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HIST 278 Weeks 14/15 Notes

by: Lynde Wangler

HIST 278 Weeks 14/15 Notes HIST 278

Lynde Wangler
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Lecture notes for the past two weeks
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
history, Of, The, TAST
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
HIST 278 Weeks 14/15 Notes Suppressing the Slave Trade I. British Campaigns II. The Illegal Trade III. Enforcing Slave Trade Abolition IV. Resettlement V. Efforts in Africa VI. Final Slave Trade Abolition VII. Conclusions  Britain’s anti-slavery activists wanted to expand the ban led campaigns, petitions, drives, boycotts, etc.  Peace Treaty after Napoleonic Wars wanted other European nations to ban participation in slave trade (caveat on treaty)  Anti-slave Trade Treaties: o 1815 treaties: France and other major continental powers agreed to abolish their slave trades; Portugal ended slave trading north of the equator o 1817 treaties: Spanish treaty with UK abolishing its trade north of the equator and allowing British officials to search Spanish vessels o 1820: Spain promised total abolition of the Spanish slave trade o 1822: Brazil became independent from Portugal; demanded the maintenance of the trade south of the equator (Spain and Brazil had no true intentions of sticking with the treaties) o 1830: Brazil made its slave trade officially illegal  still almost a third of th the total number came in the second half of the 19 century  Profits for slave traders were at all all-time high because demand was still high; most of the slaves were coming from West Central African and Mozambique (S.E. Africa) mostly going to Brazil and Cuba o 1860: last African slave ship brought to America 1860 beginning of the Civil War  Just signing treaties was not enough  Britain had the strongest navy in the Western world and they decided to enact a blockade/ naval squadron was charged with the task of intercepting slave ships; patrolled the coasts of Africa, as well as Brazil and Cuba; US and France helped (a very little); Spanish and Portugal o What do you do with them once you catch them? st  They set up a court of mixed commission; 1 in Africa, Havana, Rio, St. Helena the court decided what to do with the ships and the people  System of apprenticeship  Many resettled in Sierra Leone – thousands came each year (about 150,000 in first half of the 19 century); people began to organize themselves into villages (about 120 with similar background/origin/language o Missionaries flocked to Sierra Leone worked with British government  Western education, Christianity, English-speaking, literate  they tried to get home from where they had been taken from o Liberia – colonized by Africa Americans  British nave went to Sierra Leone and visited the slave forts freed slaves and burned the coastal baracoon; came back later to make Lagos a British colony o Began to promote “legitimate trade” – products not made by slaves o Thomas Fowell Buxton – said they just needed to buy other things got African leaders their imports in some other way o Sent palm oil (used as a lubricant during the industrial revolution) and ground nuts these products were sent in place of slaves  HOWEVER: who produced the palm oil? SLAVES  there was no wage labor market o The expansion of “legitimate trade” in 19 century West Africa is connected to expathion of slavery in Africa (est. 10 million slaves in Africa in mid-19 century)  eventually an excuse for imperialism  Final Slave Trade Abolition o Brazilian law of 1850 ended the Brazilian slave trade – after British blockaded ports; enforced by Brazilian and British authorities and the trade effectively halted that year o Cuba ended its slave trade in 1866, after a joint US-UK treaty and naval action  The END…  What did it take? o Technological advancements  industrial revolution o Pressure from British abolitionists o Military/naval forces Slavery After the Slave Trade I. Replacing slavery in the British West Indies (a quick review) a. Indentured workers b. Struggles with ex-slaves II. Declining slavery in Cuba and Brazil a. Cuba b. Brazil III. Thriving slavery in the United States a. The cotton revolution b. The Second Middle Passage IV. Comparisons and Conclusions  Labor problem: needed people to produce sugar… o Indentured Indian workers were the replacement for slaves o Vagrancy laws deprived free people of rights (ex. literacy tests for voting); passed measures designed to force the formerly enslaved to work for very low wages (in terrible conditions) o Still legal in parts of Americas  remained in Brazil, the U.S., and Cuba (although imports were being suppressed)  Cuba – supposedly illegal in 1820, but slaving continued; most from north of equator (Bights of Benin and Biafra) o Demand – labor needed for sugar production (1804 sugar in Haiti collapsed due to revolution & Cuba began to take its place in developing sugar and coffee plantations) o Used all technology available; worked slaves to death; HIGH mortality rates “sugar is made of blood” many slave suicides  What stopped the slave trade in Cuba? Blockade by Brits with help/support from U.S. o Cuba’s slave population went down when they could no longer import more slaves o Looked into China (150,000 Chinese contract workers 1850s/60s); indentured workers Chinese labor contract  Brazil – enormous slave society, two million slaves brought into Brazil in the 19 century; brought to S.E. Brazil  coffee plantations/estates (new center of slavery in Brazil) o N.E. sold to planters in the S.E.  Brazil developed a massive internal slave trade in the 1830s  The death rate was high enough to maintain constant demand th  19 century immigration from Europe to Brazil; poor Europeans, mostly from southern Europe jobs were guaranteed on the plantations th  United States – thriving slave system in the 19 century; slave population was able to reproduce itself (1850s big time) o No sugar industry until Louisiana o Cotton Production – takes off with cotton gin (50 times in one hour what one person could have done before); also expanding textile industries  infinite demand and now can be profitable o Land needed: Louisiana Purchase  Andrew Jackson’s “Trail of Tears” drove all native populations oth of the land nd o Slavery’s migration in the 19 century United States 2 slave trade (Cotton South, 1860) second middle passage from Northern U.S. to Southern U.S.  Charleston slave market, 1850  Richmond  New Orleans (all of these places sold slaves to planters)  1 million slaves moved: forced migration; marginality; oppressed outsiders; everyone walked and many people died along the way; 1 generation had to build the actual plantations on top of working them  “The Migration Generations” – upsurge in African American Christianity; sugar production in swamps of Louisiana  death rates just as high as other places th  19 Century U.S.: A Slave Society o White southerners were invested in the slave system, even when they didn’t own slaves themselves o Slavery was a major feature of the American economy; slaves were worth $3.5 billion in 1860 ($68.4 billion today); American slavery was part of a national and global economic system  Comparisons and Conclusions: o Effects of the end of the slave trade on the U.S., Brazil, and Cuba? o Similarities between the US and Brazil? o What would it take to end slavery?  a revolution Free at Last: Emancipation in the U.S., Cuba, and Brazil I. Introduction: 2 views of emancipation II. USA a. Revolution and total war b. The slaves emancipate themselves c. The aftermath III. Cuba IV. Brazil V. Conclusions  Lumpkin’s jail – baracoon up until federal army entered Richmond; African Americans participated in the effort to achieve emancipation  Themes: o Revolutionary process o People took emancipation for themselves  Revolution and Total War: o Emancipation of 4 million slaves without compensation to owners o First civil rights legislation for African Americans o The North alone, with an 1860 population of 20 million, mobilized armed forces of about 2.1 million – equivalent today in over 31 million soldiers for the nation as whole o 620,000 deaths  Reasons for Secession: o “states’ rights”  to have slaves o Lincoln’s first inaugural address tried to keep issue of slavery off the table (wanted gradual emancipation and relocation to Africa); early on, he tried to placate northern states by saying he had no intentions of interfering  African Americans during the war put it on the agenda: o Used every available opportunity to get behind union lines and flee from owners o Fugitives were used for intelligence and for help in army (military force) o Sea islands: whites fled and Africans were left behind so the Union army just told them to stay o Anti-slavery sentiment not necessarily coupled with equal rights Lincoln began to see emancipation as a military necessity  North was not doing too well and both sides drafted more and more people  strategic move on Lincoln’s part  To energize the north  Deprive southern slave holders of slaves; weaken and undermine the confederacy  Could enlist African Americans in war/military forces  Emancipation Proclamation: o Only freed slaves in the south of masters in rebellion o In the border states, many African Americans left to join the Union army o Union occupation there, emancipation proclamation provisions came into effect; wherever the union army went, slavery crumbled (slaves were only freed if the Union army was there to enforce it) o Slave owners tried many tactics (wages, free time, etc.) to try to ensure that their slaves wouldn’t leave (or to entice them to come back if they already had left) o Uphill battle to get 13 amendment through Congress (even with only northerners voting)  The War’s Aftermath: o 650,000 dead; Union preserved; slavery abolished by the 13 th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified on December 18, 1865 o Lynchings and radically motivated murders in the U.S.; first Klan founded in 1866; political massacres (1868) Klan Act 1871, followed by Jim Crow Laws  Cuba/Brazil  Abolition in Cuba: o 1868-1876 Ten Year’s War: white Cubans launched a rebellion in favor of Cuban independence; failed o Rebel army and Spanish army both offered freedom to slaves who joined the war force  Moret’s Law – (1870) gradual emancipation (everyone over 60; children born after 1868) o Slave population dropped by a third – began to develop wage labor and bring in other immigrants; began to adjust  set up apprenticeships (8years) in 1880; 1886 emancipation o Afro-Cubans wanted Cuba to be a non-racial country (Cuban nationalists) – won the war with American help (Spanish/American War)  Abolition in Brazil: o 1865-70 war with Paraguay brought some manumissions; 1871 Rio Branco Law of “free womb;” 1880 Brazil anti-slavery society founded (massive exodus of enslaves people from plantations); 1884: 2 N.E. provinces abolished slavery; 1885 new law freed slaves over 60 (did not affect many) o Massive European emigration from Brazil; movement of slaves emancipating themselves o 1886-88 mass slave desertions; free people helped others escape; network (analogous to underground railroad but more pervasive) of support o Brazilian government followed behind  1888 slaves freed in Sao Paulo o 1888 Brazilian Republic established (planter class rid monarchy that signed emancipation into law)  What brought emancipation? o Cuba/U.S.; context of war o Brazil  massive political upheaval  And what did ex-salves get? Effects of the Slave Trade on Europe I. “From Slave Ship to Space Ship” II. Liverpool III. Slavery and the Industrial Revolution a. Capital b. Markets c. Consumer goods IV. Black people in Britain V. Changing history of racism VI. Conclusions  Within Britain, the center of slavery was in Liverpool o Townhall and exchange flag pics (on powerpoint) o From fishing village to blossoming sea port during the slave trade o Goods to Africa: products of industrial Britain; textiles, iron, etc. o Slave trade helped to bring about the industrial revolution  Britain’s Industrial Revolution: o Mechanical power; coal and steam; mass production; finished goods instead of raw materials; unskilled labor but specialized (did the same small task in an assembly line a gazillion times) o Labor shifted from agriculture to industry because of new restrictions on land use; industry overshadowed agriculture in national income; new socio-economic classes formed; urbanization (Eric Williams argued that all of this was kick-started by the slave trade)  Eric Williams – Capitalism and Slavery (1944) PhD thesis; slavery built capitalism; industrialization and capitalism made slavery obsolete and contributed to its demise  Reassessments focus on three issues: o Capital – need money to get capitalism going; Williams says TAST, but others say agriculture spurred capitalism o Markets – who will buy the stuff that factories produce? The early working class was too poor and the wealthy too few  needed a foreign market (Africa, Asia, Americas, etc.) o Consumer Demand – the slave economy put sugar within the reach of the working class, which gave them incentive to work in 18 century factories  SUGAR became a big big deal  Enlightenment – people used to drink wine/beer to stay well hydrated because the water was too dirty, but then people started to drink coffee and tea with sugar instead  Race and History – slavery and indentured servitude; ethnocentricity was more flexible; working in same conditions/circumstances; married and ran away together Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa I. The Slave Trade Remembered II. Interpretations III. Demographics IV. Economic Effects a. Manufacturers b. Slavery in Africa c. “Extraversion” V. Are Reparations Due?  John Hawkins’ descendant apologized  Walter Rodney (1942-1980) Historian “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa” – slave trade impoverished Africa to European’s benefit then colonialism (assassinated for his ideas in a car bombing; political radical)  Two Interpretations: o Stress on Africa’s resilience, dynamism; relative marginality of the sale trade to most of Africa; agency of Africans; Manning calls this the “emergent Africa” interpretation o Slave trade was very influential in shaping Africa; effects were detrimental and persistent; Manning calls this the “Afrique engagee” interpretation  Population Movements in the Era of the Slave Trade o People = wealth o Depopulation at the slaving frontiers (perhaps temporary, because polygyny expanded) o Women were distributed as captives and wives along the slave routes o o Most male captives were exported  women left home ended up doing much more work  Manning’s Population Simulation: o The area of western Africa supplying the Atlantic slave trade contained 25 million people in 1700 o The equivalent population had fallen to about 20 million by 1850 o But what about the children, grand-children, etc. these people would have contributed to Africa if there were no slave trade? o In 1850, if not for the slave trade, the population of all of sub-Saharan Africa might have been about 150 million o In fact, sub-Saharan African’s population was about 50 million  Economic Impact of the Slave Trade: o Industry weakened by imports coming from abroad (cloth, metallurgy, local industries, etc.) o Eltis: not as much of an economic impact as others thought  Order from the British Board of Trade to the Governor of Cape Coast Castle, 1751: o Expanded slavery in Africa wars and tributes sold outside land within Africa  Slavery in Africa: The “Transformation Thesis” changing scale of slavery; changing nature of slavery o Early – increase size of kin group; flexibility, assimilation, and social mobility; slaves performed many different forms of labor; many functions within society o Later – exclusively economic functions large enterprises; not assimilated in households; increase with “legitimate trade” o Began to look more and more like slavery in America in Africa slave trade created massive transformation of slavery within Africa  slavery in Africa became the leading excuse for European imperialism  “Extraversion” and The Atlantic Slave Trade: ideology of African leaders o Economies oriented towards external trade; this trade brought resources, which translated into political power o rulers became dependent on external relations, at the expenses of internal development, this pattern continued into the colonial and post- colonial etas o we now refer to this as “gatekeeping” (or “corruption” )


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