figure and what is the ground Is it a candlestick or is it two faces 2 Grouping I Organizing incomplete parts into gestalt wholes I 5 types 1 Proximity group nearby figures Continuity perceive continuous lines Closure fill in gaps Similarity similar elements grouped together Symmetry divide object into even symmetrical lines 9195 Concept of Gestalt More than a perception of external physical objects Gestalt a person s holistic world view that includes physical experiences and mental activities 0 In uenced by past experiences 0 Different from person to person I My gestalt my view of thing Different gestalts leads to misunderstandings 0 Its why people often disagree I We need to learn to see each other s gestalt What we sense and perceive is different from the world and from what others perceive Taste I 5 receptors for 5 different types of taste may have had survival purposes 1 Sweet energy source Sour potentially toxic Salty Sodium Bitter potential poisons Umami Savory proteins P1990 Sense of Smell Humans 5 million smell receptors Dogs 200 million smell receptors Information from the nose goes to the temporal lobes and limbic system which in uences memory and emotion Temporal lobe processing sensory input storing memories Limbic system emotions pituitary and amygdala Smell Memories Smell links lovers parent and child We associate odors with experiences Similar process for taste Aron How to Survive When the World Overwhelms You 15 of individuals are highly sensitive There is no difference between genders Highly Sensitive People Positives 0 Only appear inhibited because they are more aware of all possibilities in a situation 0 More sensitive nervous system so they are aware of the little things sometimes and advantage 0 Many are intellectually gifted unusually creative productive workers thoughtful in close relationships 0 Process environment more carefully and study it before acting Negatives o More easily overwhelmed in highly stimulating environments 0 Becomes exhausted when bombarded by multiple stimuli need more down time to recover 0 Slow to decide act and respond 0 Aron high sensitivity is neither a aw nor a reason to brag 0 Our culture prefers confident bold extroverts and views sensitivity as weakness and timidity Low Sensitive People Positives 0 Less overwhelmed in highly stimulating environments Less likely to become exhausted Less need for emotional recovery time Quicker to react and make decisions 0 Prefers these people as leaders Negatives o More likely to overlook nuances subtleties of a situation 0 More prone to mistakes errors in judgment 0 Less likely to find workable pragmatic solutions 000 I Know your sensitivity level Ask yourself if you are being too sensitive I Ask yourself if you should take more time so you aren t overlooking important details Sensing Body Position and Movement Kinesthesis sensing movement and position of individual body parts Sensors in joints and muscles send signals that coordinate with signals from eyes etc Vestibular Sense sensing head and body positionbalance and spatial orientation 0 Fluid filled chambers in inner ear with hair like receptors that send messages about heads position to cerebellum o Vertigo dizziness or inappropriate perception of motion caused by dysfunctional vestibular sense Sense of Touch Important because 0 Expressing and sensing feelings 0 Sharing affection comfort and support 0 Detecting environment through 4 components 1 Pain 2 Pressure 3 Warmth 4 Cold How important 0 Most enduring qualities 0 Even animals struggle I Video about orphan gorilla named Glatis o Necessary for positive human growth Human Touch for Infants Touch positively contributes to at least 5 factors 1 Positive weight gain Earliest form of communication between parent and child Mental development Motor skill development Bond between parent and child 9195 Human Touch for Everyone Touch with moderate pressure stimulates cranial nerve that slows heart rate and lowers blood pressure Produces relaxed but more attentive state Reduces stress hormones and may enhance immune function Abraham Verghese a doctor s touch 0 Talked about the importance of touch to comfort and diagnose Improves communication sometimes touch of a hand speak volumes lack Pettinger Appears to lessen aggression in children Important for ALL ages Senior adults receive less human touch than any other age group Sensation of Pain Faulkner Given the choice between pain and nothing I would choose painquot Biopsychosocial Effect Bio higher threshold for pain tolerance o More endorphins produced Psycho distractions placebo effect relaxation training hypnosis exercise 0 Perceptions of pain memories of pain focus more on peak moments that duration I Patients are more likely to select enduring pain longer if pain is less I Sneaky doctors extend duration but they can taper off pain for patient Social 0 Social Contagion we feel pain of others are experiencing pain 0 Empathy mirroring or shared belief that experience is painful Culture may not pay as much attention to pain if pain endurance is normal for family Embodied cognition effects of body experiences on feelings attitudes thoughts judgments Being ignored makes room seem colder
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'