sensation and perception book notes
sensation and perception book notes PSY 101
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Jordyn on Friday February 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by Richard Lucas in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Sensation and Perception I INTRO a Prosopagnosia face blindness Heather Sellers i Sensation V perception b How do we recognize faces Area in brains right hemisphere 11 Seeing the world basic principles a Sensation and perception blend into one continuous process i the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment ii process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events b Sensory receptors i sensory analysis that starts at the entry level aka begins w sensory receptors and works up to brains integration of sensory information 1 The forest has eyes painting and detect the lines angles and colors ii info processing guided by higher level mental processes as we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations 1 Consider paintings title notice fearful expression on rider and then give those areas meaning faces III Thresholds a Being struck by multiple waves rn and we don t notice because of our threshold animals experience the world differently than we do b study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli such as intensity and experience with them psychologically Minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50 of the time i Stimulus could be light sound pressure taste ii Ex smelling a single drop of perfume in a 3 room apartment iii Tones correctly respond 50 of time 5050 recognition defines your threshold iv Absolute thresholds vary with age d predicts when we will detect weak signals measured on ratio of hits to false alarm i Theorists try to decipher why people respond differently to the same stimuli AND why the same person can react different as circumstances change ii Ex new parents only hearing quiet cry of baby but not hearing loud other noises iii Peoples ability to distinguish faint signals diminishes after 30 minutes people looking for weapons on an airport scanner weather and time play factors in how long diminishes e Subliminal Stimulation i below ones absolute threshold 1 Listening to ocean sounds and masked messages I am thin help people lose weight ii We can unconsciously sense the subliminal messages with no awareness have huge impact We sense these stimuli below our absolute threshold Under certain conditions these stimuli have an impact a unconscious activation or certain associations b Invisible image or word can prime response for later question 3 Much of our info processing occurs automatically out of sight of our conscious mind 4 Advertisement cant truly manipulate us with hidden information Anthony Greenwald placebo when they thought they were getting the effects labeled on tape a Subliminal messages in marketing offer little to no effect f The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 of the time i Experience as a just noticeable difference jnd ii Detectable difference increases with the size of the stimuli 1 Add 1 ounce to 10 ounce weight will notice 2 Add 1 ounce to 100 ounce weight prob wont iii for the difference to be predictable two stimuli must differ at a constant proportion not constant amount IV our diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus a Ex entering neighbor s living room and smelling a musty odor how can they live with this In minutes you cant even notice b Our eyes are always moving that s why sights don t vanish like odors do c We perceive the world not exactly as it is but as it is useful for us to perceive it V Vision a Major sense for humans b transform conversion of one form of energy into another ex eyes receive light energy and it into neural messages that our brain then processes into what we see c The stimulus input Light Energy i What hits our eyes isn t color it is pulses of electromagnetic energy that our visual system perceives as color ii Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from short waves gamma waves to visible light to long waves like radio waves and AC circuits iii peak to peak 1 Shorthigh frequency blues 2 Longlow frequency reds iv Amplitude height of wavelength 1 Great amplitude bright colors 2 Short amplitude dull colors v dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light aka blue green ect vi amount of energy in a light or sound wave which we perceive as brightness or loudness as determined by the waves amplitude d The eye i Light enters the eye through the comea protects the eye and bends light Jr K 01 ii Light then passes through the small adjustable opening surrounded by the I colored muscle that adjusts light intake also responds to emotion irises are distinctive iii Behind pupil is focuses incoming light rays into an image on the multilayered tissue on eyeballs inner surface 1 Lens focuses the rays by changing its curvature in iv Leonardo Di VInchi image in eye is inverted and eyes uids reinvert the image bending it up v Johannes Kepler retina does receive the inverted image leaves how we see it to the philosophers e The Retina i retinal receptors that detect black white and gray necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don t respond ii retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in welllitt conditions detect fine detail and color 1 Don t work in dim lighting iii carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain thalamus will receive and distribute info 1 Can send nearly 1 million messages at once through its nearly 1 million ganglion fibers iv where the optic nerves leave the retina creating this blind spot because there are no receptor cells in this area 1 Brain fills in this black hole v Cones cluster around the retinas area of central focus vi In darkened light pupils dilate to allow more light takes 20 min to fully adapt 1 Some nocturnal animals have retinas with almost all rods allowing to function better in dim light probably have poor color vision VI Visual Processing a Retinal cells are so responsive that even pressure triggers them b nerve cells in brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement i David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel demonstrated that neurons in the occipital lobe s visual cortex receive information from individual ganglion cells in retina ii Super clusters teams of cells that respond to more compleX patterns iii Face chair or shoe James Habe c processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously brains natural mode or information processing for many functions including vision i Aka doing many things at once ii Handles things like color depth movement and form simultaneously iii Facial recognition requires 30 of brains energy iv Some neural teams integrate results by comparing them with stored information and enabling perceptions VII Color Vision a Tomato is everything but red not red if no one sees it b Issac Newton the light rays are colored VIII IX X XI XII c Difference threshold for colors is so low we can discriminate 7 million different color variations d 1 out of 50 people is color deficient and usually male e the retina contains three types of color receptors Contemporary research has found three types of cones each most sensitive to the wavelengths of one of the three primary colors of light red green or blue f Herring s proposed three additional color processes red green blueyellow blackwhite Contemporary research has confirmed that en route to the brain neurons in the retina and the thalamus code the color related info from the cones into pairs of opponent colors These two theories and the research supporting them show that color processing occurs in two stages i Turned on by red but off by green ii Afterimage effect Hearing a Without it would not have touch body positionmovement taste and smell b sense of hearing is highly adaptive The Stimulus Input Sound Waves a Ears transform vibrating air into nerve impulses which our brain decodes as sounds b Strengtl amplitude of sound waves determines loudness c Length varies frequency varies the i Long waves low frequencylow pitch ii Short waves high frequencyhigh pitch d Absolute threshold for hearing zero decibels The Ear a The ear concerts sound waves into neural activity b Chain reaction Outer ear channels sound wave through auditory canal to eardrum transmits the eardrums vibrations through three tiny bones hammer anvil and stirrup to the snail shaped tube in the the vibrations cause the cochlea s membrane the oval window to vibrate and shake the uid that fills the tube causes ripples in the basilar membrane bending the hair cells which cause impulses which axons converge to form auditory nerve sending messages to temporal lobes auditory cortex i Damage to hair cells linked to most hearing loss ii Don t be exposed to high decibels c Brain determines loudness by the of activated hair cells Perceiving Pitch a Herman von Helmholtz s different sound waves trigger different activity along different parts of cochlea doesn t explain how we hear low pitched sounds BEST EXPLINATION b brain reads pitch by monitoring the frequency of neural impulses traveling up the auditory nerve how can we sense sounds with frequencies above 1000 waves per second Locating sounds a The placements of our ears allows us to enjoy 3D hearing b Why are 2 ears better than 1 i Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other XIII XIV XV ii Alerting sounds on right will be heard faster if only ear on left jnd of 0000027 second iii Sound travels at 750 mph Hearing loss and Deaf Culture a Ear vulnerable to damage b result of damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea loud music q tip c nerve deafness hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea s receptor hair cells or their associated nerves linked with heredity aging and long exposure to high noise device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea use is debatable e Is being deaf vision enhancement or hearing impairment Touch a Could be priority sense touch is essential for development Premature babies gain weight faster if hand massaged Lovers yearn to touch Other skin sensations pressure warmth cold and pain Rubber hand illusion look at rubber hand while touching both that and real hand and you think its your own sense of the position and movement of individual body parts sense of body movement and position including the sense of balance 9905quot crabh inner ear i Semicircular canals and vestibular sacs help cochlea contain uid when head rotates or tilts this stimulates hair like receptors and sends messages to the CEREBELLUM ii Don t return to natural uid immediately Pain a Pain is bodies way of telling you something is wrong Nocieptors sensory receptors that detect harmful temperatures pressures or chemicals idea that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate the blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain i Gate is opened by activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain ii Gate is openfeel pain d Distracted by pain when endorphins are released e Phantom limb sensations brain creates pain when it misinterprets spontaneous cns activity occurring in absence of normal sensory input i 710 amputees feel pain or movement in non existent limbs f Psychological in uences i Distraction ii Edit memory of pain to be more painful g Seem to be in more pain when others around us also are in pain h Controlling pain i Drugs maybe placebo surgery acupuncture electrical stimulation massage exercise hypnosis relaxation training and thought distraction XVI Taste a Sweet sour salty bitter and umami meat avor b Each bump on tongue is 200 taste buds each of these with a pore and 50 to 100 taste receptor cells project hairs that sense food molecules c Drinking a 10 wine thinking it s a 90 bottle will make it taste better d principle that one sense may in uence another i Hold nose and close eyes and have someone feed you foods XVII Smell a 5 million smell receptor cells b Smell is primitive c Infants and mothers learn each others scent d Some odors trigger a combination of receptors and these combinations help us detect the thousand odors we detect e Ability to detects odors peaks in early adulthood amp declines from there f Identifying scentsleamed associations XVIII Perceptual organization a How do we see actual picture not just lights and shapes b integrating pieces into an organized whole c Our brain does more than register information about the world XIX Form perception a the organization of the visual field into objects figure that stand out from their surroundings ground b perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups c group nearby figures together d we group similar figures together e we perceive smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones f uniformity g fill in gaps to create the complete whole object XX ability to form 2D images on retina into 3D allows us to judge distance a This ability is partially natural b lab device for testing depth perception in infantsyoung animals time start moving have depth perception increases with age depth cues such as retinal disparity that depends on the use of two eyes in judging distance or nearby objects two eyes are better than one i Each retina receives a slightly different object of the world ii binocular cue for perceiving depth by comparing images from the retinas the brain computes distance greater the distance between two images the closer the object iii 3D movies exaggerate retinal disparity d depth cues such as interposition and linear perspective available to either eye alone i St Louis Gateway Arch height and width are equal ii Relative height motion size light shadow interposition linear perspective XXI Motion Perception a Helps ride bike drive write eating walking b Stroboscopic movement brain perceiving continuous movement in rapid series of slight varying images illusion of movement when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession movies d Our brain constructs our perceptions XXII perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters wavelengths re ected by the object top down a Shape and size consistencies i Shape consistency we see form of familiar objects shrinkinggrowing girls ii Size consistency think objects to have consistence size even when our distance varies l Perceiving objects distancecue for its size iii Moon looks up to 50 percent larger when near the horizon than when high in the sky moon illusion objects on horizon cue distance b Light Constancy aka brightness consistency i White paper re ects 90 of light falling on it black paper 10 ii Relative luminance the amount of light an object re ects relative to its surroundings l Squares a and B identical in color c perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even unchanging illumination alters the wavelengths re ected by the object i Red apple will be red if light changes ii In a context that does not vary we maintain color constancy iii Perception of color of a wall will be effected by surrounding colors XXIII Perceptual Interpretation nature or nurture learn to perceive world a Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision i Man born blind can feel difference between sphere and cube but if he could see he wouldn t be able to identify ii Vision is partially acquiredwithout early stimulation the brains neural organization doesn t develop normally b in vision the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field i New glasses might feel dizzy at first we adjust initially disoriented but manage to adapt to their new context c a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another top down i SCHEMA primes us to organize and interpret ambitions in certain ways ii Context effects stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions sad music predisposing people to perceive sad meaning in some words die rather than dye gender sterotypes iii Emotion and Motivation a target seems farther away to those throwing a heavy rather than a light object at it color social perceptions d Perception and the human factor i a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use l Contributes to human safety and improved design by encouraging developers and designers to consider human perceptual abilities e esp the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input includes telepathy clairvoyance and precognition i Telepathy mind to mind clairvoyance perceiving remote contents and precognition perceiving future events f the study of paranormal phenomena including ESP and psychokinesis have been unable to replicate reproduce ESP phenomena under controlled conditions
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