Popular in Survey of American History
Popular in History
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Jasmine Bailey on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 1113 at Oklahoma State University taught by Nadeau, Peter Mark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
I. The War on Terrorism A. Bush before September 11 1. Bush emphasized American freedom of action, unrestrained by international treaties and institutions. 2. The Bush administration announced that it would not abide by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. 1. Scientists consider global warming a serious situation. B. "They Hate Freedom" a. An outpouring of popular patriotism followed the September 11 attacks. b. The Bush administration benefited from this patriotism and identification with government. c. Bush told America that "freedom and fear are at war." C. The Bush Doctrine a. Bush revealed his new foreign policy principle that the United States would launch a war on terrorism, which quickly became known as the Bush Doctrine. 1. War in Afghanistan B. The "Axis of Evil" a. Remarkable changes in American foreign policy quickly followed the Afghan war. b. In 2002, Bush identified Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as the axis of evil. II. An American Empire? A. Charges quickly arose that the United States was bent on establishing itself as a new global empire. B. In America, the term "empire," once a term of abuse, came back into widespread use. C. Confronting Iraq a. A conservative group within the Bush administration welcomed an American invasion of Iraq to oust Hussein from power. 1. This group seized on the attacks on September 11 to press their case for an Iraq invasion. b. In 2002, the Bush administration announced that a regime change was necessary in Iraq, as Hussein was amassing weapons of mass destruction. B. The Iraq War a. The decision split the Western alliance and inspired a massive antiwar movement throughout the world. b. Foreign policy "realists" like Brent Scowcroft warned that the Iraq War deflected attention away from the administration's real foe, Al Qaeda. c. China, Russia, Germany, and France refused to support a preemptive strike against Iraq. d. Bush called the war Operation Iraqi Freedom. C. Another Vietnam? a. Baghdad was captured within a month, and soon thereafter President Bush announced "mission accomplished." b. Looters and insurgents took control of Iraq, as there were not enough American troops in the country to keep order. c. Sectarian violence soon swept the country. d. The war soon cost more lives and dollars than any policymaker had estimated. D. The World and the War a. Rarely in its history had the United States found itself so isolated from world public opinion. b. Much of the outside world viewed the United States as a superpower unwilling to abide by the rules of international law. II. The Aftermath of September 11 at Home A. Security and Liberty a. Congress rushed to pass the USA Patriot Act. 1. Conferred unprecedented powers on law-enforcement agencies 2. Detention camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was established. b. In November 2001, the Bush administration issued an executive order authorizing the holding of secret military tribunals for noncitizens deemed to have assisted terrorism. B. The Power of the President a. Many regulations of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and local police forces were rescinded; and while some of these measures had congressional authorization, many had been unilaterally implemented by the president. C. The Torture Controversy a. The Bush administration insisted that the United States need not be bounded by international law in regard to the war on terror. b. Abu Ghraib prison c. Congress inserted a measure banning the use of torture in 2005, sponsored by John McCain. d. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, and other officials had authorized the torture of persons captured in the war on terrorism, over the objections of many in the military. D. The Economy under Bush a. During 2001, the economy slipped into a recession. 1. Ninety percent of the jobs lost were in manufacturing. b. The real income of average American families fell slightly despite the economic recovery. II. The Winds of Change A. The 2004 Election a. Democrats sensed a golden opportunity. 1. John Kerry, Vietnam veteran b. Karl Rove mobilized the conservative base on cultural issues. B. Bush's Second Term a. Bush wished to "end tyranny in the world." b. The expected revolution with Bush's reelection stalled because of his eroding popularity, scandal, and indictments in the vice president's office. C. Hurricane Katrina a. In August 2005, New Orleans was devastated when the levee system broke and the city began to flood. b. The natural disaster became a human-made one too, considering the ineptitude of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). D. The New Orleans Disaster a. Poor residents of the city were left abandoned amid floodwaters. b. Where the government failed, individuals stepped in and shone. c. The hurricane also brought about energy concerns as the Gulf Coast oil drilling shut down. E. The Immigration Debate a. Illegal immigration also increased, both supporting and hurting the United States' economy and prompting heated debate. b. In response to a House bill making it a felony to be in the country illegally, immigrants marched in protest throughout the United States. c. Many church and relief groups denounced the bill as akin to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. F. The Constitution and Liberty a. Two significant Supreme Court decisions in June 2003 revealed how the largely conservative justices had come to accept that the social revolution that began during the 1960s could not be undone. 1. Affirmative action 2. Homosexuality B. The Court and the President a. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld 1. The Court ruled that Yaser Hamdi had a right to a hearing after being imprisoned in a military jail without charge or the right to see a lawyer. 2. With two new justices sitting on the bench, the Court ruled that the Geneva Conventions were the law of the land. B. The Midterm Elections of 2006 a. Democrats expected gains due to Bush's plummeting popularity. b. Democrats gained control of both houses of Congress. 1. Nancy Pelosi of California became the first female Speaker of the House in history. b. At the end of his second term, Bush's popularity sank to historic lows. B. The Housing Bubble a. In 2008, the American banking system found itself on the brink of collapse. b. The roots of the crisis lay in a combination of public and private policies that favored economic speculation. c. Banks and other lending institutions issued "sub-prime" mortgages. d. Wall Street bankers developed complex ways of repackaging and selling these mortgages to investors. C. The Great Recession a. In 2006 and 2007, home prices began to fall. Many homeowners owed more money than their homes were worth and could not pay monthly mortgage payments. b. The value of the mortgage-based securities fell precipitously, and banks were left with billions of dollars of worthless investments. c. In 2008, banks stopped making loans, business dried up, and the stock market collapsed. d. Americans cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment. e. In April 2009, the recession that began in December 2007 became the longest since the Great Depression. D. "A Conspiracy against the Public" a. Leading bankers and investment houses helped to bring down the American economy. b. The reputation of stockbrokers and bankers fell to lows last seen during the Great Depression. 1. Bernard Madoff, "Ponzi scheme" b. The crisis exposed the flaws in market fundamentalism and deregulation. B. Bush and the Crisis a. The Bush administration allowed Lehman Brothers to fail, and Lehman Brother's failure created a domino effect. b. The administration reversed course and persuaded Congress to appropriate $700 billion dollars to bail out other floundering firms. 1. "Too big to fail" b. The crisis also revealed the limits of the American "safety net." II. The Rise of Obama A. The caucuses and primary elections resulted in the nomination of Barack Obama, a relatively little-known 47-year-old senator from Illinois and the first black candidate to win the nomination of a major party. B. Hillary Clinton sought the Democratic nomination by emphasizing her political experience, while Obama emphasized change. C. With its widespread use of the Internet and massive mobilization of new voters, Obama's campaign was the first political campaign of the twenty-first century. D. The 2008 Campaign a. Obama faced Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee, in the general election. b. McCain chose Sarah Palin as his running mate. The selection of Palin raised questions among many Americans about McCain's judgment. c. Obama won the election. 1. His election redrew the nation's political map. 2. Obama carried Democratic strongholds in New England, the mid-Atlantic states, the industrial Midwest, and the West Coast. 3. Obama also won in states that had been reliably Republican for years: Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. B. The Age of Obama? a. Obama's victory seemed to mark the end of a political era. b. Republican appeals to patriotism, low taxes, and resentment against the changes sparked by the 1960s seemed out of date. c. Democrats regained the presidency, ended up with 60 of the 100 seats in the U.S. Senate, and won a large majority in the House. d. The election of the nation's first African-American president represented a historic watershed. C. Obama's Inauguration a. Many Americans viewed Obama's election as a cause for optimism. b. In his inaugural address, Obama offered a stark rebuke to eight years of Bush policies. D. Obama in Office a. Obama's first policy initiatives lived up to the promise of change, but other policy initiatives followed the course set by the Bush Administration. E. The Republican Revival a. A grassroots movement calling itself the Tea Party mobilized to oppose what it claimed was excessive government spending and regulation. II. Learning from History A. It is still far too soon to assess the full impact of September 11 on American life. B. As in the past, freedom is central to Americans' sense of themselves as individuals and as a nation.
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