Cultures of Africa Class Notes
Cultures of Africa Class Notes 1310 Cultures of Africa
1310 Cultures of Africa
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February 26 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes I Youth in Contemporary Africa A While the meaning of youth depends on context youth however is defined both in subjective terms by young people themselves and relationally by adults and society and its institution 1 The way youth define themselves is different from the way elders define the youth Conflict between the two Who youth are 1 Identified by biological age 2 Social construct a Socially constructed Identification 1 Involves discourses of power authority responsibility sources of autonomy While the meaning of youth depends on context Africa is the most youthful region of the world 2006 gt 44 youth 1 15 years of age Promise of future Four Categorical Features In Africa while age structures used by international agencies to analyze societies are often employed by researchers it always conflicts with what is defined as youth in the local context 1 Structural WellMarked a There is a welldefined life stage marked by ritual transitions from childhood to adulthood 2 Relational a The transition to the next stage was less clearly defined elderhood Youth gt elder A shift from one group to another 1 GroupsSets widely varying biological ages 3 Situational a Situation of people in specific context of performance and participation Variety of rights and privileges leadership property status Reinforced by colonial administrations political power and property rights 4 Global Process a It was a system used to determine who a young person was and was not G Meillassoux 1 Distinction between youth and elders was fundamentally a class division organized around access to the means of production and reproduction This structure opened accessavenuesopportunities H Labor Migration 1 Labor migration came to have an impact to the community both positive and negative It came to reshape both rural and urban life They banded together in groups group formation Gang Distinctive urban lifestyle took shape I RelationalTransformation 1 Transformation in the economic and political relations between different age groups Colonial labor market gt cash clothes etc This structure afforded younger people in Africa new resources and new horizons END OF NOTES February 12 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes 1 Political Cultural and Economic factors of Africa 2 Watched a film Tools of Exploration a Dual mandate 390 i Europeans the West had tapped into Africa39s resources for Africa39s benefit ii Europeans needed the resources to keep up with the industrial revolution Westernization without real modernization An illusion Chromium etc God s treasure chest of diamonds Africa produces more gold than everyone else Yet they are still poverty Something has gone tragically wrong in the Western technological advancement of Africa The slave trade rapidly transformed Africans into the most humiliated race in the history of the world Slaves died in transit on the slave ships However they were more durable than lndians or poor white people The slave trade persisted because African slaves were so tough Africans were dragged across the Atlantic to grow cotton This created an evil trade triangle with the UK In some cases guns were the bartering item with which slaves were bought Eastern Africa was amongst the areas that wetted the new territorial appetite But there was already a presence there the Arabs Children were fundamentally free if their fathers were free Berlin conference in 1885 to divide up Africa No African representatives were present A new form of terror was about to succeed the slave trade i The Berlin Conference of 1884 85 also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany39s sudden emergence as an imperial power The West had condemned the Arab slave trade but followed it with a slave trade of their own Workers who didn39t work hard enough were sometimes mutilated as an example for their peers hands and feet missing Gold God and Glory Europeans three motivating factors Tax the natives Africans work for the white man39s money then give it right back to him through taxes Africa lost control of its land and labor Can Shakespeare be Africanized Racial prejudice Foreigners come take and depart There is no development The instructor will go over the content for the next exam next class END OF NOTES January 22 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Watched a movie about the Sahara desert Episode 5 Love in the Sahel A One the shore of the Sahara desert a dry and desolate land for the sake of love a young cattle herder must embark on a 6 month quest to prove himself to the girl he must leave behind on his journey B For one group of people the air is thick with anticipation They are coming home They use butter to condition their hair Precious family heirlooms are painstakingly woven into the hair C Her boyfriend has been gone a long time He head out 8 months ago leaving girlfriends and family behind They do it for one reason to feed their cattle For longer than anyone can remember they ve been cattle herders Every year the young men and their cattle make an epic migration D At the end of the dry season the boys head the cattle into the Sahara desert which stretches across Africa They need to avoid disease E Their mission is to bring back fat cattle and a healthy herd It is a right of passage for the boys Philani society F Parents choose who their daughters wed G Hairstyles may take days At the age of 10 we henna the bottom of our lips Then we henna the top of our lips and around them H We walk from sunrise to sunset without stopping It s a tough job a white man couldn t do it Often we don t sleep at night The cattle get very thirsty and tired I Nightfall brings other threats Young cavs are especially vulnerable If there are dangerous hyenas we can t sleep We shoot off guns to scare them away J Elephants migrate through the desert during dry season as it advances These African elephants have longer legs to survive better The elephants are hungry as well as thirsty They share the same lake water with humans They develop a truce during the day but it is broken during night The 3 ton elephants try to eat the gardens An elephant can eat a third of a garden in 30 minutes This is not your average garden pest The farmers dig holes to keep the elephants out K Dairy cows provide milk butter and cheese Milk contains protein vitamins calcium fat and carbohydrates It also has lactose which many humans are unable to digest L Tradition dictates that Philani girls must buy presents for the returning boys M Young playing boys must watch out for alligators in the water Nile crocodiles kill people in Africa every year Some local butchers feed crocodiles meat like pets They are the totem of our village It is forbidden to harm or kill them N If you re not initiated you re not a real man You re thought to be somewhat of a woman Old man can we ask the fox how many years until I am a man These days the fox speaks to us with his tracks 0 One final push across the river and everyone will be able to rest for awhile The cattle and the boys come home they make the journey together I swim with my cattle across the river and I try to keep them apart so they don t get injured It can be dangerous in the water END OF NOTES January 20 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Africa and Anthropology and Critiquing Concepts A Tribe to Ethnicity Ethnicity gt Nationalism Tradition B African PreColonial Traditions 1 Tradition is a core concept common to several areas of research It is common through social and anthropological areas 2 Inherent contradiction just by the disparities in the different fields There s still something very clear 3 There is always the tendency to insert the idea of old into new static 4 The timeless in time C Researcher s Approach 1 Traditional conjures up visions of the old and the continuity of the old into the present I m going to see what you did 100 years ago 2 Traditional societies are considered as rural societies When we research we go with the whole perspective D What is Tradition 1 Every discipline agrees it s simply the handing down of knowledge belief and customs from generation to generation 2 A kind of exotic types local static natural pre modern cultural forms 3 Tradition is renewed product gt process Influx E Coming back to Africa The Function of a Tradition 1 Traditions do not cease to exist but function as a historically emergent framework of culturally grounded perception 2 In both identity and meaning of a specific action and event 3 Traditional is functional it s a process so it should be something you should see not just hear about It s the language of doing It s about what we do and what we see others doing 4 Tradition should be received as the established structures of creativity Tradition should be perceived as a process a which provide images expressive principles and aesthetic values by which performances are fashioned Just one simple dance can have so much expression F The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa 1 1870s 1880s 1890s gt at that point setting a kind of tradition was passed down Traditions a Religion b Educa on c Military 2 These new traditions fundamentally took on a peculiar character distinguish them from those they were sending these G Invention of New Institutions 1 Church religious institution 2 Schools academic institutions 3 Command and obey There should be rule and there is is Command those in charge obey the colonized They have no say They re used as tools 4 The theology became almost the sole ingredient of imperial ideology It becomes a new tradition so to speak It had its own approach its own method It was set up to be a beautiful model H Bringing Africans into Tradition of Governance 1 Made use of this tradition to transform African thoughts and conduct Their mission simply was to distort the past on noncolonialism 2 Chiefs kings gt people 3 MasterServant Relations the impact of the new tradition on eldersyouth relations In establishing institutions they were set up outside of towns so that people move over to the missionaries and they train They were becoming Europeanized January 15 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Africa and Anthropology and Critiquing Concepts Tribe and Tradition A From Tribe to Ethnicity Kinship and Social Organizations 1 Factors that bring them together they were looking for commonality similarity What brings them together What are these factors a Customs rituals organizations b They were looking for institution How do they organize those institutions What do those institutions do c Push them away from speculative historical reconstruction and a broad comparative approach Evolution diffusion Empiricalscientific 2 They looked for how particular cultures functioned at particular historical moments 3 They had no idea how cultures function They were studying others academically 4 Origins evolution or diffusion of cultures and cultural traits Synchronic approach at a single point in time 5 Multiplicity of Individuals a Different individuals have different interests yet they stick together and form a society B The Illusion of Tribe 1 The concept of tribe in Africa a Tribe divisions were actually created during colonial rule Divide and rule They divided up the land and created new traditions because they didn t know the languages 2 During the colonial rule most colonial administrators did not have enough sufficient knowledge of the internal structure of African traditional societies that they had to rule a Bantu Kavirondo decentralized loosely organized political forms of governing Chiefs Strong in the south of Nigeria b One tribe Toure C Background to African PreColonial Traditions Migration and Settlement 1 History tells us that by at least 100000 years ago human beings had occupied all of Africa 2 Cultural exchange emergence of new forms of societies Interactions among different groups New mode of cultural expression 3 Regions D Emergence of Stateless Societies and States Stateless Communities 1 Social system was based on lineage kinship It s a type of kinship with no single center of power or authority Nobody is a leadeL 2 States centralized form of governing E PostColonial Traditions 1 It s very important to really understand what we re talking about when we talk about culture 2 The moment Africa was colonized there came a great change It didn t strain tradition but there was a change in terms of culture politics economics etc a Great change after colonization they wanted independence At that time there was not 54 countries The moment 54 countries were formed it brought about cultural change Most lost their power of ruling 3 The moment you disorganize the language structure things change 4 When we hear of battles or wars in Africa you get surprised They re free they re not colonized Why are they fighting a There are so many different languages there This creates for miscommunication b They knew that without their own language they couldn t accomplish anything They needed to unite under one universal language like England with English There were over 250 languages 60 in Ghana alone When you go to Ghana what culture is that technically Not a tight culture The country is not a culture Africans won t say what their nationality is they ll confidently say they re African or their religious preference or whatever 5 Ethnicity and its Interpretation a Central concern for a wide range of African scholars and students b Beginning of Independence this came ethnicity came when Africans wanted independence Africans don t use the word tribe because Europeans created it c This concept of central concern and ethnicity started and happened in the 19503 1960s The idea of Africans who had been established on tribal basises was followed by the idea of ethnicity 1 Ethnicity came at a time when there was also interest in what came to be known as nationalism 6 NationBuilding Nationalism a They were locked into a choice which divided Africa into two Go back to ethnicity or go forward to nationalism They d been left in a country setup Those who actually strengthened themselves were political leaders who wanted to rule When they were set free in the 19603 that created for rulers b Conflict of culture people who were into ethnicity were into celebrating festivals People into nation building had different incentives c Ethnicity eventually became a home of the opposition in every state in Africa January 6 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Teacher Kwadwo Beeko from Ghana Course Description Culture of Africa or cultures of Africa Africa second largest continent over 800 kilometers A lot of migration Language is attitude worldview One fundamental trait commonality culture Seeks to explore diversities past present stereotypes commonly held misconceptions Anthropology dimension psychological dimension Individuals are born within a culture Everyone is born within a context which reflects your mindset This course is broad bringing everything together to understand a people Africa amp Africans Geographical vs aesthetic The latter is a culture Course will examineanalyze indigenous values moral principles religion Everything is a way of life culture and religion are not necessarily separate because of this Two books Mango Tree GradingEvaluation Attendance 10 Test 1 10 Test 2 10 Test 3 10 Test 4 10 Film Essay 10 Final Paper 40 Before every class go to CourseWeb and print out the outline for the class It will help with taking notes as it outlines every topic that is going to be discussed Introduction to Cultures of Africa The Idea ofAfrica Throughout history people have held a great number of erroneous geographical ideas about Africa We all have a background and a specific understandingfoundation of what Africa is No one is entirely clueless You take this class because you want to shape that understanding To understand Africa you need to understand the culture What do Africans say about their culture Fundamental Elements of Culture At the heart of every culture lies the world view how people perceive understand and interpret reality Once you understand how do you interpret into your own life What separates human beings from one another What makes one person different from another If there is one trait that distinguishes human species from others it is precisely that interplay of signs thought and culture Definition of Culture it is an imprecise way of describing the social realities in a given society Behavior attitude concepts Europeans and the western world view the world linearly Africans view the world circularly It is a common possession of a body of people who share the same traditions in social terms A totality of people s body of knowledge beliefs and values Behavior goals social institutions tools techniques and material constructions Arts laws moral customs Belief is reactant through the visual The way you dress is a showcase of your beliefs Culture is not ideology it is an advanced way of life You can t hide culture from the mind You are showcasing without even knowing you are showcasing something The sum total of the material and intellectual equipment whereby the people satisfy their biological and social needs and adapt themselves to their environments Themes mages and Representation Concept of Tribe and Tradition Ethnological Representation Colonialism legacies Crosscultural setup January 13 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes I Images and Representation of Africa II A B C Carthaginian Explorer Hannon 5th century BC Things were translated into Greek at that time English was not the dominant language at the time Savage Land Fear This fear ran through the whole world from the m centurv BC throuohout the 19th centurv ADCE More than 2000 years Early crosscultural exchange of ideas in Africa During the 5th BC 19th ADCE era Africa had already begun having contact with people in the Middle East Throughout era Africans had already begun having contacts with other outsiders Middle East Arabian Nations South Southeast and East Asia 1 Interactions and exchange of ideas goods and people Migrationtraveling 2 Internal Interactions and Exchange during this period people in the North West Central East and South there was a concept of a trade systemexchange People from the North were bringing salt in exchange of gold This is called internal interaction and exchange This developed a new ethnicity Ethnicity began the shape and the con nent 3 Middle East Arabic Nations Arabic language became lingua franca The internal trade and exchange created a new language Interaction and change Islam religion Chad Mali Xliger Senegar Southeast Asia commerce linked the two nations together Africa 0quot and Southeast Asia Sailors and settlers Where were they coming from Borneo and Sumatra Indonesia 350 BCE 4th century BC East Asia 14th AD Chinese vessels carried silk porcelain and gt193 other goods that they exchanged with Africa They also exchanged 9 knowledge belief etc Very broad interaction not just goods Exchange of crops good ideas beliefs religion Emergence of new cultural information Why did the Europeans go to Africa in the 15th century The Portuguese Early Contact with Africa in the 15th they went out to everywhere because of the issues wanted to establish a common system They wanted to change things 10 Europeans began the interaction with Africans in the early 1400s 11 with voyages They realized people were already going to Africa They wanted gold but they wouldn t sacrifice their lives because of the gold So how will they do it Their journey and interactions with Africans did not go far beyond the coast into the forest Facts amp Reality David Livingstone s Voyage 19th 18411863 died in Africa He reopened Europeans mind about Africa He was the first European who went deeper into Africa for the first time He was the first to penetrate it He saw for himself mountain ranges coastal zones deserts an estimated twenty million people inhabiting the interior 12 Other vovades Henry Morton Stanley Sir Richard Francis Burton John Hanning Speke 13 Culture They saw the content of culture as a complex whole 14 which is in totality a people s body of knowledge mores beliefs and values art laws moral custom behavior attitudes and concepts goals Social institution plus tools techniques and material constructions Any group of people who possess certain fundamental principles Structured Society with organized government and specialized economy END OF NOTES January 8 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Images amp Representations of Africa Part 1 A Myths about Africa 1 The position of Africa compared to other world civilizations is one of the most sensitive historical problems through mythswebs of myths in places in time 2 1994 Two Events a First Event Nelson Mandela South Africa b Second Event Rwanda Civil War Negative media representation of Africa Those who show you what you see decide what to show c How does the world see Africa 3 A Genealogy of Race and Its Intersection a Human beings are undoubtedly creatures whose individual identities are inextricably rich and complex As a result of this they always make sense of their experience order it and share it with others b Such social groups are governed by a system 4 Norman F Canton a Participate and control environment 5 Civilized Societv i Structured society ii Organized government iii Specialized economy over large area 6 Aristotle i Civilized those who actively participate in and are governed by a rationally ordered state 7 Barbarian 16th century those who live according to either natural instincts or passively accepted tradition 8 European Voyages of Discovery a 5th BC Africa became a dark continent People could not get in 9 The Carthaginian Explorer Hannon established a very strong theory a The Right of Conquer i Rome a lot of Christians This led a certain ideology to Portugal and Spain This gave the Portuguese the right to enslave all those who were pagan The concept is to invade conquer expel They assume that the whole world is theirs They were sent anywhere to take the land The land is not for natives it s for them That was their belief It was a comfort of culture an identity 10 Early ExplorersMissionariesAnthropologistsAdventures the term Tribe evolved from this Their goal was to make a group or structure of people who were ethnic and civilized ldeologically they must fit into something that s what the expel part means 11 The Three Main Events 1 Slavery 2 Colonization 3 Apartheid 4 The conquests by British France Dutch and Portuguese in the 19th century did not depart from the 15th century tradition Doctrine Next week the facts The idea of Africanism Class let out 10 minutes early END OF NOTES January 27 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Format of the test A Section A 10 Questions B Section B Essay instructor will send the class essay topics tomorrow there are two and students may then choose which one they want to do C Images and Representation of Africa 1 Norman F Canton and his definition of Civilized Society just the general concept not necessarily about Africa it is a structured society organized government and specialized economy over large area 2 The written account by the Carthaginian Explorer Hanno the Navigator in the 5th century BCE during his journey to East Africa 3 The fundamentals to invade to conquer to expel 4 Hannon S ideology pioneer leader who opened the Europeans mind up to Africa 5 David Livingston know the year that he went to Africa in the 19th century 1841 What did he see there Geographic information a Henry Morton Stanley b Sir Richard Francis Burton c John Hanning Speke 6 Africa s interaction before the 19th century with places outside them Asia etc 7 East Asia 14th AD silk D Africa and Anthropology and Critiquing Concepts 1 Civilized and the barbarian uncivilized 2 Primary reason why peopleexplorersEuropeans stayed away from Africa from 5th century BCE 19th century AD 3 Southeast Asia 4th century BCE plantain 4 West Asia 7th century AD draw commerce from the interior trade system 5 East Asia 14th century AD trade goods 6 Migration a It led to the emergence of new societies b It brought interaction between different groups of people c It gave rise to new mode of cultural expression and a sociopolitical entity d It led to the emergence of new cultures e It led to the expansion of food producing societies f It made it possible to identify the emergence of dynasties 7 Tribal division why did they create that tribal division a A policy that was set up during the colonial era to divide and rule b Most colonial administrators of the time had no knowledge sufficient enough of the internal structure of the traditional societies Christopher Columbus Vascoda Gama Bartholoonew Diaz Invented Tradition 1 African tradition is knowledged belief and custom IQT39IT39 that had been handed down from generation to generation 2 Whole the new tradition was a regimental tradition that reestablished a new relationships between the colonizer and the colonized the leader and the led a Colonizer and the Colonized b The Leader and the Led c Master Servant Religious Institution Church Educational Institutions Schools Economic Institutions Industrial To limit regional interaction To prevent a widening of focus on the part of Africa 8 Because colonial system came to regather African NP S TPS O societies into 54 countriesnations the only way they were left to move forward to nationbuilding 9 Ethnicity vs Nationalism 10 The Invention of Tradition I Observers 1 Why do they see nationalism as progressive 2 Ethnicity as retrogressive END OF NOTES February 3 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes I Exploring Examples of Ethnography A The PreHistorical Societies 1 Human beings aided by an enormously imaginative brain have for thousands of years sought to connect to a higher power that would protect and provide for them make sense of natural events and give purpose or meaning to life a That belief system that there was a higher power you can not change it Native Americans everyone everywhere had this fundamental belief b The rain falling must have a meaning The thunder must have a meaning c Human beings by nature regarded things to be sacred and holy and ritual d There was a belief in the supernatural If the rain should stop at a certain time there must be someone behind it controlling it It was a faith That faith cannot be removed Science could not destroy this in terms of religion 2 Impact a Religious culture whose force is mirrored in its response to the groups popular culture b Religion then became a tradition where natural physical and supernatural spiritual are totally intertwined 1 Every religion is like this Christianity etc c Social cultural political etc 3 African Religious Tradition a The key note of an African s life is his religion which constitutes an aspect of his culture and it forms the foundation and the allgoverning principles of his life 4 Commonality a All African religions are monotheistic 1 In the sense that there is one goal b All Africans have polytheistic view 1 Aside from the higher power there are other powers controlled by the higher power Ex There is God and then there are angels 5 Diversity a African religion does not in most places have an undeniable orthodox 1 Not heterodoxy b Every family has its own way of life Every person has his or her own expectation problem and how he or she approaches and worships God c Relating to God isn t just a weekly event but it s a daily life There is no separation of church and state It is all one thing one way of life 6 African System of Thought African Traditional Belief System a It has to do with worldview Africans worldview actually had an impact on their thought process This type of thought process always related to their expenence b Nature physical and the spk uaL 1 Characteristic Features a Existe nce of Supreme Being divine ancestors b The universe is composed of visible and unseen c Divers ity physical and spiritual parts of the human being d The link between humans the unborn and the ancestors e The lifecycle or cycle of life There is an era of birth puberty etc The concept of life is a cycle It is a circle It is impermanent and transient At one point you leave your physical body behind f The hierarchy of forces can be revoked through Hba ons 2 Acquirement a Belief s and practices are assimilated rather than taught b You assimilate knowledge through participation 3 Sources a Myths legends proverbs songs artwork festivals 4 FunctionPurpose everything must have it a Gives meaning to life b Provid es harmony between humans the spiritual world nature and society c It is a source of psychic strength and lifeforce that individuals can tap into 5 lmplicationsApplica tion a It enhances the quality of human relationships with one another 7 The Organization and Practices of Religion a Onetoone association form of religion b Group participation c The Practice d The Achieved Goals as a Set of Goals e Ritual and Ceremonies f The Two Components 1 Prayers 2 Sacrifices path of communication These are certain events that are done for forgiveness etc END OF NOTES February 5 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes I The instructor handed back graded exams to students and reviewedclarified some answers A Knowledge belief and custom That s fundamental What is Africa s traditionway of life B The instructor will add 5 points to everybody s exam ll Exploring Examples of Ethnography A Health Illness and Healing 1 Intro African Health in Global Context a In African societies health and illness are experienced both at all levels of the individual body and at the level of the social body 2 MultiLevel Health Systems in Africa Urban vs Rural a Ministry of Health and Teaching Hospital b Provinciallevel Hospital c Districtlevel Hospital d Rural Health ClinicsPosts 1 Disparities between resources 3 The African tradition of mind before hospitals came is still there Cooking special fruits and herbs from the forest as medicine 4 These rural healthcare facilities are often lacking in equipment and supplies B Medical Pluralism and the Quest for Therapy 1 Although there are significant structural constraints of African health it is important to recognize that African people are not merely the passive of victims of disease C Health Resources Europeans brought the first one and the last one 1 Biomedical trained physicians pharmaceutical 2 Spiritpossessed medium prayer and religious text 3 Herbalists medical plants They can walk around and tell you about every tree and leaf they have immense respect for nature 4 Diviners religious text 5 Christianity and Islam D Medical Pluralism and Religious Healing Prophet Healing 1 Diseases come into individual s life as an illness symptoms 2 Prophet Healing and Prophet Healer E Categories of Illness and their Causations 1 Natural lllness illness thatjust hapened 2 Spiritual lllness resulting from the present of a spirit 3 Witchcraft illness resulting from the devil Who controls that negative side The darkness the evil It s a worldview F Explanation of the Conditions Prophet Healers 1 The complexity of African END OF NOTES February 17 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Reasons for Africans to believe in a higher power A To protect and provide for them B To make sense of natural events There should be meaning Someone has control C To give a purpose or meanings of life Underlying Key Note of African s Life A Life is not just physical B It is his religion which constitutes an aspect of his or her culture and forms the foundation and the allgoverning principle of his life C Monotheistic in a sense that there is a higher God belief in only one god D Polytheistic a belief in many gods E Many versions of the myths can be collected Nature what is it A Their way of life that incorporates the peoples religion philosophy ethics logic and moral code It s not outside of their lives it s a lifestyle System of Thought Nature A Characteristic Forms 1 Existence of supreme being deities ancestors 2 The universe composed of the visible and the unseen 3 The physical and spiritual parts of human being 4 The link between humans the unborn and ancestors 5 The life cycle from birth to death 6 Things are passed from generation to another generation B Sources 1 Myths legends proverbs songs art poetry festival C FunctionUsePurpose 1 They give meaning to life V VI VII VIII 2 They provide harmony between humans the spiritual world of nature and society D ImplicationApplication 1 It serves as a source of psychic strength and lifeforce 2 It serves as lifeaffirming integrating and liberating source of self control 3 It encapsulates a system of values by which Africans live and work 4 It provides not only coherence of life but also rejuvenates rebirth and renewal 5 It enhances the quality of human relationships with one another Organizational Structure A African religion tends to have a precise onetoone association with a particular form of social group Rituals amp Ceremonies Passage through lifecycle Naming ceremony Puberty rite of way Weddingmarry Funeral it s a special occasion of preparation and prayer 1 Components a Prayers b Sacrifices c Ritual performances W909 Health Resources A Practitioner treatments B Biomedical pharmaceutical Illness Causation A Natural illness B Spiritual illness C Prophethealers normally explain that many conditions could either be natural or as a result of spirit or witchcrafts Reasons for Exploration in Africa A Discover the vast stretches of the interior raw materials 1 Diamonds 2 Gold XI XII X B Decades 1870s trying to do business 1880s the whole tone and tempo changed C Powerful British French German D Weak Portuguese Italian Belgium Spain Social Cultural Health Illness and Healing in African Societies Political Economic A How Europe underdeveloped Africa Next class Exam A Section A 10 questions 20 examples out of that you will get10 B Section B the instructor will send you that END OF NOTES February 10 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Colonialism and Its Legacies A The conquest by the British French Dutch Portuguese in the 19th century did not depart from the 15th century tradition the right to invade to conquer and to expel Tool of exploration New Methods of Discovery A Prior to 1884 European contact with Africa was mostly of a commercial nature 1 Factors a The discovery of the vast stretches of the African interior which contained huge quantities of untapped raw materials b The discovery of huge quantities of diamonds and gold The European Early Interest A By the early 1870s they had begun pushing up to major rivers lakes B By 1880s the whole tone and tempo of AfricanEuropean relations had changed The Final Conquest A By 188485 at the Berlin Conference Britain France Germany Portugal Spain B Belgium and Italy at that conference they came together to decide to take Africa They had no idea Africans were set up in ethnic structures They didn t even know the languages to begin with 150 together They were dividing Africa based upon and structured by the locations of raw materials One particular ethnic group was divided into 4 countries C Africans Opposition 1 By 1905 most of Africa had come to European Rule Political boundaries out various ethnic groups 2 However there were differences in the approach to the method of colonization D Different Methods of Ruling 1 The British they made use of traditional rules at a local governmental level indirect rule Customary law E The French Assimilation 1 Certain few Africans are selected they are trained to assimilate to be French F The Portuguese 1 African provinces of Portugal 2 Assimilation skin color G The Belgian Rule 1 Policy that emphasize economic and social progressive but NOT political V Fundamental Elements A Cultural Elements religion education problem of what should be taught B When we talk about colonization it is a vision it is a passion C Religion and Heaven you are born into sin D Youth from the elders labor family Vl Political Elements A Chief parliamentary system Communalism gt Individualism B Impact Domination Exploitation Oppression Blend of both Africa and European culture PPONT END OF NOTES February 24 2015 Cultures of Africa Notes Women and Gender in Africa A Gender and Youth 1 In Africa all societies have culturally defined notions of which activities are appropriate for men and women B Gender Division of Labor 1 Organized in terms of male and female C Studies 1 Women s centrality to trade 2 Protest movements 3 Political structures of women roles D Changes colonialism 1 The problem of women s ability to sustain access to the means of production E The Economics of Polygamy 1 Widespread It can be found everywhere not everyone practices it but it can still be found 2 Economic condition Men with more wives can produce more food a Producing more food b Achieving a high status Wealth power 3 Biological social and economic reason Everything is connected They cannot be separated a The more children the more labor for a farm b A wife is an additional economic asset 4 Status of Younger Wives a Selfemployed agriculture trade craft b Once you get married as a man you have to help the woman become wellestablished to be able to trade c Every farmer has the choice between different ways of cultivation 5 Three Ways of Agricultural Development a Expansion of technological change b Expansion of hiring of laborers c Expansion by the traditional method acquiring an additional wife 6 Women s Positions a The first type is found in regions where shifting cultivation predominate and a major part of agricultural work is done by women b The second group is found in regions where plough cultivation predominates and where women do less agricultural work 1 Dowry is usually paid by bride s family c Bridewealth gt husband 7 Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of African Women a Emancipate African Women gt through the weakening of kinship bond b Replace colonialism weakened and destroyed women s traditional autonomy and power without providing modern forms of autonomy or power in exchange 8 New Political Dimension Role PostColonial a Women Solidarity a lot of women associations were formed even in the villages 1 Political institutions 2 Meetings 9 Women Contribution PreColonial and Post Colonial a Spiritual Meditation gt priests b Role as Mothers title c Role as Queens 10 Organizing Occasions a Aunt decides in terms of marriage they have authority b Women had important role to play during funerals c Trading contacts d Market associations e Agricultural production END OF NOTES
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